TÀi liệu tham khảO Ôn thi tốt nghiệp tiếng anh lớP 12 I. Tenses a/ Lý thuyết 1



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TÀI LIỆU THAM KHẢO ÔN THI TỐT NGHIỆP

TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12
I. TENSES

A/ Lý thuyết

1. The Simple Present (Thì hiện tại đơn)

a. Form:

- Khẳng định : I , We , You , They … ( S nhiều ) + Vo

He , She , It ( S ít ) + V-s/es

- Phủ định : I , We , You , They .. + don't + Vo

He , She , It … + doesn't + Vo

- Nghi vấn : Do + We , You , They .. + Vo … ?

Does + He , She , It … + Vo … ?

b. Usage (Cách dùng ) :

- Diễn tả một chân lí, một sự thật hiển nhiên.



Ex : - The Earth goes round the sun .

- He is a doctor.

- Tom comes from England.

- Diễn tả 1 thói quen hoặc 1 việc xảy ra thường xuyên ở hiện tại ( always, often, usually, sometimes, now and then, seldom, rarely, never, every ..... ) dùng để nhận biết.



Ex : - He often goes to class late . / My mother gets up early every morning .

- Diễn tả 1 h/đ tương lai đã được sắp xếp, bố trí thực hiện trước thời điểm nói.



Note : a. Cách thêm – es vào sau những động từ tận cùng : o , s , x ,z ,sh , ch..

b. Cách phát âm –s/es



2 . The Present Continuous (Thì hiện tại tiếp diễn)

a. Form : - Khẳng định : S + am / is / are + V –ing

- Phủ định : S + am / is / are ( not ) + V -ing

- Nghi vấn : Are / Is + S + V-ing …. ?

Ex: We are studying English now .

b. Usage ( Cách dùng) :

- Diễn tả một hành động đang tiếp diễn ở thời điểm nói ( ở hiện tại)

* Dấu hiệu nhận biết : now , right now = at once , at ( the / this / present ) time, at the moment, Ra lệnh ( Look ! Listen ! ) Ex : - She is listening to his teacher now

- Diễn tả 1 hành động sẽ xảy ra ở tương lai ( có kế hoạch từ trước)

Ex : She is getting married next year.

Note :* Be going to +Vo dùng để diễn tả 1 hành động sắp xảy ra mà hiện tượng của nó đã xuất hiện hoặc 1 hành động tương lai có dự định trước.

Ex: The grey dark appears. It is going to rain.

3 . The Present Perfect (Thì hiện tại hòan thành)



a. Form : - Khẳng định : S + has / have + V3 , ed

- Phủ định : S + has / have ( not ) V3 , ed

- Nghi vấn : Has / Have + S + V3 , ed?

b. Usage (Cách dùng ) :

* Diễn tả một hành động vừa mới xảy ra hoặc xảy ra không rõ thời gian (thường đi kèm với các từ just , recently = lately, not .. yet, ever, never, aleady )



Ex : We haven’t finished our homework yet .

* Diễn tả 1 hành động bắt đầu từ quá khứ kéo dài đến hiện tại có khả năng tiếp tục ở tương lai (thường đi với các từ since , for)



Ex : - They have lived here for ten years .

* Ngòai ra còn có một số cụm từ chỉ thời gian như : so far = until now = up to now ,how long .. ? It is the first / second / third … time, twice / many / three…. times.



Note : For ( many, several, 2, 3 / . + times, years, months or a long time = ages ) # since ( last week .. )

4. The Simple Past (Thì quá khứ đơn )



a. Form : - Khẳng định : S + V2, ed … ( To be : was / were )

- Phủ định : S + did not Vo ….

