Lo¹i 2 : BÞ ®éng víi c¸c th× tiÕp diÔn.
D¹ng nµy cã c«ng thøc tæng qu¸t sau:
BE + BEING + PAST PARTICIPLE
Lo¹i 1 ¸p dông cho s¸u th× bÞ ®éng kh«ng tiÕp diÔn vµ lo¹i 2 ¸p dông cho s¸u th× bÞ ®éng tiÕp diÔn. Nhng trong phÇn nµy t«i chØ giíi thiÖu nh÷ng th× häc sinh ®· häc trong ch¬ng tr×nh , phôc vô cho thi häc k× vµ thi tèt nghiÖpTHPT bao gåm bèn th× bÞ ®éng kh«ng tiÕp diÔn lµ: th× hiÖn t¹i ®¬n , th× qu¸ khø ®¬n , th× hiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh ,th× t¬ng lai ®¬n , bÞ ®éng víi ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu vµ hai th× bÞ ®éng tiÕp diÔn lµ : HiÖn t¹i tiÕp diÔn vµ qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn.
Lo¹i 1 : BÞ ®éng kh«ng tiÕp diÔn.
1)Th× hiÖn t¹i ®¬n:
Active: They raise cows in Ba Vi.
Passive: Cows are raised in Ba Vi.
2)Th× qu¸ khø ®¬n:
S + was / were + Past Participle
Active : Jame Watt invented the steam engine in 1784.
Passive : The steam engine was invented by Jame Watt in 1784.
3)Th× hiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh:
S + have/ has been + Past Participle
Active: They have just finished the project.
Passive: The project has just been finished.
4)Th× t¬ng lai ®¬n:
S + will be + Past Participle
Active:They will build a new school for disabled children next month.
Passive: A new school for disabled children will be built next month.
5. §éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu.
S + Modal Verb + be + Past Participle.
Active : You can see him now.
Passive : He can be seen (by you) now.
Active : He should type his term paper.
Passive : His term paper should be typed.
Lo¹i 2: BÞ ®éng tiÕp diÔn.
1) Th× hiÖn t¹i tiÕp diÔn:
S + am / is / are +being + Past Participle
Active: Ann is writing a letter.
Passive: A letter is being written by Ann
2) Th× qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn:
S + was / were + being + Past Participle
Active: She was cleaning the room at 7 a.m yesterday.
Passive: The room was being cleaned at 7 a.m yesterday.
III. C¸ch chuyÓn tõ c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng.
Muèn chuyÓn tõ c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng häc sinh cÇn n¾m ch¾c c¸c bíc chuyÓn sau ®©y:
X¸c ®Þnh t©n ng÷ trong c©u chñ ®éng , chuyÓn nã thµnh chñ ng÷ trong c©u bÞ ®éng.
- X¸c ®Þnh th× cña ®éng tõ trong c©u chñ ®éng, chia “to be” t¬ng øng víi th× tiÕng Anh ®ã vµ víi chñ ng÷ míi cña c©u bÞ ®éng.
- Chia ®éng tõ chÝnh trong c©u chñ ®éng ë d¹ng past participle trong c©u bÞ ®éng.
- By+ t¸c nh©n g©y hµnh ®éng ( khi muèn nhÊn m¹nh t¸c nh©n g©y hµnh ®éng)
S + V + O
S + V (participle) + O
They will finish this work tomorrow.
S V O
This work will befinished (by them) tomorrow.
Trong phÇn nµy cÇn lu ý häc sinh mét sè vÊn ®Ò sau:
- C¸c tr¹ng tõ chØ c¸ch thøc thêng ®îc ®Æt tríc ®éng tõ ph©n tõ hai trong c©u bÞ ®éng.
Eg: He wrote the book wonderfully.
The book was wonderfully written.
- By + t¸c nh©n g©y hµnh ®éng ®øng sau tr¹ng ng÷ chØ n¬i chèn vµ ®øng tríc tr¹ng ng÷ chØ thêi gian.
Eg1: A passer- by took him home.
He was taken home by a passer- by.
