Tài liệu Ôn tập Văn phạm Tiếng Anh HỘI ĐỒng bộ MÔn tiếng anh thpt



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Tài liệu Ôn tập Văn phạm Tiếng Anh HỘI ĐỒNG BỘ MÔN TIẾNG ANH THPT

THE USAGE OF THE ENGLISH TENSES
A. PRESENT SIMPLE (HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN)

I. FORM :

- S + V-s/-es / V(-to)

- S + DO/ DOES + NOT + V(-to)

- DO/ DOES + S + V(-to) ?

II. USE :

1. Diễn tả trạng thái, tình huống, hành động hay năng lực ở hiện tại.

Ex : - This house is in good condition.

- Tom plays tennis very well.

2. Diễn tả thói quen hiện tại hay hoạt động hàng ngày.

Ex : - He always goes to bed late in the evening.

- We have a holiday in Spain every year.

3. Diễn tả một sự thật hiển nhiên hay một chân lý.

Ex : - The leaves on the trees get yellow in autumn.

- Water freezes at zero degree Centigrade.

4. Nêu lên quan điểm, cảm giác hay sở thích.

Ex : - I think that this is necessary for our plan.

- She likes living in the country.

5. Diễn tả một hành động đã được sắp xếp, được lên kế hoạch (theo thời khóa biểu hoặc chương trình hoạt động)

Ex : - We catch the 8.30 flight to New York tomorrow morning.

6. Dùng trong các mệnh đề thời gian sau các liên từ : as soon as, after, when, before, until, by the time, ... để diễn tả hành động trong tương lai; hoặc trong mệnh đề điều kiện loại I.

Ex : - Let’s wait until the rain stops.

- I’ll ring you as soon as I arrive at the hotel.

* Các trạng từ thường xuất hiện trong thì hiện tại đơn : always, all the time, usually, often, sometimes, at times, once in a while, now and then, occasionally, seldom, rarely, ever, never, every day/ week/ year/ ...


B. PRESENT CONTINUOUS (HIỆN TẠI TIẾP DIỄN)

I. FORM :

- S + AM/ IS/ ARE + V-ing

- S + AM/ IS/ ARE + NOT + V-ing

- AM/ IS/ ARE + S + V-ing ?

II. USE :

1. Diễn tả hành động hay sự việc đang diễn ra ở thời điểm đang nói.

Ex : - Look at the little girl! She is holding your doll.

- Where is Andy? – He is listening his favorite songs in his bedroom.

2. Diễn tả hành động hay sự việc đang diễn ra trong một quãng thời gian ở hiện tại (không nhất thiết diễn ra ngay lúc nói)

Ex : - This student is studying hard for the exams this week.

- The police are trying to find the lost boy.

3. Diễn tả sự chuyển đổi dần dần của một tình huống hay sự việc.

Ex : - Stop your reading, Tom. It’s getting dark here.

- The price of petrol is rising rapidly.

4. Diễn tả hành động tạm thời ở hiện tại.

Ex : - Mike is living with my family until he finds a flat.

- We are studying hard for the coming exams.

5. Diễn tả một dự định sẽ thực hiện ở tương lai gần.

Ex : - I am tidying the house this weekend.

- He is studying with his aunt for a week.

* Các cụm từ thường xuất hiện trong thì hiện tại tiếp diễn : at the moment, at present, currently, now, just now, right now, nowadays, today, this week/ month/ ..., these days, Look!, Be careful!, Listen!, ...

* Các nhóm động từ sau đây không dùng cho các thì tiếp diễn

- be và các động từ liên kết : feel, seem, look, appear, sound, ......

- verbs of emotions : (động từ diễn tả trạng thái tình cảm) : like, dislike, hate, want, want, love, prefer, admire, ...

- verbs of mental states (động từ diễn tả trạng thái tinh thần) : think, believe, understand, remember, forget, know, need, imagine, suppose, recognize, ...

- verbs of sense (động từ chỉ giác quan) : look, seem, appear, taste, smell, ...

