Phrasal structure in vietnamese and english newspaper headlines nguyen thi phuong lan department of english



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Phrasal Structure In Vietnamese And English Newspaper Headlines


PHRASAL STRUCTURE IN VIETNAMESE AND ENGLISH NEWSPAPER HEADLINES
NGUYEN THI PHUONG LAN
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH
HO CHI MINH UNIVERSITY OF PEDAGOGY


INSTRUCTOR: PHD. NGUYEN NGOC VU
HO CHI MINH CITY, DECEMBER, 2011

CONTENT

PHRASAL STRUCTURE IN VIETNAMESE AND ENGLISH NEWSPAPER HEADLINES 0

NGUYEN THI PHUONG LAN 0

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH 0

HO CHI MINH UNIVERSITY OF PEDAGOGY 0

INSTRUCTOR: PHD. NGUYEN NGOC VU 0

HO CHI MINH CITY, DECEMBER, 2011 0

ABSTRACT 3

PHRASAL STRUCTURE IN ENGLISH NEWSPAPER HEADLINES 4

Nominal Headlines 5

Pre-modified nominal headlines: 5

Here are some newspaper headlines in the form of noun phrases: 5

Post-modified nominal headlines: 6

Nominal headlines with both pre- and post-modification 7

Coordinated and appositional nominal headlines 7

Headlines With An Omitted Copula Or Linking Verb 8

Headlines which consist of a noun phrase functioning as a subject and a subject complement 8

Headlines which consist of a noun phrase functioning as a subject and an adverbial 8

Verbal Headlines 9

Finite verb phrases 9

Simple tenses used instead of continuous or perfect forms. 9

The infinitive verbs refer to future 9

Auxiliary verbs are ommitted in the passive form 10

Non-finite verb phrases 10

Adjective Headlines 10

PHRASAL STRUCTURE IN VIETNAMESE NEWSPAPER HEADLINES 11

Nominal Headlines 11

Front elements 12

Head: 12


End element 12

Verbal Headlines 13

Central element 13

Verb alone 13

Verbs that usually come with other verbs: 13

Pre-additive element: 14

Post-additive element 14

Adjective Headlines 15

Front element: 15

Head: 15


Post-additive element: 15

NEWSPAPER HEADLINES IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE 15

PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 16

Adding Title 17

Adding Related Information: 17

Recovering Omitted Articles 18

Reading Backward When Translating A Noun String 18

Translating Omitted Auxiliary English Newspaper Headlines 19

REFERENCES 21



ABSTRACT

In the age of information and technology, many people consider mass media in general and newspapers in particular as indispensable things in their lives. Newspapers help us getting updated with the latest events over the world. Nowadays, thanks to the internet, we can get access to a variety of newspapers in different languages, especially in English. However, the problem is that many people find English newspaper headlines too difficult to understand. Also, many students often face a big challenge of translating newspaper headlines from English into Vietnamese. Therefore, in this paper, I do a contrastive analysis of “PHRASAL STRUCTURE IN VIETNAMESE AND ENGLISH NEWSPAPER HEADLINES” with the aim of giving people some ideas of how to understand English newspaper headlines comparing to Vietnamese ones and the pedagogical application of how to translate newspaper headlines from English into Vietnamese.

PHRASAL STRUCTURE IN ENGLISH NEWSPAPER HEADLINES

Newspaper writers often use a special language in his papers and this is the most obvious with the headlines. A newspaper page has restricted space, so headline writers are limited by the layout of the page. They often have to break grammatical rules and use nonstandard structure to produce a successful headline which can save space. As a result of that, English newspaper headlines are realized to be more phrases than sentences. In the form of phrases, English newspaper headlines are divided into three basic groups: verbal, nominal and adverbial headlines.

Nominal Headlines


Noun phrase is the most common form of newspaper headlines. The headlines consisting of a noun phrase are classified into five categories: pre-modified nominal headlines, post-modified nominal headlines, nominal headlines with both pre- and post-modification, coordinated and appositional nominal headlines and headlines with an omitted copula or linking verb (Mardh, 1980, p58).

Pre-modified nominal headlines:


  • Head: Noun/Pronoun.

  • Words used as Pre-modification include :

    • Pre-determiner

    • Identifiers.

    • Numeral/quantifier

    • Adjectives

    • Noun modifier

- Both definite and indefinite articles are also dropped in newspaper headlines

President Declares Celebration =The president has declared a celebration.
Passer-by Sees Woman Jump = A passer-by has seen a woman jump (into the river).

