36. '' Remember to write to your aunt''. I said to Miss Linh.
A. I said to Miss Linh remember to write to her aunt.
B. I said to Miss Linh to remember to write to her aunt.
C. I told Miss Linh remember to write to her aunt.
D. I reminded Miss Linh to remember to write to her aunt.
37. '' How long have you lived in Ha Noi''? said my friend.
A. My friend asked me how long have I lived in HaNoi.
B. My friend asked me how long had I lived in HaNoi.
C. My friend asked me how long I had lived in HaNoi.
D. My friend asked me how long I have lived in HaNoi.
38. ''Close the books, please'' said our teacher.
A. Close your book said by our teacher.
B. Our teacher asked us close our book.
C. Our teacher said us close our book.
D. Our teacher asked us to close our book.
39. “I didn’t break your watch” the boy said.
A. The boy told the girl that he hadn’t broken her watch.
B. The boy asked the girl that he hadn’t broken her watch.
C. The boy told the girl that he didn’t break her watch.
D. The boy told the girl that he hadn’t broken your watch.
40. “Don’t make noise because I am listening music now” he said to me.
A. He asked me not to make noise because I am listening music now.
B. He asked me not to make noise because I was listening music then.
C. He asked me not to make noise because he was listening music then.
D. He asked me to make noise because I was listening music then.
41. “I have just seen your mother this morning”. Laura said to Lewis.
A. Laura told Lewis I have just seen your mother this morning.
B. Laura told Lewis she had just seen his mother that morning.
C. Laura told Lewis she has just seen his mother that morning.
D. Laura told Lewis he had just seen her mother that morning.
42. “We are ready to come with our friends” they said.
A. They told us they are ready to come with their friends.
B. They told us they were ready to come with our friends.
C. They told us we were ready to come with our friends.
D. They told us they were ready to come with their friends.
43. “I was intending to meet you tomorrow” she said.
A. She told me she was intending to meet me tomorrow.
B. She told me she had intending to meet me the next day.
C. She told me she had been intending to meet me tomorrow.
D. She told me she had been intending to meet me the next day.
44. Mrs Smith: “ Don’t play in front of my windows”
A. Mrs Smith told us not to play in front of her windows.
B. Mrs Smith told us not to play in front of my windows.
C. Mrs Smith told us to not play in front of her windows.
D. Mrs Smith said us not to play in front of her windows.
45. “I didn’t witness that accident.”
A. He denied not having witnessed that accident.
B. He denied having witnessed that accident.
C. He denied not having witnessing that accident.
D. He denied not had witnessed that accident.
46. “You cheated in the exam.” The teacher said to his students
A. The teacher insisted his students on cheating in the exam.
B. The teacher prevented his students from cheating in the exam.
C. The teacher advised his students to cheat in the exam.
D. The teacher accused his students of cheating in the exam.
47. " Don't forget to give the book back to Mary," he said to me.
A. He reminded me to give the book back to Mary.
B. He reminded me to forget to give the book back to Mary.
C. He advised me to give the book back to Mary.
D. He advised me to forget to give the book back to Mary.
48."Would you like to go to the cinema with me tonight?" he said.
A. He invited me to go to the cinema with him that night.
B. He offered me to go to the cinema with him tonight.
C. He asked me if I'd like to go to the cinema with him tonight.
D. He would like me to go to the cinema with him this night.
49.'Remember to pick me up at 6 o'clock tomorrow afternoon," she said.
A. She told me to remember to pick her up at 6 o'clock tomorrow afternoon.
B. She reminded me to pick her up at 6 o'clock the following afternoon.
C. She reminded me to remember to pick her up at 6 o'clock the next afternoon.
D. She told me to pick her up at 6 o'clock the next day afternoon.
50." Let's have a picnic next Saturday," Julia said.
A. Julia said that let's have a picnic the next Saturday.
B. Julia suggested having a picnic the following Saturday.
C. Julia advised how about having a picnic the next Saturday.
D. Julia told that why they didn't have a picnic next Saturday.
51. "If I were you, I'd tell him the truth," she said to me.
A. She said to me that if I were you, I'd tell him the truth.
B. She will tell him the truth if she is me.
C. She suggested to tell him the truth if she were me.
D. She advised me to tell him the truth.
52. “ Why don't you have your room repainted?" said Viet to Nam.
A. Viet suggested that Nam should have his room repainted.
B. Viet suggested having Nam's room repainted.
C. Viet asked Nam why you didn't have your room repainted.
D. Viet wanted to know why Nam doesn't have his room repainted.
53. "If I were you. Bill, I'd buy the house, " Stephen said.
A. Stephen suggested Bill to buy the house.
B. Stephen advised Bill to buy the house.
C. Stephen promised Bill that he would buy the house.
D. Stephen forced Bill to buy the house.
54. “Don’t forget to feed the chicken twice a day.”
A. He said don’t forget to feed the chicken twice a day.
B. He told not to forget to feed the chicken twice a day.
C. He reminded me to feed the chicken twice a day.
D. He suggested me to feed the chicken twice a day
55. “Never borrow money from friends,” my father said.
