PHRASAL STRUCTURE IN VIETNAMESE AND ENGLISH NEWSPAPER HEADLINES
NGUYEN THI PHUONG LAN
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH
HO CHI MINH UNIVERSITY OF PEDAGOGY
INSTRUCTOR: PHD. NGUYEN NGOC VU
HO CHI MINH CITY, DECEMBER, 2011
PHRASAL STRUCTURE IN VIETNAMESE AND ENGLISH NEWSPAPER HEADLINES 0
NGUYEN THI PHUONG LAN 0
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH 0
HO CHI MINH UNIVERSITY OF PEDAGOGY 0
INSTRUCTOR: PHD. NGUYEN NGOC VU 0
HO CHI MINH CITY, DECEMBER, 2011 0
PHRASAL STRUCTURE IN ENGLISH NEWSPAPER HEADLINES 4
Nominal Headlines 5
Pre-modified nominal headlines: 5
Here are some newspaper headlines in the form of noun phrases: 5
Post-modified nominal headlines: 6
Nominal headlines with both pre- and post-modification 7
Coordinated and appositional nominal headlines 7
Headlines With An Omitted Copula Or Linking Verb 8
Headlines which consist of a noun phrase functioning as a subject and a subject complement 8
Headlines which consist of a noun phrase functioning as a subject and an adverbial 8
Verbal Headlines 9
Finite verb phrases 9
Simple tenses used instead of continuous or perfect forms. 9
The infinitive verbs refer to future 9
Auxiliary verbs are ommitted in the passive form 10
Non-finite verb phrases 10
Adjective Headlines 10
PHRASAL STRUCTURE IN VIETNAMESE NEWSPAPER HEADLINES 11
Nominal Headlines 11
Front elements 12
End element 12
Verbal Headlines 13
Central element 13
Verb alone 13
Verbs that usually come with other verbs: 13
Pre-additive element: 14
Post-additive element 14
Adjective Headlines 15
Front element: 15
Post-additive element: 15
NEWSPAPER HEADLINES IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE 15
PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 16
Adding Title 17
Adding Related Information: 17
Recovering Omitted Articles 18
Reading Backward When Translating A Noun String 18
Translating Omitted Auxiliary English Newspaper Headlines 19
In the age of information and technology, many people consider mass media in general and newspapers in particular as indispensable things in their lives. Newspapers help us getting updated with the latest events over the world. Nowadays, thanks to the internet, we can get access to a variety of newspapers in different languages, especially in English. However, the problem is that many people find English newspaper headlines too difficult to understand. Also, many students often face a big challenge of translating newspaper headlines from English into Vietnamese. Therefore, in this paper, I do a contrastive analysis of “PHRASAL STRUCTURE IN VIETNAMESE AND ENGLISH NEWSPAPER HEADLINES” with the aim of giving people some ideas of how to understand English newspaper headlines comparing to Vietnamese ones and the pedagogical application of how to translate newspaper headlines from English into Vietnamese.
Newspaper writers often use a special language in his papers and this is the most obvious with the headlines. A newspaper page has restricted space, so headline writers are limited by the layout of the page. They often have to break grammatical rules and use nonstandard structure to produce a successful headline which can save space. As a result of that, English newspaper headlines are realized to be more phrases than sentences. In the form of phrases, English newspaper headlines are divided into three basic groups: verbal, nominal and adverbial headlines.
Noun phrase is the most common form of newspaper headlines. The headlines consisting of a noun phrase are classified into five categories: pre-modified nominal headlines, post-modified nominal headlines, nominal headlines with both pre- and post-modification, coordinated and appositional nominal headlines and headlines with an omitted copula or linking verb (Mardh, 1980, p58).
Pre-modified nominal headlines:
Words used as Pre-modification include :
- Both definite and indefinite articles are also dropped in newspaper headlines
President Declares Celebration=The president has declared a celebration.
Passer-by Sees Woman Jump = A passer-by has seen a woman jump (into the river).
Here are some newspaper headlines in the form of noun phrases:
Headlines which consist of a noun phrase functioning as a subject and an adverbial
Stab boy on the mend
Joshua Beasleyís body in Thames
Drivers in panic over fuel strike
Sarkozy Jr in bid to capture his father's old seat
One more thing concerning nominal newspaper headlines is the characteristic features of the block language, which is so frequently used by headline writers, is so called NOUN STRING OR JUXTAPOSITION. In the context of headline writing, juxtaposition is a connection of three or more nouns.
