TÀi liệu tham khảO Ôn thi tốt nghiệp tiếng anh lớP 12 I. Tenses a/ Lý thuyết 1



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3. Sau những động từ chỉ giác quan(verb of perception): see, hear, smell, feel, taste, watch, notice, make, help, bid.

Ex: I hear him come in

→ He is heard to come in (nếu câu chủ động là coming thì giữ nguyên trong câu bị động).


4. Imperative (câu mệnh lệnh):

Ex: a. Open the door → Let the door be opened.

b. They let him go out → He was allowed to go out / He was let go out.


5. Sau những động từ: like, hate, love, want, wish, prefer, hope.

Ex: - He wants Peter to take photographs → He wants photographs to be taken by Peter.

- He does not like people laughing at him. → He does not like being laughed at.
6. Các động từ: advise, agree, insist, arrange, suggest, propose, recommend, determine, decide, demand, beg, urge, order, request.

Ex: He advised me to accept this job

→ Cách 1: He advised me this job should be accepted.

→ Cách 2: I was advised to accept this job.
7. Need + to be + P2 = Need + Ving

Ex: Your shirt needs to be ironed

ironing.

8. It + be + adjective + to-infinitive + smt.

Passive: It + be + adjective + for sth + to be + V3 / Vo ED

Ex: - It is important to finish this exercise.

→ It is important for this exercise to be finished

- It is necessary to copy this lesson

→ It is necessary for this lesson to be copied.

- It is time to feed the chicken → It is time for the chicken to be fed.

9. Các trường hợp khác:

Ex Please enter this way. → You are requested to enter this way.

B/ Bài tập vận dụng

Exercise 1: Change the sentences bloww into the Passive voice.


  1. People drink a great deal of tea in England.

  2. She often takes her dog for a walk.

  3. People speak English all over the world.

  4. A group of students have met their friends at the railway station.

  5. They didn’t allow Tom to take these books home.

  6. The teacher won’t correct exercises tomorrow.

  7. How many trees did they cut down to build that fence?

  8. This well-known library attracts many people.

  9. My mother used to make us clean the house.

  10. He likes people to call him “Sir”.


Exercise 2: Rewrite the sentences in the passive:

  1. They will construct some new airports on islands.

……………………………………………………………………………………

  1. The new president might fulfill this promise as quickly as people would like.

……………………………………………………………………………………

  1. They are going to find out the mystery.

……………………………………………………………………………………

  1. You can buy videos like this one anywhere.

……………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Someone will tell you when you go in to see the doctor.

……………………………………………………………………………………
Exercise 3: Complete the sentences with the given words, active or passive

1. Chris has good news. The engineering firm where she had an interview yesterday (may / offer) ………………………….. her a job soon.

2. Good news! I (may / offer) ………………………….. a job soon. I had an interview at an engineering firm yesterday.

3. You (should / open) ………………….. the wine about three hours before you use it.

4. You (mustn’t / move) …………………………..this man; he is too ill. He (will / have to / leave) ………………………….. here.

5. You (must / take) …………………………..those books back to the library yesterday.

6. We tried, but the window (couldn’t/ open) ……………………………

7. You (must / keep) ………………………….. meat in a refrigerator or it will spoil.

8. I (had better /wash) ……………….. my clothes today, or they will be very smelly.

9. Someone (should / tell) ………………………….. James the news immediately.

10. This application (be supposed to/ send) ………….. to the personnel department soon.

Exercise 4: Choose the best option.