Here are some newspaper headlines in the form of noun phrases:


Deactivated firearms ban

Stab girl remand

A bitter blow

Shell shocker

Karz crash

No grammars

Artist's sand stunt

The comeback kid


Post-modified nominal headlines:


  • Head: noun/phrase

  • Post-modification mainly include

    • Non-finite clauses

    • Prepositional phrases

    • Relative clauses

Here are some newspaper headlines in the form of Post-modified nominal headlines:

Tribute to tragic Stephanie

The soldier who saw hell

Scandal of patients left for hours outside A&E

Love at first bite

Nominal headlines with both pre- and post-modification


Here are some newspaper headlines in the form of both pre- and post-modification nominal headlines:

Canoe couple in court snub

New raps for Mr & Mrs Canoe

Teen dad in suicide tragedy

No charges over root death

New bid to find footballer killer

Natasha Hogan's fury at balcony leap dad let off

No safety in prison


Coordinated and appositional nominal headlines


Headlines in this form include two or more than two noun phrases which are at the same level and characterized by the conjunction “and/or”, comma.

Here are some newspaper headlines in this form:

Boris the smirker

Airport security and glaring complacency

No food, no freedom, no cash- and no end to their love of Fidel Castro

Jayne Torvill's heaven and hell

Gordon Ramsay's heaven and hell

No shame, no gain

Putin, the Kremlin power struggle and the $40bn fortune

Robert Plant and Alison Krauss

Grace and favor


Headlines With An Omitted Copula Or Linking Verb

Headlines which consist of a noun phrase functioning as a subject and a subject complement


Girls happier with make-up

Teen dead after park attack

Cocaine girls free by April

3 dead after New Zealand air collision

Britain ready to recognize Kosovo

Germany first to recognize independent Kosovo


Headlines which consist of a noun phrase functioning as a subject and an adverbial


Stab boy on the mend

Joshua Beasleyís body in Thames

Drivers in panic over fuel strike

Sarkozy Jr in bid to capture his father's old seat



One more thing concerning nominal newspaper headlines is the characteristic features of the block language, which is so frequently used by headline writers, is so called NOUN STRING OR JUXTAPOSITION. In the context of headline writing, juxtaposition is a connection of three or more nouns.

Here are some newspaper headlines in the form of a noun string:

Widow Pension Pay Committee

Landscaping Company Disturbance Regulations Mustang Referral Customer Complaint

Elderly care crisis warning


Verbal Headlines


A verbal headline contains a verb phrase or part of a verb phrase that is not dominated by a noun phrase (Mardh 1980). The main structural types of verbal headlines were classified o finite verb phrases, non-finite verb phrases.

Finite verb phrases


The special language of newspaper headlines are especially reflected in ones in the form of finite verb phrases. Here are some typical features:

There are a number of verb changes made to headlines. The most common are:


Simple tenses used instead of continuous or perfect forms.


Forgotten Brother Appears = A forgotten brother has appeared.

The infinitive verbs refer to future


Mayor to Open A shopping mall= the mayor is going to open a new shopping mall.

James Wood to Visit Ireland = James Wood is going to visit Ireland soon.


Auxiliary verbs are ommitted in the passive form


Man Killed in Accident= A Man has been killed in an accident.

Non-finite verb phrases


Non-finite verb phrases consist of a participle or infinitive, which may be followed by an object or an adverbial (Spears 1976).

Getting a Small Audience for Bad News.


Adjective Headlines


The next type of newspaper headlines is ones in the form of an adjective phrase.

(Pre-modification)+ Head+ (Complement).



Pre-modification: Adverbs

Head: Adjective

Complement:

  • Prepositional phrase

  • Infinitive phrase

  • That-clause

Example:

Ready to look like Oscar babe?

Proud to carry the flag of Kosovo

PHRASAL STRUCTURE IN VIETNAMESE NEWSPAPER HEADLINES

Vu Quang Hao (2001) has made a survey on Vietnamese newspaper headlines (particularly Nhan dan Chu nha 1992) and found out their structures as follow:

  • One-word-headline: E.g.: Mốt, Kẹt, Lòng tin, Sốt rét or proper names: Thúy Đạt, Cửa Lò. According to Vu Quang Hao (2001) this kind of headline is rarely used (making about 1. 6% of nearly 2.000 headlines surveyed).

  • Phrasal headline: 54,94% of the total surveyed headlines.

  • A sentence headline: This kind of headline is to inform accounting for 31,35%.

  • Headline is an idiom, proverb or folk song.( 1.18%)

According to the survey above, we can see that Phrasal headline is the most popular headline, composed of more than 50% of the total surveyed headlines. Phrasal headlines include verb phrase headlines, noun phrase headlines and adjective phrase headlines.