- verbs of possession (động từ chỉ sự sở hữu) : have, own, possess, belong, ...


C. PAST SIMPLE (QUÁ KHỨ ĐƠN)

I. FORM :

- S + V-ed/2

- S + DID + NOT + V(-to)

- DID + S + V(-to) ?

II. USE :

1. Diễn tả hành động hay sự việc xảy ra và kết thúc ở một thời điểm hay một khoảng thời gian xác định ở quá khứ.

Ex : - I met my close friend in 1999.

- He worked there for three years then he got another job.

2. Diễn tả một thói quen trong quá khứ.

Ex : - I often bought comic books when I was a boy.

- They often went to my flat for a meal after work at weekends.

3. Kể lại một câu chuyện hay một chuỗi hành động trong quá khứ.

Ex : - He ran out of the hotel, waved a taxi, and got on it very quickly.

- After work, I turned off the computer, came out and locked the office carefully, and walked to the parking lot.

* Các trạng từ và cụm từ sau đây thường xuất hiện trong thí quá khứ đơn : yesterday, last week/ month/ ..., two days ago, in 2000, when I was a boy, ...


D. PAST CONTINUOUS (QUÁ KHỨ TIẾP DIỄN)

I. FORM :

- S + WAS/ WERE + V-ing

- S + WAS/ WERE + NOT + V-ing

- WAS/ WERE + S + V-ing?

II. USE :

1. Diễn tả hành động hay sự việc đang diễn ra ở một thời điểm xác định trong quá khứ.

Ex : - We were watching the football match at 9 p.m. last night.

- I was doing my final test this time yesterday morning.

2. Diễn tả hai hay nhiều hành động cùng diễn ra đồng thời ở một thời điểm trong quá khứ.

Ex : - I was reading a newspaper while my sister was learning her lesson.

- While we were watching TV, the children were playing on the playground.

3. Nhấn mạnh tính liên tục của một hành động diễn ra suốt một khoảng thời gian nào đó trong quá khứ.

Ex : - They were playing golf all last summer.

- He was playing computer games all the evening last Friday.

4. Diễn tả hành động đang xảy ra trong quá khứ bị gián đoạn bởi một hành động khác bất chợt xảy ra.

Ex : - He came when they were having dinner.

- The doorbell rang while I was cleaning the house.

* Những cụm từ thời gian thường dùng với thì quá khứ tiếp diễn : all the time, at this time last Monday/ week/ ..., during the summer, all week, ...

E. SIMPLE FUTURE (TƯƠNG LAI ĐƠN)

I. FORM :

- S + SHALL/ WILL + V(-to)

- S + SHALL/ WILL + NOT + V(-to)

- SHALL/ WILL + S + V(-to)?

II. USE :

1. Diễn tả một hành động có thể sẽ xảy ra trong tương lai.

Ex : - There will be more people coming to the party.

- The book will published next week.

2. Diễn tả một hành động kéo dài một quãng thời gian trong tương lai.

Ex : - They will stay here for weeks.

- The football event will last for three months.
SO SÁNH CÁCH DÙNG WILL VÀ BE GOING TO

1. WILL


a. Diễn tả một quyết định đưa ra ngay lúc nói.

Ex : - It’s very windy outside. I will close the windows.

- The phone is ringing.

b. Diễn tả một dự đoán cho tương lai.

Ex : - He will probably come back tomorrow.

- The price of electronic products will go down next month.

c. Diễn tả một lời hứa.

Ex : - I will go to the airport to pick you up.

- I promise. I won’t tell anyone about your plan.

d. Diễn tả một lời đề nghị (sẵn lòng giúp đỡ)

Ex : - I will get you something to eat.

- I will give you a drive home.

e. Diễn tả một lời đe dọa.

Ex : - I will tell your mother if you do that again.

- I will tell the police about your illegal action.

f. Dùng trong mệnh đề chính của câu điều kiện loại I.

Ex : - If you study hard, you will pass the exam.

- If I know her address, I will send her an invitation.