1. I shouldn’t …… so much coffee last night. I was wide awake till four in the morning.



A. drink

B. drank

C. be drunk

D. have drunk

2. After the test papers …… to the students in class tomorrow, the students …… their next assignment.

A. will return – will be given

B. will be returned – are given



C. are returning – are giving

D. are returned – will be given



3. The class for next semester is too large. It ought to …… in half.

A. be divided

B. divide

C. have divided

D. have been divided

4. The entire valley can …… from their mountain home.

A. see

B. be seen

C. being seen

D. sees

5. A child should …… everything he or she wants.

A. gives

B. give

C. have been given

D. be given

6. Many U.S. automobiles …… in Detroit, Michigan.

A. manufacture

B. have manufactured

C. are manufactured

D. are manufacturing

7. I still can’t believe it! My bicycle …… last night.

A. was stolen

B. was stealing

C. stolen

D. stole

8. Let’s go ahead and do it now. Nothing …… by waiting.

A. will be accomplished

B. accomplished

C. has accomplished

D. accomplishes

9.” When ……? “ - In 1928

A. penicillin was discovered

B. did penicillin discovered

C. was penicillin discovered

D. did penicillin discover

10. The rescuers ……for their bravery and fortitude in locating the lost mountain climbers.

A. were praised

B. praised

C. were praising

D. praising

11. Vitamin C …… by the human body. It gets into the bloods stream quickly.

A. absorbs easily

B. is easily absorbing

C. is easily absorbed

D. absorbed easily

12. Renoir is one of the most popular French impressionist painters. His paintings …… masterpieces all over the world.

A. had considered

B. are considering

C. are considered

D. consider

13. We can’t go along here because the road is …… .

A. been repaired

B. being repaired

C. repaired

D. repairing

14. More than 50 films …… in HCMC since June.

A. were shown

B. had been shown

C. have been shown

D. have shown

15. Somebody cleans the room every day.

A. The room every day is cleaned

B. The room is every day cleaned

C. The room is cleaned every day

D. The room is cleaned by somebody every day



V. REPORTED SPEECH
A/ Lý thuyết

Câu gián tiếp dùng để tường thuật lại lời nói trực tiếp từ người thứ nhất dến người thứ ba thông qua người thứ hai. Có các loại câu chuyển từ câu trực tiếp sang câu gián tiếp như sau:


1. Câu trần thuật

Câu trần thuật thường được tường thuật bằng một động từ được chia ở thì quá khứ và một mệnh đề “that”

Ví dụ : “I am a teacher”--> she said that she was a teacher

Công thức:



S + said/ told/ admitted/ replied (that) S + V ( one tense back) +.....

Chúng ta thường thay đổi thì của động từ ( hiện tại--> quá khứ--> quá khứ hoàn thành) đổi đại từ nhân xưng, tân ngữ, tính từ sở hữu, tạng từ chỉ thời gian và địa điểm như sau:


Trạng từ chỉ thời gian và địa điểm.


Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

Now/ at present

Then

Today

That day

Ago

Before

Tomorrow

the next day/ the following day

Yesterday

The previous day/ the day before

The day after tomorrow

In two days’ time

The day before yesterday

Two days before

Next week/ year

The following week/ month/ year

Last week/ month/ year

The week/ month / ear before

This

That

These

Those

Here

There

Tonight

That night

This/ these/ that/ those ( as adjectives)

The

This/ these/ that/ those ( as pronoun)

It, they, them

Chú ý: khi tường thuật một sự việc luôn đúng ở hiện tại, không cần thiết phải thay đổi thì của động từ.

Ví dụ: “ The world is round” he said---> he said that the world is round

2. Câu hỏi
A/ Câu hỏi có từ để hỏi

Câu hỏi có từ để hỏi được tường thuật bằng các động từ “ask, wonder or want to know”. Các thay đổi giống như câu trần thuật. Trật tự từ câu được tường thuật giống như câu trần thuật.

Ví dụ 'When did you start acting, Melissa?'-->Guy asked Melissa when she started acting.

Công thức:



S + asked + (O)/ wanted to know Wh question S + V ( one tense back) +.....

B/ Câu hỏi trả lời bằng Yes/ No
Khi tường thuật câu hỏi trả lời bằng Yes/ No ta sử dụng “if hoặc whether”.

Ví dụ


'Is there a cafe nearby?-->. Daniel asked if/whether there was a cafe nearby.

Công thức:



S + asked + (O)/ wanted to know if/ whether S + V ( one tense back) +.....


3. Câu cầu khiến.

Chúng ta sử dụng “tell và ask ” và to V để tường thuật câu cầu khiến


Ví dụ: 'Please move this car.' --> A policeman told me to move the car.

'Please don't wear those boots in the house.' --> I asked you not to wear those boots in the house.

Công thức:


S + asked / told O to V/ not to V.

Có rất nhiều các động từ tường thuật khác. Sau đây là một số các động từ thường thuật phổ biến khác:

Verb + to infinitive: agree, decide, offer, promise , refuse..

Verb + O to infinitive: advise, ask, invite, remind...

Verb+ -ing form: deny, suggest, admit, regret...

Verb+ pre + -ing form: : apologise for, congratulate on



B/ Bài tập vận dụng
1/ Change the following sentences into reported speech


  1. “The shop close early tonight” he said--> he said....

  2. “Don’t make so much noise, boys” the mother said--> The mother.....

  3. “Why didn’t you take the job?” asked my friend.--> My friend.......

  4. “ Have you finished reading the book, Mike?” Alice asked--> My friend.....

  5. “ I am sorry I am late”, said Mr Thanh.--> Mr Thanh apologized....