Nominal Headlines


Among phrasal headlines, noun phrase is the most widely used (41,02%).

NP in Vietnamese also has three main parts : Pre-Modification (Front Element), Head (Nucleus), Post-Modification (End Element).


Front elements


  • Quantifiers: tất cả, tất thảy, hết thảy, hết cả, cả,…

  • Definite numerals : một, hai, ba, bốn,…

  • Collective nouns : đàn, lũ, bó, bộ, nắm, …

Head:


  • A noun(boy, teacher, cat, house…)

  • A combination between a classifier (danh từ chỉ loại) and the head noun such as “con người”, “quyển sách”, “máy sấy”.

  • The head noun may be a classifier followed by a descriptive free word cluster

End element


  • Noun

  • Adjective

  • Verb

  • Numeral words

  • Idiom

E.g.

Lời nguyền của dòng sông



Một bệnh lạ ở cá

Những kỷ niệm nhỏ về thầy Đặng Thai Mai

Giá vàng tiếp tục giảm mạnh

Mối lo cháy nổ xe máy

Verbal Headlines


Verb phrase is less widely used than noun . Verb phrase in Vietnamese includes three elements:pre-additive element, central element, post-additive element.

Central element

Verb alone

Verbs that usually come with other verbs:


  • Modal verb + Verb

  • Passive: bị, phải, được…

  • Two parallel actions happening at the same time: ngồi nghỉ, nằm ngủ, đi học, đứng nhìn…

  • Verbs which always go with additive element

  • Verbs with sense of result: biết được, nhận ra, tìm thấy, nhìn thấy, tóm lấy, thu được…

  • Verbs with sense of moving:

Some verbs: Đi (đi xuống, đi ra, đi vào), bay (bay lên, bay xuống, bay đến, bay vào), chạy (chạy ra, chạy vào, chạy đến, chạy lên, chạy xuống), phóng (phóng tới,phóng đến, phóng vào), nhảy (nhảy qua, nhảy lại, nhảy tới), bước (bước tới, bước qua)…

  • .Verb with two objects:

Cho, đưa, tặng, biếu, xin, vay, mượn…

  • Verb with sense of mood

Some verbs in this group: lo âu, lo lắng, bồn chồn, thấp thỏm …

  • Combination of verbs

Some combinations: Chạy ngược chạy xuôi, chạy đôn chạy đáo, tính tới tính lui, chạy ra chạy vào, nói tới nói lui…

Pre-additive element:


Cứ. vẫn, mãi, lại, tiếp tục, thường, hay, chưa bao giờ, đôi khi, hiếm khi, thỉnh thoảng, đã, sẽ, sắp, từng, đang, vừa, không, chưa,chẳng, rất, khá, hơi, vô cùng…

Post-additive element


In term of meaning, post-additive element may have many types:

  • Order: tiến lên, chạy đi, ăn đi, học nào

  • Direction: tới (đi tới, bước tới…) vào (bay vào, chạy vào…), bước lùi, xuống (đi xuống,giảm xuống), lên (bay lên, đi lên, tăng lên …)

  • Process, state, end of action (nói mãi, chờ mãi…), rồi (biết rồi, đọc rồi…), ngay (đi ngay, đến ngay…), hoài(nhìn hoài, nghĩ hoài…), xong (ăn xong, làm xong)…

Example:

Đừng biến nông nghiệp thành nghành gia công

Giám sát lời hứa

Sẽ xử lý “ trường nghề đào tạo thạc sỹ”

Ra mắt Trung Tâm Manar

Adjective Headlines


Headline writers rarely use Adjective phrases. Like noun phrase & verb phrase, Adjective phrase has 3 elements: front element, head & post-additive element

Front element:


Front elements in Adjective phrase are like ones in Verb phrase, especially words indicating intensifiers and level frequently occur in Adjective phrase (rất, hơi, khí, cực kì, tuyệt, quá,…)

Head:


Adjective

Post-additive element:


Substantive( thực từ) or complement( bổ ngữ).