2. BE GOING TO

a. Diễn tả một dự định được sắp đặt trước.

Ex : - I’m going to wear blue shirt to the reception

tonight.


- I’m going to spend my holiday abroad this year.

b. Diễn tả một sự việc sắp xảy ra.

Ex : - The sky is absolutely dark. It is going to rain.

- The time for the meeting is over. People are going to leave.


F. PRESENT PERFECT (HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH)

I. FORM :

- S + HAVE / HAS + V-ed/3

- S + HAVE / HAS + NOT + V-ed/3

- HAVE / HAS + S + V-ed/3?

II. USE :

1. Diễn tả hành động hay sự việc xảy ra ở một thời điểm không xác định trong quá khứ.

Ex : - My sister has visited Canada.

- They have sold their house.

2. Diễn tả hành động được lặp đi lặp lại nhiều lần trong quá khứ hoặc hành động đã xảy ra trong quá khứ nhưng kết quả vẫn còn ở hiện tại.

Ex : - I have gone there five times.

- They have seen that film several times.

3. Diễn tả hành động hay sự việc bắt đầu trong quá khứ, kéo dài liên tục đến hiện tại và còn có thể tiếp tục trong tương lai.

Ex : - He has lived here since 1999.

- I have known Jim for three months.

4. Diễn tả hành động vừa mới xảy ra, thường dùng với JUST.

Ex : - The manager has just gone out.

- We have just met him at the station.

5. Diễn tả những sự việc hay kinh nghiệm xảy ra trong đời.

Ex : - I have never seen a ghost.

- Have you ever met a celebrity ?

* Các trạng từ sau đây thường xuất hiện trong thì hiện tại hoàn thành : already, ever, just, recently, still, yet, so far, up to/ until now, up to/ until the present, once, twice, three times, lately, for + khoảng thời gian, since + mốc thời gian, ...


G. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS (HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH TIẾP DIỄN)

I. FORM :

- S + HAVE / HAS + BEEN + V-ing

- S + HAVE / HAS + NOT + BEEN +V-ing

- HAVE / HAS + S + BEEN +V-ing ?

II. USE :

1. Diễn tả hành động xảy ra ở quá khứ còn kéo dài đến hiện tại, đặc biệt với ý nhấn mạnh vào tính liên tục của hành động.

Ex : - He has been living here for six months.

- I have been working hard this week.

2. Diễn tả hành động kéo dài trong quá khứ vừa mới chấm dứt.

Ex : - I’m very tired. I have been working too hard.

- Her eyes hurt. She’s been reading for hours.

* Sự khác nhau giữa thì Hiện tại hoàn thành đơn và Hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn.

a. Khi cần nhấn mạnh tính hoàn tất của hành động, ta dùng thì Hiện tại hoàn thành đơn; khi muốn nhấn mạnh vào tính liên tục của hành động, ta dùng thì Hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn.

Ex : - I have read the book. (=I have finished it.)

- I have been reading the book. (= I haven’t finished it.)

b. Khi muốn lặp đi lặp lại một hành động trong quá khứ, ta nên dùng thì Hiện tại hoàn thành đơn.

Ex : - I have read the book five times. (not have been reading)

c. Khi động từ trong câu chỉ trạng thái, cảm giác, sở hữu, quan điểm, ta chỉ dùng thì Hiện tại hoàn thành đơn.

Ex : - I have known her for many years. (not have been knowing)


H. PAST PERFECT (QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH)

I. FORM :

- S + HAD + V-ed/3

- S + HAD + NOT + V-ed/3

- HAD + S + V-ed/3 ?

II. USE :

1. Diễn tả sự việc đã xảy ra và hoàn tất trước một thời điểm quá khứ hoặc trước một hành động quá khứ khác.

Ex : - She had typed ten reports before the lunchtime yesterday.

- When we arrived at the station, the train had already left.

2. Diễn tả sự việc bắt đầu từ trước và kéo dài đến một thời điểm trong quá khứ.

Ex : By the end of last year, I had taught in this school for 17 years.

I. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS (QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH TIẾP DIỄN)

I. FORM :

- S + HAD + BEEN + V-ing

- S + HAD + NOT + BEEN + V-ing

- HAD + S + BEEN + V-ing ?

II. USE :

1. Nhấn mạnh tính liên tục của một hành động đã và đang diễn ra và có thể hoàn tất trước một hành động hay một thời điểm cụ thể trong quá khứ.

Ex : - I had been studying for an hour when you came.

- They had been living there for 15 years by 1992.

2. Diễn tả một hành động hay một sự kiện diễn tiến suốt một khoảng thời gian dài và chấm dứt trước một hành động khác trong quá khứ.

Ex : - When Kenji left India, she had been studying English for

three years.

- George was tired. He had been working hard in the garden.

* Sự khác nhau giữa thì Quá khứ hoàn thành đơn và Quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn.

a. Khi muốn nhấn mạnh vào tính liên tục của hành động, ta dùng thí Quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn.

b. Khi diễn tả sự kết thúc hay hoàn tất của hành động, ta dùng thì Quá khứ hoàn thành đơn.

Ex : - They had already left the party when I came.

- They had been leaving the party when I came.
J. FUTURE CONTINUOUS (TƯƠNG LAI TIẾP DIỄN)

I. FORM :

- S + WILL BE + V-ing

- S + WILL NOT BE + V-ing

- WILL + S + BE + V-ing ?

II. USE :

1. Diễn tả sự việc sẽ đang diễn ra tại một thời điểm trong tương lai.

Ex : Don’t call me at 8.00 tomorrow. I will be eating out with my boss.

2. Diễn tả sự việc đang diễn ra ở tương lai thì có một sự việc tương lai khác xen vào.

Ex : Can you guess what the children will be doing when we come back to our house tomorrow.


K. FUTURE PERFECT (TƯƠNG LAI HOÀN THÀNH)

I. FORM :

- S + WILL HAVE + V-ed/3

- S + WILL NOT HAVE + V-ed/3

- WILL + S + HAVE + V-ed/3 ?

II. USE :

1. Diễn tả sự việc sẽ hoàn tất trước một thời điểm trong tương lai hoặc trước một hành động tương lai khác.

Ex : We will have finished the work by lunchtime/ before you get back tomorrow.

2. Diễn tả sự việc bắt đầu từ trước và kéo dài đến một thời điểm trong tương lai.

Ex : By the end of this year I will have taught in this school for twenty years.

* Không dùng các thì tương lai trong các mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian (thay thế bằng các thì hiện tại tương đương)


SEQUENCE OF TENSES (HÒA HỢP THÌ)

1. Present Tenses in Sequence

Nhìn chung, nếu động từ trong mệnh chính ở dạng Present Tenses thì động từ trong mệnh đề phụ có thể là Present Tense, Past Tense, Future Tense. Có 4 dạng Present Tenses thường được sử dụng trong mệnh đề chính là : Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect và Present Perfect Continuous.

Ex : - People say that he is a detective.

- They predict that the price of gasoline will go down.

- I think Laura arrived in Paris safely.

- He says his sister has made better progress.

2. Past Tenses in Sequence

Khi động từ trong mệnh đề chính ở dạng Past Tenses thì động từ trong mệnh đề phụ phải ở dạng Past Tense. Có 4 dạng Past Tenses hay sử dụng trong mệnh đề chính là Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect và Past Perfect Continuous.

Ex : - I thought he had a happy life in London.

- I was watching the video when she came.

- They had already prepared dinner before we arrived.

- They had been playing tennis for two hours when the rain started.

* Các liên từ chỉ thời gian thường hay xuất hiện trong việc hòa hợp các thì sau :

1. Simple Present – Simple Future


1. After

After she graduates, she will get a job.

2. Before

I will leave before he comes.

3. Until

We will wait here until he returns.

4. As soon as

I’ll call you as soon as she arrives.

5. When

When I finish this project, I’ll take some days off.