Here are some newspaper headlines in the form of a noun string:
A verbal headline contains a verb phrase or part of a verb phrase that is not dominated by a noun phrase (Mardh 1980). The main structural types of verbal headlines were classified o finite verb phrases, non-finite verb phrases.
Finite verb phrases
The special language of newspaper headlines are especially reflected in ones in the form of finite verb phrases. Here are some typical features:
There are a number of verb changes made to headlines. The most common are:
Simple tenses used instead of continuous or perfect forms.
Forgotten Brother Appears = A forgotten brother has appeared.
The infinitive verbs refer to future
Mayor to Open A shopping mall= the mayor is going to open a new shopping mall.
James Wood to Visit Ireland = James Wood is going to visit Ireland soon.
Auxiliary verbs are ommitted in the passive form
Man Killed in Accident= A Man has been killed in an accident.
Non-finite verb phrases
Non-finite verb phrases consist of a participle or infinitive, which may be followed by an object or an adverbial (Spears 1976).
Getting a Small Audience for Bad News.
The next type of newspaper headlines is ones in the form of an adjective phrase.
(Pre-modification)+ Head+ (Complement).
Ready to look like Oscar babe?
Proud to carry the flag of Kosovo
PHRASAL STRUCTURE IN VIETNAMESE NEWSPAPER HEADLINES
Vu Quang Hao (2001) has made a survey on Vietnamese newspaper headlines (particularly Nhan dan Chu nha 1992) and found out their structures as follow:
One-word-headline: E.g.: Mốt, Kẹt, Lòng tin, Sốt rét or proper names: Thúy Đạt, Cửa Lò. According to Vu Quang Hao (2001) this kind of headline is rarely used (making about 1. 6% of nearly 2.000 headlines surveyed).
Phrasal headline: 54,94% of the total surveyed headlines.
A sentence headline: This kind of headline is to inform accounting for 31,35%.
Headline is an idiom, proverb or folk song.( 1.18%)
According to the survey above, we can see that Phrasal headline is the most popular headline, composed of more than 50% of the total surveyed headlines. Phrasal headlines include verb phrase headlines, noun phrase headlines and adjective phrase headlines.
Among phrasal headlines, noun phrase is the most widely used (41,02%).
NP in Vietnamese also has three main parts : Pre-Modification (Front Element), Head (Nucleus), Post-Modification (End Element).
In term of meaning, post-additive element may have many types:
Order: tiến lên, chạy đi, ăn đi, học nào…
Direction: tới (đi tới, bước tới…) vào (bay vào, chạy vào…), bước lùi, xuống (đi xuống,giảm xuống), lên (bay lên, đi lên, tăng lên …)
Process, state, end of action (nói mãi, chờ mãi…), rồi (biết rồi, đọc rồi…), ngay (đi ngay, đến ngay…), hoài(nhìn hoài, nghĩ hoài…), xong (ăn xong, làm xong)…
Đừng biến nông nghiệp thành nghành gia công
Giám sát lời hứa
Sẽ xử lý “ trường nghề đào tạo thạc sỹ”
Ra mắt Trung Tâm Manar
Headline writers rarely use Adjective phrases. Like noun phrase & verb phrase, Adjective phrase has 3 elements: front element, head & post-additive element
Front elements in Adjective phrase are like ones in Verb phrase, especially words indicating intensifiers and level frequently occur in Adjective phrase (rất, hơi, khí, cực kì, tuyệt, quá,…)
Substantive( thực từ) or complement( bổ ngữ).