Example:

Dễ dãi liên thông

Thân thương hương vị chè bà cốt

Đặc sắc lễ hội Loy Krathong

Độc đáo trang phục thiếu nữ Dao

Lung linh “mùa thu ấm” nước Anh


NEWSPAPER HEADLINES IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE

Because of a common feature that a newspaper’s space is restricted and its nominative function, there are more similarities than differences between English and Vietnamese newspaper headlines. Both English and Vietnamese newspaper headlines are realized to be more phrases than sentences. In the form of phrases, English and Vietnamese newspaper headlines are divided into three basic groups: verbal, nominal and adjective headlines. Among 3 basic groups, the noun phrase are the most widely used in both Vietnamese and English headlines. Due to the differences between 2 languages, there are inevitable differences of newspaper headlines in English and Vietnamese. In term of a noun phrase, nominal newspaper headlines in English and Vietnamese generally have 3 parts: pre- modification, head and post-modification. However, English nominal newspaper headlines are mover diversified and include some special features: Drop both indefinite and definite articles and juxtaposition ( noun string) which do not occur in Vietnamese newspaper headlines. In the form of a verb phrase, there are a lot of verb changes in English newspaper headlines, such as :Simple tenses used instead of continuous or perfect forms (Vietnamese headline writers use pre-additive element “đang”), The infinitive form referring to the future( pre-additive element “sẽ/sắp/sắp sửa” in Vietnamese healines), Auxiliary verbs dropped in the passive form( “bị/được” in Vietnamese ones).
PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

Translating Newspaper Headlines From English Into Vietnamese

Translating news stories/articles from English to Vietnamese is a challenge for translators. However, translating the headlines of the news stories/article is much more challenging because the headlines, according to Vu Quang Hao( 2011), affect the fate of the whole news stories/articles. Below are some tips of translating a newspaper headline from English into Vietnamese in term of a phrase:


Adding Title


English newspaper headlines do not include titles of important people. Nevertheless, the translation would be poor without titles. Thus, in Vietnamese translation, all titles have to be added to ensure naturalness of the translation.

Example:

Rice to visit Asian countries later this month

(from voa.com, Oct 13th ,2006)

Ngoại trưởng Rice sẽ có một chuyến thăm tới các nước châu Á trong tháng này.

Adding Related Information:


According to Newmark (1988a: 155), communicative method is widely used in journal translation. This method allows translators to add related information and introduce some changes to make the translation comprehensible. English headlines convey limited information, which challenges readers. Also, a phrase plays the role of either subject or predicate in Vietnamese sentence. So more information is inserted into the phrases to make sentences with enough information.

Example:

Comparing cities

(from economist.com, Apr 2nd , 2008)

Thành phố nào đắt đỏ nhất thế giới?

Recovering Omitted Articles


As mentioned before, both definite and indefinite articles are dropped in the English newspaper headlines in the form of noun phrases. The omission of articles seems to pose no difficulty for readers in understand the headlines. However, Vietnamese numeral especially cardinal is very important to denote the number of nouns. If the cardinal is omitted, this can cause readers misunderstanding . As a result, omitted articles have to be recovered when translating a newspaper headline from English to Vietnamese.

Example:

UN official shot near Najaf

You have to translate:

Một nhân viên LHQ bị bắn not nhân viên LHQ bị bắn.

Reading Backward When Translating A Noun String


English newspaper headlines in the form of noun strings can be difficult because the words don't appear related by verbs or adjectives. In the case of noun strings, it's helpfu to connect the ideas by reading backward.

Example:

Mustang Referral Customer Complaint

By reading backwards, I can guess that: There is a complaint made by a customer about a referral program for Mustang cars.


Translating Omitted Auxiliary English Newspaper Headlines


When subjects of the English headlines are not specific or unknown, the headlines with omitted auxiliary are translated into finite verb phrases. For example, in the English headline Ancient graves found in Greece, the subject who found the ancient graves is not mentioned, so the headline is translated into finite verb phrase Phát hiện 1.000 ngôi mộ cổ ở Hi Lạp. Similarly in the headline Ralph Nader to run for president the subject is not well-known to Vietnamese readers, so the translated headline is finite verb phrase Thêm một gương mặt mới ra tranh cử tổng thống Mỹ.

The rule can be seen as follows:



All trapped miners rescued in South Africa and Giải cứu thành công 3.200 công nhân mắc kẹt dưới mỏ vàng

Remains of monster duck-billed dinosaur found in Utah and Phát hiện loài khủng long mỏ vịt “quái vật”


REFERENCES

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/Elenag77/the-language-of-headlines

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/Elenag77/the-language-of-headlines.htm

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://dspace.upce.cz/BITSTREAM/10195/34683.htm

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.headlinespot.com/international/asiapacific/vietnam.htm



Hạo, V. Q. (2010). Ngôn Ngữ Báo Chí. Hà Nội: Nhà Xuất Bản Giáo Dục.

Toán, B. M. (2003). Tiếng Việt Thực Hành. Hà Nội: Nhà Xuất Bản Giáo Dục.




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