2. Simple Perfect – Simple Past / Present Perfect

Since

I haven’t seen him since he left this morning.

I have felt better since I have lived here.

3. Simple Past – Past Perfect

1. After

After she graduated, she got a job.

2. Before

She had sent him two letters before she came.

3. Until

The party had not ended until she came.

4. By

By the time he arrived, the plane had taken off.

5. When

When they arrived, he had finished his work.

EXERCISES



Exercise 1 – Put the verbs in brackets in the correct verb tense form.

1. Please don’t make so much noise. I (study) ......

2. My father usually (have) ...... tea for breakfast.

3. What ...... you (do) ...... at this time yesterday ?

4. I (watch) ...... that film with my sister last week.

5. We (study) ...... almost every lesson in this book so far.

6. He (win) ...... the gold medal in 2009.

7. We (not see) ...... your father for ages.

8. He (type) ...... ten letters by lunchtime yesterday.

9. All of you (take) ...... the graduation examination in two months’ time.

10. By the end of this year, I (work) ...... here for 18 years.

11. He (see) ...... her while he (walk) ...... down the street.

12. I thought they (wait) ...... for us for half an hour.

13. After he (do) ...... his homework, he went to the cinema.

14. We (not see) ...... her since she (leave) ...... school.

15. When I (be) ...... a boy, I often (go) ...... fishing with my teacher.

16. When I (leave) ...... my office last night, it (still, rain) ..... very hard.

17. What do you think the children (do) ...... when we (get) ...... home tomorrow ?

18. Ask her to come and see me when she (finish) ...... her work.

19. The man got out of the car, (walk) ...... round to the back and opened the boots.

20. Oil (float) ...... if you pour it on water.

1. am studying 2. has

3. were you doing 4. watched

5. have studied 6. won

7. haven’t seen 8. had typed

9. will take 10. will have worked

11. saw – was walking 12. had been waiting

13. had done 14. haven’t seen – left

15. was – went 16. left – was still raining

17. will be playing – get 18. has finished/ finishes

19. walked 20. floats

Exercise 2 – Rewrite each of the following sentences in such a way that it has a similar meaning to the original one.

1. I have never read this kind of book before.

- It is the first time ......

2. I have never read such an interesting novel.

- This is the most ......

3. She began to work as a secretary in 2005.

- She has ......

4. He hasn’t seen his sister since she left for Japan.

- The last time ......

5. When did Helen and John get married ?

- How long ......

6. My family moved to Ho Chi Minh City two months ago.

- It is two months ......

7. When you phoned me, it was my lunch time.

- When you phone me, I ……

8. I started working for the company three years ago.

- I’ve ……

9. David went home before we arrived.

- When we ……

10. During my dinner, the phone rang.

- While ……

11. I started this job five years ago.

- I have ……

12. I haven’t been to the cinema for two years.

- The last time ……

13. How long have Helen and Robert been married ?

- When did Helen get ……

14. I’ve never had problems with this computer before. (time)

- This is the ……

15. It will be my fourth visit to Thailand. (been)

- I have ……

16. They last drank coffee three days ago. (any coffee)

- They ….

17. I last saw Aunt Jenny when I was fifteen. (seen)

- I ……

18. On my arrival at the party, everyone was chatting and eating. (got)



- When ……
1. It is the first time I have read this kind of book.

2. This is the most interesting novel that I have ever read.

3. She has worked as a secretary since 2005.

4. The last time he saw his sister when she left for Japan.

5. How long have Helen and John been married ?

6. It is two months since my family moved to Ho Chi Minh City.

7. When you phoned me, I was having lunch.

8. I’ve worked / ’ve been working for the company for three years.

9. When we arrived, David had gone home.

10. While I was having dinner, the phone rang.

11. I have done / have been doing this job for five years.

12. The last time I went to the cinema was two years ago.

13. When did Helen get married to Robert ?

14. This is the first time I have had problems with this computer.

15. I have been to Thailand three times.

16. They haven’t drunk any coffee for three days.

17. I haven’t seen Aunt Jenny since I was fifteen.

18. When I got to the party, everyone was chatting and eating.
Exercise 3 – Choose the option that best completes each of the following sentences.