Eg2: We will receive the gifts on Monday.
The gifts will be received by us on Monday.
- C©u bÞ ®éng phñ ®Þnh vµ nghi vÊn ®îc t¹o gièng nh c¸ch cña c©u chñ ®éng.
Tuy nhiªn kh«ng ph¶i bÊt cø c©u nµo còng cã thÓ chuyÓn tõ chñ ®éng sang bÞ ®éng hoÆc ngîc l¹i. §iÒu kiÖn ®Ó chuyÓn mét c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng lµ c©u ®ã ph¶i cã mét transitive verb ( ®éng tõ ngo¹i híng). C©u cã intransitive verb ( ®éng tõ néi híng) th× kh«ng thÓ chuyÓn sang c©u bÞ ®éng. §éng tõ ngo¹i híng lµ ®éng tõ cÇn mét t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp trong khi ®éng tõ néi híng th× kh«ng cÇn mét t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp.
Eg: 1) She is making a cake. A cake is being made by her.
2) They run along the beach every morning.
C¸c d¹ng ®Æc biÖt cña c©u bÞ ®éng.
ViÖc chuyÓn ®æi tõ c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng hoµn toµn tuú thuéc vµo cÊu tróc c©u do ®ã c¸ch tèt nhÊt ®Ó n¾m v÷ng c¸ch chuyÓn ®æi lµ xem xet nã díi cÊp ®é c¸c mÉu c©u ®· biÕt.
1.MÉu c©u : S + V + O (C, A)
Trong mÉu c©u nµy t©n ng÷ cã thÓ lµ mét danh tõ, côm tõ hoÆc ®¹i tõ.
H·y xÐt mét sè vÝ dô sau:
S + V + O
Eg: Active: Her mother is cleaning the kitchen.
Passive: The kitchen is being cleaned by her mother.
S + V + O + C
Eg: They called him Mr. Angry.
He was called Mr. Angry.
S + V + O + A
Eg: He put the table in the corner.
The table was put in the corner.
S + V + O + O
2. MÉu c©u :
§èi víi c©u cã hai t©n ng÷, chóng ta cã thÓdïng mét trong hai t©n ng÷ chuyÓn thµnh chñ ng÷ trong c©u bÞ ®éng. Tuy nhiªn, t©n ng÷ chØ ngêi thêng hay ®îc sö dông nhiÒu h¬n.
Eg: We gave him a nice present on his birthday.
- C¸ch chuyÓn thø nhÊt: He was given a nice present on his birthday.
- C¸ch chuyÓn thø hai : CÇn thªm mét giíi tõ.
A nice present was given to him on his birthday.
Cã hai giíi tõ cã thÓ ®îc dïng trong trêng hîp nµy lµ : to, for.
Mét sè ®éng tõ dïng víi ‘to’: give, bring, send, show, write, post, pass…
Mét sè ®éng tõ dïng víi ‘for’ : buy, make, cook, keep, find, get, save, order ………..
Eg1 : She didn’t show me this special camera.
This camera wasn’t shown to me.
Eg 2: She is making him a cup of tea.
A cup of tea is being made for him.
3. C©u bÞ ®éng víi c¸c ®éng tõ têng thuËt.
C¸c ®éng tõ têng thuËt thêng ®îc dïng ®Ó têng thuËt l¹i c¸c c©u nãi, ý nghÜ, c©u hái , yªu cÇu, lêi xin lçi ……… Mét sè ®éng tõ têng thuËt thêng gÆp lµ : say, think, know, believe, ask, tell, promise….
Cã hai cÊu tróc liªn quan ®Õn ®éng tõ têng thuËt:
S + V + Oi + that clause.
MÉu c©u : Active:
S (Oi) + be past participle + that clause.
Eg: He told me that you had a new bike.
I was told that you had a new bike.
S + V + that + clause.
MÉu c©u nµy cã hai c¸ch chuyÓn sang d¹ng bÞ ®éng:
C¸ch 1 : dïng chñ ng÷ gi¶ “it”
Eg: People think that I am the best student in my class.