2/ Choose the best answer.
1. I rang my friend in Australia yesterday, and she said it………………….. raining there.

A. is

B. should be

C. to be

D. was

2. The last time I saw Jonathan, he looked very relaxed. He explained that he'd been on holiday

the…………. .......... week.



A. earlier

B. . previous

C. next

D. following

3. I wonder…………………. the tickets are on sale yet.

A. what

B. when

C. where

D. whether

4. I told you…………………. switch off the computer, didn't I?

A. don't

B. not

C. not to

D. to not

5. Someone………………......me there's been an accident on the motorway.

A. asked

B. said

C. spoke

D. told

6. When I rang Tessa some time last week, she said she was busy…………………… day.

A. that

B. the

C. then

D. this

7. When he was at Oliver's flat yesterday, Martin asked if he………………….. use the phone.

A. can

B. could

C. may

D. must

8. Judy ........................ going for a walk, but no one else wanted to.

A. admitted

B. offered

C. suggested

D. promised


3/ Choose the answer - A, B, C, or D -that is nearest in meaning to the sentence printed before.

  1. 'You broke my glasses,' said the woman to me.

A. The woman insisted on breaking her glasses.

B. The woman advised me to break her glasses.

C. The woman told me to break her glasses.

D. The woman blamed me for having broken her glasses.



  1. 'If I were you, I would take the job,' said my roommate.

A. My roommate was thinking about taking the job.

B. My roommate advised me to take the job.

C. My roommate introduced the idea of taking the job to me.

D. My roommate insisted on taking the job for me.



  1. 'Why not participate in the English Speaking Contest?'

A. He asked me to take part in the English Speaking Contest.

B. He suggested taking part in the English Speaking Contest.

C. He offered us to take part in the English Speaking Contest.

D. He told me not to participate in the English Speaking Contest.



  1. Please watch your steps as you get off.

A. Please look at the steps while getting off.

B. Go down the steps in order to get off.

C. Please have a look at the Steps as you get off.

D. Be careful not to tumble while getting off.



  1. 'Let me pay for the coffee. I really want.'

A. Jenny is asked to pay for the coffee.

B. Jenny suggested paying for the coffee.

C. Jenny insisted on paying for the coffee.

D. Jenny told me to pay for the coffee.



  1. You're always making terrible mistakes,' said the teacher.

A. The teacher complained about his students making terrible mistakes.

B. The teacher asked his students why they always made terrible mistakes.

C. The teacher realized that his students always made terrible mistakes.

D. The teacher made his students not always make terrible mistakes.



  1. Each of you may have one piece of candy,’ Mrs. Jones said to the children.

A. Mrs. Jones advised the children to have one piece of candy.

B. Mrs. Jones asked each of the children to have one piece of candy.

C. Mrs. Jones allowed each of the children to have one piece of candy.

D. Mrs. Jones reminded the children to have one piece of candy.



  1. 'Would you mind if I brought a friend to the party?' said Peter.

A. Peter wanted me to bring my friend to his party.

B. Peter encouraged me to bring my friend to the party.

C. Peter asked for permission to bring his friend to the party.

D. Peter promised to bring a friend to the party.



  1. 'Don't be so disappointed Jane. You can take the driving test again,' said Helen.

A. Helen told Jane not to be disappointed and take the driving test again.

B. Helen asked Jane not to be disappointed and offered her another driving test.

C. Helen warned Jane not to be disappointed' in order to take the driving test again.

D. Helen encouraged Jane to take the driving test again.



  1. 'Let's break for lunch,' said Mathew.

A. Mathew wanted to break for lunch.

B. Mathew insisted on breaking for lunch.

C. Mathew suggested breaking for lunch.

D. Mathew offered us a break for lunch.


VI. CONDITIONALS

A/ Lý thuyết

Câu điều kiện loại 1

Công thức



If + subject + simple present ( present continuous/ perfect can also used

Subject + will + Verb

( other modal verbs like can, may, should,.... can be used)



Mệnh đề if

Mệnh đề chính

Cách dùng: Dùng để diễn tả những sự việc có thể xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai.


Ví dụ : If it is nice tomorrow, I’ll come to see you.

Câu điều kiện loại 2

Công thức




If + subject + simple past

Subject + would + Verb

( other modal verbs like could, might can be used)



Mệnh đề if

Mệnh đề chính

Cách dùng: Dùng để diễn tả những sự việc không có thực ở hiện tại, ước muốn ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai ( nhưng thực tế không thể xảy ra)


Ví dụ:

If I were you, I would drive more carefully in the rain


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