Dễ dãi liên thông
Thân thương hương vị chè bà cốt
Đặc sắc lễ hội Loy Krathong
Độc đáo trang phục thiếu nữ Dao
Lung linh “mùa thu ấm” nước Anh
NEWSPAPER HEADLINES IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE
Because of a common feature that a newspaper’s space is restricted and its nominative function, there are more similarities than differences between English and Vietnamese newspaper headlines. Both English and Vietnamese newspaper headlines are realized to be more phrases than sentences. In the form of phrases, English and Vietnamese newspaper headlines are divided into three basic groups: verbal, nominal and adjective headlines. Among 3 basic groups, the noun phrase are the most widely used in both Vietnamese and English headlines. Due to the differences between 2 languages, there are inevitable differences of newspaper headlines in English and Vietnamese. In term of a noun phrase, nominal newspaper headlines in English and Vietnamese generally have 3 parts: pre- modification, head and post-modification. However, English nominal newspaper headlines are mover diversified and include some special features: Drop both indefinite and definite articles and juxtaposition ( noun string) which do not occur in Vietnamese newspaper headlines. In the form of a verb phrase, there are a lot of verb changes in English newspaper headlines, such as :Simple tenses used instead of continuous or perfect forms (Vietnamese headline writers use pre-additive element “đang”), The infinitive form referring to the future( pre-additive element “sẽ/sắp/sắp sửa” in Vietnamese healines), Auxiliary verbs dropped in the passive form( “bị/được” in Vietnamese ones).
Translating Newspaper Headlines From English Into Vietnamese
Translating news stories/articles from English to Vietnamese is a challenge for translators. However, translating the headlines of the news stories/article is much more challenging because the headlines, according to Vu Quang Hao( 2011), affect the fate of the whole news stories/articles. Below are some tips of translating a newspaper headline from English into Vietnamese in term of a phrase:
English newspaper headlines do not include titles of important people. Nevertheless, the translation would be poor without titles. Thus, in Vietnamese translation, all titles have to be added to ensure naturalness of the translation.
Rice to visit Asian countries later this month
(from voa.com, Oct 13th ,2006)
Ngoại trưởng Rice sẽ có một chuyến thăm tới các nước châu Á trong tháng này.
Adding Related Information:
According to Newmark (1988a: 155), communicative method is widely used in journal translation. This method allows translators to add related information and introduce some changes to make the translation comprehensible. English headlines convey limited information, which challenges readers. Also, a phrase plays the role of either subject or predicate in Vietnamese sentence. So more information is inserted into the phrases to make sentences with enough information.
(from economist.com, Apr 2nd , 2008)
Thành phố nào đắt đỏ nhất thế giới?
Recovering Omitted Articles
As mentioned before, both definite and indefinite articles are dropped in the English newspaper headlines in the form of noun phrases. The omission of articles seems to pose no difficulty for readers in understand the headlines. However, Vietnamese numeral especially cardinal is very important to denote the number of nouns. If the cardinal is omitted, this can cause readers misunderstanding . As a result, omitted articles have to be recovered when translating a newspaper headline from English to Vietnamese.
UN official shot near Najaf
You have to translate:
Một nhân viên LHQ bị bắn not nhân viên LHQ bị bắn.
Reading Backward When Translating A Noun String
English newspaper headlines in the form of noun strings can be difficult because the words don't appear related by verbs or adjectives. In the case of noun strings, it's helpfu to connect the ideas by reading backward.
Mustang Referral Customer Complaint
By reading backwards, I can guess that: There is a complaint made by a customer about a referral program for Mustang cars.
When subjects of the English headlines are not specific or unknown, the headlines with omitted auxiliary are translated into finite verb phrases. For example, in the English headline Ancient graves found in Greece, the subject who found the ancient graves is not mentioned, so the headline is translated into finite verb phrase Phát hiện 1.000 ngôi mộ cổ ở Hi Lạp. Similarly in the headline Ralph Nader to run for president the subject is not well-known to Vietnamese readers, so the translated headline is finite verb phrase Thêm một gương mặt mới ra tranh cử tổng thống Mỹ.
The rule can be seen as follows:
All trapped miners rescued in South Africa and Giải cứu thành công 3.200 công nhân mắc kẹt dưới mỏ vàng
Remains of monster duck-billed dinosaur found in Utah and Phát hiện loài khủng long mỏ vịt “quái vật”
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/Elenag77/the-language-of-headlines
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/Elenag77/the-language-of-headlines.htm
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://dspace.upce.cz/BITSTREAM/10195/34683.htm
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.headlinespot.com/international/asiapacific/vietnam.htm
Hạo, V. Q. (2010). Ngôn Ngữ Báo Chí. Hà Nội: Nhà Xuất Bản Giáo Dục.
Toán, B. M. (2003). Tiếng Việt Thực Hành. Hà Nội: Nhà Xuất Bản Giáo Dục.