It is thought that I am the best student in my class.
C¸ch 2 : dïng chñ ng÷ cña mÖnh ®Ò that vµ sö dông d¹ng nguyªn mÉu cña ®éng tõ. ë vÝ dô trªn , cã c¸ch chuyÓn thø hai lµ:
Eg: I am thought to be the best student in my class.
ë c¸ch chuyÓn thø hai , cã thÓ dïng 3 d¹ng nguyªn mÉu cña ®éng tõ:
1) To- inf: khi hµnh ®éng x¶y ra ë mÖnh ®Ò that diÔn ra cïng th× hoÆc diÔn ra sau hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò têng thuËt.
2) nguyªn mÉu tiÕp diÔn: to be ving, khi hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò that ë th× tiÕp diÔn , cßn hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò têng thuËt ë th× ®¬n gi¶n, cïng bËc.
3)nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh: to have done, khi hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò that x¶y ra tríc hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò têng thuËt.
Eg1: People say that he is a rich man.
He is said to be a rich man.
Eg2: They think that she is living there.
She is thought to be living there.
Eg3: They said that Tom had left home before the weekend.
Tom was said to have left home before the weekend.
4. C©u mÖnh lÖnh.
Active: V + O + Adjunct
Passive: Let +O + be past participle + Adjunct.
Khi chuyÓn c©u mÖnh lÖnh sang c©u bÞ ®éng ta sö dông cÊu tróc sau:
Eg: Take off your hat!
Let your hat be taken off!
Ngoµi c¸ch trªn, cßn mét c¸ch kh¸c ®Ó chuyÓn c©u mÖnh lÖnh sang c©u bÞ ®éng nhng Ýt dïng h¬n. §ã lµ:
S + am/ is/ are + to be + past participle
HoÆc S should be + past participle
Eg: Active: Look after the children please!
Passive: The children should be looked after!
HoÆc : The children are to be looked after!
5. WH- question.
§èi víi nh÷ng c©u hái cã tõ ®Ó hái, chóng ta cã thÓ chia lµm hai lo¹i:
Lo¹i 1: Tõ ®Ó hái cã chøc n¨ng lµ t©n ng÷ trong c©u chñ ®éng. Víi d¹ng c©u hái nµy viÖc chuyÓn sang c©u bÞ ®éng rÊt ®¬n gi¶n v× tõ ®Ó hái ®ã sÏ cã chøc n¨ng lµ chñ ng÷ trong c©u bÞ ®éng.
Eg: Active: How many languages do they speak in Canada?
Passive: How many languages are spoken in Canada?
Lo¹i 2: Tõ ®Ó hái cã chøc n¨ng lµ chñ ng÷ trong c©u chñ ®éng khi chuyÓn sang c©u bÞ ®éng, nã sÏ cã vai trß lµ t©n ng÷ trong c©u. Khi ®ã, ta sÏ cã hai c¸ch chuyÓn. HoÆc chuyÓn By lªn ®Çu c©u( tõ ®Ó hái sÏ ë d¹ng t©n ng÷) hoÆc ®Ó By ë cuèi c©u.
Eg: Who wrote this novel ?
Who was this novel written by?
HoÆc: By whom was this novel written?
S + V + O + Ving
6. CÊu tróc :
Cã hai trêng hîp x¶y ra:
T©n ng÷ cña Ving cïng chØ mét ®èi tîng víi chñ ng÷ cña c©u:
Eg: He kept me waiting.
-> I was kept waiting ( by him).
T©n ng÷ cña Ving kh«ng chØ mét ®èi tîng víi chñ ng÷ cña c©u:
Eg : He hates people looking at him.
=> He hates being looked at ( by people).
S + V + O ( to) + V
7. CÊu tróc :
S + V + O + to + V
- Khi t©n ng÷ kh«ng cïng ®èi tîng víi chñ ng÷.
Eg : We asked him to do it.
-> He was asked to do it.
- Khi t©n ng÷ cïng ®èi tîng víi chñ ng÷.
Eg : She would love someone to take her out to dinner.