- Nghi vấn : Did + S + Vo ….. ?

b. Usage : Diễn tả hành động đã xảy ra, chấm dứt trong quá khứ ( đôi khi biết rõ thời gian ) thường có các từ đi kèm : yesterday ,ago , last ( week /night … ) , in 1990 ( thời gian ở quá khứ )

5 . The Past Continuous (Thì quá khứ tiếp diễn )

a. Form : S + was / were + V - ing

Ex: We were studying Maths at this time yesterday.

b. Usage :

- Diễn tả một hành động đang xảy ra vào 1 thời điểm xác định trong quá khứ .

Ex : - What were you doing at 4 p.m yesterday?

- Diễn tả 1 hành động đang xảy ra vào 1 thời điểm xác định ở quá khứ hoặc 1 hành động đang xảy ra ( hành động này kéo dài hơn ) thì có hành động khác xen vào .



Ex: a. What were you doing at 4 p.m yesterday?

b. We were watching television when he came

- Diễn tả 2 hành động đang xảy ra cùng lúc ở quá khứ .

Ex: Yesterday , while I was reading a book , my sister was watching T.V .

* Dấu hiệu nhận biết : at ( the / this / that ) time, at the moment, at 4p.m + thời gian ở quá khứ (yesterday, last .. )

Ex : He was watching film at the moment yesterday.

6 . The Past perfect (Thì quá khứ hòan thành )

a. Form : S + had V3 , ed

b. Usage : Diễn tả một hành động xảy ra trước 1 hành động khác trong quá khứ hoặc trước 1 thời điểm ở quá khứ .

Ex : When I got up this morning , my mother had already left .

* Dấu hiệu nhận biết : before , after

7 . The simple future : (Thì tương lai đơn )

a. Form : S + shall / will Vo

b. Usage : Diễn tả hành động sẽ xảy ra ở tương lai : tomorrow , next ( week / month ) … , in 2010

8. The Perfect Future : (Tương lai hoàn thành )

Form S + will have V 3,ed

Dấu hiệu nhận biết : By the end of ….

Ex : By the end of this year, I will have had a new bike.



Note : Sau when , while , before , after , until, by the time, as , as soon as, if ………. không dùng thì tương lai mà chỉ dùng thì hiện tại đơn .

Ex : She will phone her parents when she comes here next week.


B/ Bài tập vận dụng

I. Use the correct tenses of the verbs in brackets.

1. She (write) that letter two days ago.

2. What (happen) .................... when they arrived?

3. I don’t smoke while I (drive) .................... a car.

4. After they (go) ...................., I sat down and rested.

5. His knowledge (develop) .................... since he got habit of reading.

6. You (finish) .................... with the book I (lend) .................... you last week?

7. Last week, when the police came there, the thief (go) .................... away.

8. The train already (leave) .................... by the time I (arrive) .................... the station.

9. Be quiet! The baby (sleep) .................... .

10. He (visit) .................... his friend yesterday and (find) .................... that she (be) .................... out.

II. Choose the best option to complete the sentence.

1. She................Hanoi last year



A. went

B. go

C. goes

D. is going

2. Now you ..................from New York to Los Angeles in a matter of hours

A. are flying

B. would fly

C. will fly

D. can fly

3. When Carol....................last night, I................my favorite show on television

A. was calling- watched

B. called- have watched

C. called- was watching

D. had called- watched

4. By the time next summer you....................your studies

A. completes

B. will complete

C. are completing

D. will have completed

5. Right now, Jim.................the newspaper and Kathy...............dinner

A. reads- has cooked

B. is reading- is cooking

C. has read- was cooking

D. read- will be cooking

6. Last night at this time, they.....................the same thing. She.............and he..........the newspaper

A. are doing- is cooking- is reading B. were doing- was cooking- was reading

C. was doing- has cooked- is reading D. had done- was cooking- read

7. – Hurry up! We’re waiting for you. What’s taking you so long? – I …………….. for an important phone call. Go ahead and leave without me.



A. wait

B. will wait

C. am waiting

D. have waited

8. – Robert is going to be famous someday. He ……………. in three movies already. – I’m sure he’ll be a star.

A. has been appearing

B. has appeared

C. had appeared

D. appeared

9. – Hello? Alice? This is Jeff. How are you? – Jeff? What a coincidence! I ………….. about you when the phone rang.