1. When I last saw him, he ...... in London.

A. has lived B. is living C. was living D. has been living

2. We ....... Dorothy since last Saturday.

A. don’t see B. haven’t seen C. didn’t see D. hadn’t seen

3. He has been selling motorbike ......

A. ten years ago B. since ten years C. for ten years ago D. for ten years now

4. He fell down when he ...... towards the church.

A. run B. runs C. was running D. had run

5. I ...... in the room right now.

A. is being B. was being C. have been being D. am

6. I ...... to New York three times this year.



A. have been B. was C. were D. had been

7. The little girl asked what ...... to her friend.

A. has happened B. happened C. had happened D. is happening

8. I have been waiting for you ......



A. since early morning B. this morning

C. since two hours D. for early morning

9. ...... I was walking around the supermarket, I saw a friend of mine.

A. As soon as B. As C. Until D. Since

10. The first time I noticed something wrong was ...... I got home.

A. after B. when C. since D. until



Exercise 4 – Choose the option that best completes each of the following sentences.

1. Christopher Columbus ...... America more than 500 years ago.



A. discovered B. has discovered C. had discovered D. had been discovering

2. They ...... there when their father died.

A. still lived B. lived still C. was still living D. were still living

3. By next Christmas, I ...... for Mr. Smith for six years.



A. shall have been working B. shall work

C. have been working D. shall be working

4. Almost everyone ...... for home by the time we arrived.

A. leave B. left C. leaves D. had left

5. While her husband was in the army, Mary ...... to him twice a week.

A. was writing B. wrote C. was written D. had written

6. I have never played badminton before. This is the first time I ...... to play.

A. try B. tried C. have tried D. am trying

7. Since he ......, I have heard nothing from him.

A. had left B. left C. has left D. leaves

8. I ...... in Hanoi before I moved to Ho Chi Minh City.

A. have been living B. have lived C. had lived D. had been living

9. He will take the dog out for a walk as soon as he ...... dinner.

A. finish B. finishes C. will finish D. will have finished

10. The children are still ill but they ...... better gradually.

A. get B. got C. have got D. are getting



Exercise 5 – Choose the letter of the correct answer

1. After Jessica …… her degree, she intends to work in her father’s company.

A. will finish B. will have finished C. finishes D. is finishing

2. By the time I go to bed tonight, I …… my work for the day.

A. will finish B. have finished C. will have finished D. finish

3. When my parents …… for a visit tomorrow, they will see our new baby for the first time.

A. will arrive B. arrived C. will have arrived D. arrive

4. Fatemah looked down to discover a snake at her feet. When she saw it, she ……

A. was screaming B. had screamed C. screamed D. screams

5. By the time Alfonso finally graduated from high school, he …… seven different schools because his parents moved frequently.

A. attended B. was attending C. had attended D. had been attending

6. Until you learn to relaxe more, you …… your ability to speak English.

A. haven’t improved B. aren’t improving C. don’t improve D. won’t improve

7. I borrowed four books on gardening the last time I …… to the library.

A. go B. went C. had gone D. have gone

8. Before I started the car, all of the passengers …… their seat belts.

A. will buckle B. had buckled C. buckle D. have buckled

9. It seems that whenever I travel abroad I …… to take something I need.

A. forgot B. am forgetting C. forget D. had forgotten

10. When I see the doctor this afternoon, I …… him to look at my throat.



A. will ask B. asked C. will have asked D. ask

11. After ancient Greek athletes won a race in the Olympics, they …… a simple crown of olive leaves.



A. received B. had received C. were receiving D. have received

12. After the race ……, the celebration began.



A. had been won B. is won C. will be won D. has been won

13. I’ll return Bob’s pen to him the next time I …… him.



A. see B. will see C. will have seen D. have seen

14. I …… all of the questions correctly since I began this grammar exercise on verb tenses.

A. am answering B. answer C. have answered D. answered

15. A small stone struck the windshield while we …… down the gravel road.

A. drive B. were driving C. had driven D. had been driving

Exercise 6 – Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order to make the sentence correct.