-> She would love to be taken out to dinner.
S + V + O + V( without to)
Khi chuyÓn sang c©u bÞ ®éng chóng ta dïng To-infinitive trõ ®éng tõ “let”.
Eg : We heard him sing this song.
-> He was heard to sing this song.
Nhng : They let us go home.
-> We were let go home.
HoÆc : We were allowed to go home.
Have / get something done. ( dạng nhờ bảo ).
. CÊu tróc
a. Víi have.
Active : S + have + Object( person) + bare infinitive + Object.
Passive : S + have + Object ( thing) + Past Participle (+ by + Object( person))
I has him repair my bicycle yesterday.
-> I had my bicycle repaired yesterday.
Active: S + get + O (person) + to infinitive + O ( thing)
Passive : S + get + O (thing) + Past participle (+by + O(person))
I get her to make some coffee.
-> I get some coffee made.
* PHẦN II: BÀI TẬP VẬN DỤNG
Exercise1: Chän ®¸p ¸n ®óng nhÊt ®Ó hoµn thµnh nh÷ng c©u sau:
1. My wedding ring ………… of yellow and white gold.
a. is made b. is making c. made d. maked
2. If your brother ………………., he would come.
a. invited b. were invited c. were inviting d. invite
3. Mr. Wilson is …………… as Wilie to his friend.
a. knowed b. knew c. known d. is known
4. References …………. in the examination room.
a. not are used b. is not used c. didn’t used d. are not used
5. Laura ………….. in Boston.
a. are born b. were born c. was born d. born
6. My nother is going …………… this house.
a. sold b. to be sold c. to sold d. to sell
7.There’s somebody hehind us . I think we are ……………….
a. being followed b. are followed c. follow d. following
8. Have you …………….. by a dog?
a. bite b. ever been bit c. ever been bitten d. bit
9.The room is being ………….. at the moment.
a. was cleaned b. cleaned c. cleaning d. clean
10. The road to our village …………. widened next year.
a. is b. will c. can d. will be
Exercise 2: Chän c©u cã cïng nghÜa víi c©u ®· cho b»ng c¸ch chän a, b, c hoÆc d.
1.Somebody cleans that room everyday.
a. The room every day is cleaned.
b. The room is everyday cleaned.
c. The room is cleaned every day.
d. The room is cleaned by somebody everyday.
2. They cancelled all flights because of fog.
a. All flights because of fog were cancelled.
b. All flights were cancelled because of fog.
c. All flights were cancelled by them because of fog.
d. All flights were because of fog cancelled.
3.They are building a new highway around the city.
a. A new highway is being built around the city.
b. A new highway is being built around the city by them.
c. A new highway around the city is being built.
d. Around the city a new highway is being built.
4.They have built a new hospital near the airport.
a. A new hospital has been built near the airport by them.
b. A new hospital near the airport has been built.
c. A new hospital has been built near the airport .
d. Near the airport a new hospital has been built by them.
5. They will ask you a lot of questions at the interview.
a. You will be asked a lot of questions at the interview.
b. You will be asked a lot of questions at the interview by them.
c. A lot of questions will be asked you at the interview.
d. A lot of questions will be asked at the interview.
6. People don’t use this road very often.
a. This road is not used very often.
b. Not very often this road is not used.
c. This road very often is not used.
d. This road not very often is used.
7. Somebody accused me of stealing money.
a. I was accused by somebody of stealing money.
b. I was accused of stealing money.
c. I was accused of stealing money by somebody.
d. I was accused stealing money.
8. Somebody is using the computer at the moment.
a. The computer is being used at the moment.
b. The computer at the moment is being used.
c. The computer is being used by somebody at the moment.
d. The computer is used at the moment.
9. The bill includes service.
a. Service is included by the bill.
b. Service included in the bill.
c. Service is included in the bill.
d. Service is in the bill.
10. They have changed the date of the meeting.
a. The date of the meeting has been changed.
b. The date of the meeting has been changed by them.
c. The meeting has been changed the date.
d. The date of the meeting has changed.