A. was just thinking

B. just thought

C. have just been thinking

D. was just thought

10. – What …….. about the new simplified tax law? – It’s more confusing than the old one.

A. are you thinking

B. do you think

C. have you thought

D. have you been thinking



II. SUBJECT AND VERB AGREEMENT
A. Nguyên tắc chung: Trong tiếng Anh, chủ ngữ và vị ngữ (Verb) à 2 thành phần chính của câu; trong đó chủ ngữ chi phối vị ngữ, còn vị ngữ là đối tượng chịu tác động của chủ ngữ. Do đó, chủ ngữ số nào thì đ/t sẽ chia theo số đó
* singular * singular

S + * plural + V + * plural

* either sin. or plu. * either sin. or plu.
B. Một số nguyên tắc cơ bản:

B.1. Singular verb



1. Sub. as Singular nouns or pronouns (He/ She/ It/ No..) or Uncountable nouns.

E.g: - He usually goes to school by bicycle.

- Her beauty helps her much in her job.

- This water is not safe enough to drink.



3. Sub. as a gerund, infinitive or clause.

E.g:- Swimming is good for health.

- That you hav high grades in school is necessary.

4. Sub. as a measuremenof time, money, distance.. ( as 1 unit)

Eg: - Thirty pounds seems a reasonable price.

- Four weeks is a long time to wait for you.

5. A noun ending in ‘s’ expressing: a subject, disease, country or city, news ..

Eg: Mathematics is one of my core subjects.



6. Indefinite pronouns: someone, something ....

Eg: Someone was waiting at the door



7. One of + the + Adj. – EST + Ns

8. Every/ Each/ Either/ Neither + Ns/ No

E.g: - Every teacher and every student has their own work.

B.2. Plural verb.

1. Plural nouns or pronouns

2. The + Adj.

E.g: - The young are fond of pop music.



3. Collective nouns: police, army, troop, audience cattle, poultry...

Eg: The police are investigating the crime.


B.3. Either singular or plural verb.

V (plural) (N1 ≠ N2)

1. N1 + AND + N2 +

V (sin.) ( N1 ≡ N2)

Eg: - My brother and sister live in Boston.


  • My cousin and my adviser, Tom is coming tonight.

  • Bread and egg is my favourite dish. (Bánh mỳ trứng là món tôi thích nhất)

together with

along with

2. N1 + as well as + N2  V (N1)

accompanied by

in addition to

E.g: - George, together with his friends, is buying a race horse.

- The director as well as his staff has to learn English.

- The students in addition to the teacher are all devoted to the research.

3. Either or,

Neither + N1 + nor  V(N2)

Not only but also

Eg: - Either Thursday or Friday is ok.

- Neither my parents nor my brother has been to HCM city.

- Either you or I am right.



4. A (large) number of + V(plu.)

The number of + V(sin.)

E.g: - The number of students in this class is small.

- A number of students were absent yesterday.

5. N1 + preposition + N2 V(N1)

E.g:- The picture of the soldiers has been sold.

-The house between the two bungalows is empty.
6. None/ All/ some/ half/ plenty/ N(sin.)  V(sin.)

No/ Most/ a lot/ Percentage/ fraction + of + N(plu.)  V(plu.)

E.g:- None of the students have finished the test.

- None of the counterfeit money has been foun.

- One third of the population is unemployed

- One third of the villagers are unemployed.

7. There + is/was/ has been ... + No .

There + are/were/ have been .. + Ns/es.

Eg: There are twenty five students in my class

There was an accident on the road last night.
8. Collective noun different action V (plu.)

( family, team, group,

staff, company.. as 1 unit (the same action) V(sin.)

E.g: - My family congratulated my little sister on her birthday.

- His family is an old and very famous one.

- Our company has debated these questions carefully.

- The company lead very different lives in private


Bài tập vận dụng

Exercise 1: Circle the best answer.