1. Human (A) had struggled (B) against weeds (C) since the beginning (D) of agriculture.

2. The mother (A) will wait outside (B) the school (C) until her son (D) will finish his examination.

3. I (A) was walking along the pavement (B) when I (C) realized that there (D) has been a man following me.

4. Peter (A) has been written the composition (B) for three hours and he (C) has not finished (D) yet.

5. The driver (A) expected a rest. They (B) had been (C) covered 10 (D) hundred miles.

6. I (A) have learned English (B) for I (C) was ten years (D) old.

7. He (A) has just taken a (B) fourteen-day trip (C) around America (D) recently.

8. I (A) was listening (B) to the radio (C) when the door bell (D) will ring.

9. (A) Before the combine harvester (B) had invented, farmers (C) had to cut and thresh rice (D) by hand.

10. John (A) said he (B) will invite some of his friends for dinner (C) so Mary (D) had to buy some more food.

11. Mr. Harrison, who (A) was so proud of his new car, (B) drove to work when the accident (C) happened and (D) damaged his car.

12. According to the weather (A) forecast, it (B) was going to be hot and sunny (C) tomorrow with a chance of a thunderstorm (D) in the afternoon.

13. Every morning, the sun (A) shines in my bedroom (B) window and (C) waking (D)me up.

14. The man died(A) as a result (B) of falling (C) asleep while (D) he drives.

15. I hadn’t (A) never seen snow (B) before I (C) visited Canada (D) last year.



Exercise 7 – Choose the word or phrase that best completes each of the following sentences.

1. Don’t answer the door until I ...... back.



A. come B. came C. will come D. had come

2. Prices ...... all the time. Everything is getting more and more expensive.

A. rises B. are rising C. were rising D. had risen

3. “Have you been abroad recently?” – “I last ...... abroad in 2004”.

A. go B. went C. have gone D. was going

4. Five dollars ...... all that he had when he first arrived in this city.

A. have been B. has been C. were D. was

5. “When are you planning to send the memo to the staff?”

“I ...... it already.”

A. send B. had sent C. have sent D. was to sent

6. “Betty told me that you have a cottage on Lake Superior.”

“Yes, we ...... there since we first moved to Michigan.”

A. had gone B. have been going C. are going D. had been going

7. As soon as Debbie got out of bed, she opened the window and ...... in fresh air.

A. breathes B. breathed C. was breathing D. has breathed

8. “Why are your hands so dirty?” “Because I ...... on my car.’

A. had been working B. have been working C. have worked D. had worked

9. I wish Maureen worked as hard as Theresa ......



A. does B. can C. will D. did

10. I haven’t had a Chinese meal ......

A. since ages B. for 2002 C. since two years D. for years

11. Peter ...... a second-hand car, but regretted it later.

A. buys B. has bought C. bought D. would buy

12. “When did you arrive?” “......”

A. Tomorrow B. Yesterday C. For 2 days D. Once again

13. “I hate opera.” “......”

A. You are, too. B. It can, too. C. I am, too. D. I do, too.

14. Fish always …… delicious when my mother cooks it.

A. tasted B. is tasting C. has been tasted D. tastes

15. I couldn’t answer the phone immediately, because I ...... to finish some work.

A. try B. am trying C. was trying D. have tried

16. I haven’t ...... decided where to go on holiday.



A. yet B. am trying C. was trying D. have tried

17. Once you ...... used to the job, it won’t seem so bad.



A. get B. got C. will get D. had got

18. From now on, we won’t be able to go out as much as we ......

A. were B. had C. used to D. will

19. When Carol went back into the room, her colleagues ...... about the coffee.

A. still quarrel B. were still quarreling

C. are still quarreling D. have been still quarreling

20. Paula ...... her new dress, isn’t she?

A. wears B. wore C. is wearing D. has been wearing

REPORTED SPEECH




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