Exercise 3. Chän ®¸p ¸n ®óng nhÊt ®Ó hoµn thµnh nh÷ng c©u sau:
1. The old lady was ……….exhausted after the long walk.
a. very b. aboslutely c. pretty d. fairly.
2. The old man is said…………….all his money to an old people’s home when he died.
a. to leave b. to leaving c. have left d. to have left.
3. Nobody was injured in the accident , …………?
a. was there b. was he c. were they d. weren’t they.
4. Renoir’s paintings ……….. masterpieces all over the world.
a. had considered b. are considered c. are considering d. consider.
5. He was advised…………singing lessons.
a. take b. taken c. taking d. to take.
6. You’d better get someone…………your living room.
a. redecorate b. redecorated c. to redecorate d. redecorating.
7. When…………..? In 1928.
a. penicillin was discovered b. did pencillin discoved.
c. was penicillin disscoverd d. did pencillin discover.
8. I don’t remember……………..of the decision to change the company policy on vacations.
a. telling b. being told c. to tell d. to be told.
9. The children ……………to the zoo.
a. were enjoyed taken b. enjoyed being taken
c. were enjoyed taking d. enjoyed taking.
10. A new bike was bought ………….him on his birthday.
a. to b. for c. with d. on.
11. His car needs ……………….
a. be fixed b. fixing c. to be fixing d. fixed.
12. Her watch needs…………….
a. reparing b. to be repaired c. repaired d. a&b.
13. He was said……………….this building.
a. designing b. to have designed c. to designs d. designed
14. Ted………….by a bee while he was sitting in the garden.
a. got sting b. got stung c. get stung d. gets stung
15. Let the children…………..taken to the cinema.
a. to b. be c. to be d. being.
Exercise 4 : Chän c©u cã cïng nghÜa víi c©u ®· cho b»ng c¸ch chän a, b, c hoÆc d.
1. It has been said that UFO sightings are increasing.
a. People say that UFO sightings are increasing. b. people have said that UFO sightings are increasing.
c. That UFO sightings are increasing is true. d. UFO has been said to be inreasing.
2. He is getting them mend the windows.
a. He’s having the windows to mend. b. He’s having to mend the windows.
c. He’s having to be mended the windows. d. He is having the windows mended.
3. They made her hand over her passport.
a. She was made to hand over her passport. b. She was made hand over her passport.
c. She was handed over to make her passport. d. She was handed over for her passport to make.
4. Don’t let the others see you.
a. Don’t let you to be seen. b. Don’t let yourself be seen.
c. You aren’t to be seen by the others. d. Both a &c allowed.
5. They say that many people are homeless after the tsunami.
a. They say many people to have been homeless after the tsunami.
b. They say many piople to bbe homeless after the tsunami.
c. Many people are said to have been homeless after the tsunami.
d. Many people are said to be homeless after the tsunami.
6. They know that the Prime Minister is in favour of the new law.
a. The Prime minister is known to have been in favour of the new law.
b. They know the Prime Minister to be in favour of the new law.
c. The Prime Minister is known to be in favour of the new law.
d. They know the Prime Minister to have been in favour of the new law.
7. They expect that the government will lose the election.
a. The government is expected to have lost the election.
b. The government is expected to lose the election.
c. They expect the government to lose the election.
d. They expect the government have lost election.
8. I didn’t realize that somebody was recording our conversation.
a. I didn’t realize that our conversation was recorded.
b. I didn’t realize that our conversation was being recorded.
c. I didn’t realize that our conversation was being recorded by someone.
d. Our conversation wasn’t realized to be recorded.
9. They never made us do anything we didn’t want to do.
a. We are never made to do anything we didn’t want to do.
b. We were never made to do anything we didn’t want to do.
c. We have never made to do anything we didn’t want to do.
d. We had never made to do anything we didn’t want to do.
10. Brian told me that somebody had attacked him in the street.
a. I was told by Brian that somebody had attacked him in the street.
b. I was told by Brian that he had been attacked in the street.
c. Brian told me to have been attacked in the street.
d. Brian told me that he had been attacked in the street.