1. One of .......... a goldfish bowl on her kitchen table.



A. my friend keep

B. my friends keep

C. my friend keeps

D. my friends keeps

2. Every ......... love.

A. man, woman and child needs

B. men, women and children needs



C. man, woman and child need

D. men, women and children need



3. One of the girls who ......... in this office ......... my niece

A. works / is

B. works / are

C. work / is

D. work / are

4. Neither Lan nor her parents ......... the film.

A. like

B. likes

C. is like

D. are like

5. Each ......... the same as the day before.

A. days was

B. day was

C. days were

D. day were

6. More men than ......... left handed.

A. woman are

B. woman is

C. women are

D. women is

7. Every one of the students ......... on time for class

A. is

B. are

C. were

D. have been

8. There ......... some money on the table.

A. are

B. were

C. have been

D. is

9. This information about taxes ......... helpful

A. were

B. have been

C. is

D. are

10. The vegetables in the bowl on the table ......... fresh.

A. looks

B. smells

C. are

D. is

Exercise 2: Give the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

1. The news about Mr Hogan (be) .............. surprising.

2. Fifty minutes (be) ..............the maximum length of the time allowed for the exam.

3. Many people in the world (not have) .............. enough food to eat.

4. The poor (need) ..............help from the community.

5. Listening to loud music at rock concerts (cause) .............. hearing loss in some teenagers these days.

6. There (be) .............. a lot of sheep in the field.

7. Ten miles (be) .............. too far to walk.

8. Not only John but also his friends (want) .............. to buy this race horse.

9. A number of students (recently participate) .............. in intensive language programs abroad.

10. Sarah, along with 20 students, (plan) .............. a party now.
Exercise 3: Find the incorrect part A, B, C and D.

1. Each of the rooms have its own bathroom.

A B C D

2. Everybody who have a fever must go home immediately



A B C D

3. Twenty five dollars are all I can afford to pay for this recorder

A B C D

4. All of the windows in my house was broken in the earthquake.



A B C D

5. The actress, along with her manager and some friends, are going to the party.

A B C D

III. GERUND AND INFINITIVE

A/ Lý thuyết

Một đ/t thường có 2 dạng: đ/t biến vị & đ/t không biến vị:

* Biến vị là đ/t chia theo chủ ngữ (ngôi & thì – thời gian mà h/đ xảy ra)- verb tenses.

* Không biến vị - verb forms- gồm:

- Đ/ nguyên thể (Infinitive with or without To)

- Động tính từ hiện tại (Present participle) & Động danh từ (Gerund): V-ing

- Động tính từ quá khứ (Past participle) : V-ed

A. Động từ nguyên thể

1. Form:





Active

Passive

Simple

To - Vo

To - be - P2

Perfect

To - have - P2

To -have-been-P2

Eg:- I’m very glad to see you.

  • I wanted the report to be typed at once.

  • He seems to have been ill.

  • This machine is said to have been tested.

2. Classification: 2 kinds: Infinitive with or without To

2.1. Bare infinitive : động từ nguyên mẫu không to

1. Sau modal verb ( động từ khiếm khuyết )

2. Sau auxilary verb : do, does, did.

3. Sau make, let, help ( sau help có thể có To); ở Passive voice  dùng to-Vo ( Trừ let)

4. Sau động từ chỉ giác quan:(verbs of perception ) : see, hear, smell, feel, taste, watch, notice …

Vo ( bare )  hành động đã xong

S + V + object

Vo ( ing )  hành động đang diễn ra

5. Sau: had better ( tốt hơn ); would rather ( thà thì hơn ), had sooner.

6. Sau thành ngữ :- to do nothing but + Vo ( bare ) : không làm gì cả mà chỉ.

- Can not but + Vo(bare): không còn cách nào khác.

7. Causative form (Thể sai khiến): S + have + object ( chỉ người ) + Vo (bare).

8. Câu mệnh lệnh: ( imprative ): Come in, please.





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