All bottles _________ before transportation. A. frozen B. is frozen C. was frozen D. were frozen
Everything that _________ remained a secret.
A. had be overheard B. had been overheard C. had been overheared D. would had been overheard
Everything ___________. A. were forbidden B. is forbidden C. is forbidded D. are forbidden
A. are going to be forgotten B. is going to be forgotten C. is going to be forgot D. were going to be forgotten
I___________________________. A. have not given the money B. have not been given the money
C. have not been give the money D. have not be given the money
It _______ for years. A. has not be known B. had not been known C. had not be known D. have not been known
It _________ that learning English is easy. A. are said B. said C. is said D. is sayed
John and Ann___________________________.
A. were not mislead B. were not misleeded C. was not misled D. were not misled
Our horses ________. A. are well feeded B. are well fed C. is well fed D. is well feeded
Peter and Tom _________ in an accident yesterday.
A. is hurt B. is hurted C. were hurt D. were hurted
South Florida and HawaiI _________ by a hurricane.
A. is hit B. have been hit C. have are hit D. has been hit
The battles _________ for liberation .
A. had be fought B. had been fighted C. had been fought D. has been fought
We can’t go along here because the road........................
A. is repairing B. is repaired C. is being repaired D. repairs
The story I’ve just read_________ Agatha Christie.
A. was written B. was written by C. was written from D. wrote by
I’m going to go out and_________
A. have cut my hair B. have my hair cut C. cut my hair D. my hair be cut
Something funny_________ in class yesterday.
A. happened B. was happened C. happens D. is happened
Many US automobiles_________ in Detroit, Michigan
A. manufacture B. have manufactured C. are manufactured D. are manufacturing
A lot of pesticide residue can_________ unwashed produce.
A. find B. found C. be finding D. be found
We_________ by a loud noise during the night.
A. woke up B. are woken up C. were woken up D. were waking up
Some film stars_________ difficult to work with.
A. are said be B. are said to be C. say to be D. said to be
Why did Tom keep making jokes about me? – I don’t enjoy_________ at.
A. be laughed B. to be laughed C. laughing D. being laughed
Today, many serious childhood diseases_________ by early immunization.[ sự miễn dịch]
A. are preventing B. can prevent C. prevent D. can be prevented
Do you get your heating_________ every year?
A. checking B. check C. be checked D. checked
Bicycles_________ in the driveway.
A. must not leave B. must not be leaving C. must not be left D. must not have left
Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony_________ next weekend.[ Symphony: khúc giao hưởng]
A. is going to be performed B. has been performed C. will be performing D. will have perform
All bottles_________ before transportation.
A. frozen B. were froze C. were frozen D. are froze
___________________________.yet? A. Have the letters been typed B. Have been the letters typed
C. Have the letters typed D. Had the letters typed
English has become a second language in countries like India, Nigeria or Singapore where `_________ for administration, broadcasting and education.
A. is used B. it is used C. used D. being used
The telephones_________ by Alexander Graham Bell.
A. is invented B. is inventing C. invented D. was invented
Lots of houses_________ by the earthquake.
A. are destroying B. destroyed C. were destroyed D. is destroyed
Gold_________ in California in the 19th century.
A. was discovered B. has been discovered C. was discover D. they discover
The preparation_________ by the time the guest_________
A. had been finished- arrived B. have finished- arrived
C. had finished-were arriving D. have been finished- were arrived
The boy_________ by the teacher yesterday.
A. punish B. punished C. punishing D. was punished
“Ms Jones, please type those letters before noon”_ “They’ve already ______, sir. They’re on your desk.”
A. typed B. been being typed C. being typed D. been typed
Sarah is wearing a blouse. It___________ of cotton.
A. be made B. are made C. is made D. made
They had a boy _________ that yesterday. A. done B. to do C. did D. do
We got our mail _________ yesterday. A. been delivered B. delivered C. delivering D. to deliver
James……..the news as soon as possible.
A. should tell B. should be told C. should told D. should be telled
My wedding ring _________ yellow and white gold.