A. My father told me never to borrow money from friends.
B. My father said to me never borrow money from friends.
C. My father suggested me never borrowing money from friends.
D. My father advised me not borrow money from friends
56. "Right. I'll take the brown pair, "Andrew said.
A. Andrew promised to take the brown pair.
B. Andrew wanted to take the brown pair.
C. Andrew agreed to take the brown pair.
D. Andrew asked to take the brown pair.
57. "I will ring you up after I get home." Peter said to Mary.
A. Peter promised to give Mary a wedding ring after he got home.
B. Peter asked Mary to pay him a visit after he' got home.
C. Peter promised to visit Mary after he got home.
D. Peter promised to telephone Mary after he got home.
58. I suggested that he should paint the house light blue.
A. "Shall we painted the house light blue?" I said to him.
B. "How about to paint the house light blue?" I said to him.
C. "Let's paint the house light blue," I said to him.
D. "Why don't you paint the house light blue?" I said to him.
59. He reminded me to buy him some stamps.
A. "Don't forget to buy me some stamps," he said.
B. "Remember buying me some stamps," said he.
C. "Remind to buy me some stamps," said he.
D. "Don't deny buying me some stamps.," he said.
60. "I'll definitely return it to you tomorrow, " John said.
A. John said that he'll return it to me the next day.
B. John promised to return it to me the next day.
C. John told that he'll return it to me the next day.
D. John decided to return it to me next day.
61. "You mustn't call the police," he said to his wife.
A. He accused his wife of calling the police.
B. He warned his wife calling the police.
C. He stopped his wife from calling the police.
D. He apologized his wife for calling the police.
32. "It's me. I made your dress dirty," Jane said to Ann.
A. Jane accused Ann of making her dress dirty.
B. Ann prevented Jane from making her dress dirty.
C. Jane denied making Ann's dress dirty.
D. Jane admitted making Ann's dress dirty.
63. "Don't go near that deserted house," Tuan said to me.
A. Tuan advised me not going near that deserted house.
B. Tuan insisted me going near that deserted house.
C. Tuan warned me against going near that deserted house.
D. Tuan suggested me not to going near that deserted house.
64. "How beautiful the dress you have just bought is!" Peter said to Mary.
A. Peter promised to buy Mary a beautiful dress.
B. Peter said thanks to Mary for her beautiful dress.
C. Peter complimented Mary on her beautiful dress.
D. Peter asked Mary how she had just bought her beautiful dress.
C. Choose the word or phrase in each of the following sentences that needs correcting.
65. He said me if I had done my homework.
A B C D
66. They wanted to know how much could you pay for it.
A B C D
67. You promised you will go on a picnic with us the next Sunday
A B C D
68. They asked me what did happen last night, but I was unable to tell them.
A B C D
69. Ron said that he wasn’t sure, but the storm may stop already.
A B C D
70. I asked him how far was it to the station if I went there by taxi.
A B C D
71. The shopkeeper warned the boys don’t lean their bicycles against his windows.
A B C D
72. They asked me that I could do the shopping for them.
A B C D
73. Her mother ordered her do not go out with him the night before.
A B C D
74. The traffic warden asked me why had I parked my car there.
A B C D
75. He said that he will pick me up at 8 am the following day.
A B C D
76. She said that the books in the library would be available tomorrow
A B C D
77. He advised her thinking about that example again because it needed correcting.
A B C D
78. The receptionist said I must fill out that form before I attended the interview.
A B C D
79. Marty said a good friendship is like a diamond – valuable, beautiful and durable.
A B C D
80. The mayor apologized on having slept in an international summit and resigned afterwards.
A B C D
CHUYÊN ĐỀ 7
MEÄNH ÑEÀ QUAN HEÄ (RELATIVE CLAUSES)
RELATIVE CLAUSES - REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSES – REDUCED CLAUSES
I. LÝ THUYẾT
A. RELATIVE CLAUSES
- Mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề phụ được nối với mệnh đề chính bởi các đại từ quan hệ (who, whom, whose, which, that) hay các trạng từ quan hệ như (where, when, why). Mệnh đề quan hệ đứng ngay đằng sau danh từ. Chức năng của nó giống như một tính từ do vậy nó còn được gọi là mệnh đề tính ngữ.
Eg: The man who lives next door is very friendly.
Danh từ đứng trước
Chủ ngữ (Subject)
Sở hữu cách
Of which/ whose
I. Đại từ quan hệ (Relative pronouns)
1. WHO: thay thế cho người, làm chủ ngữ/ tân ngữ trong MĐQH.
Ex: - I need to meet the boy. The boy is my friend’s son.
à I need to meet the boy who is my friend’s son.
The girl is John’s sister. You saw her at the concert.
=> The girl who you saw at the concert is …
2. WHOM: thay thế cho người, làm tân ngữ trong MĐQH.
Ex:- I know the girl. I spoke to this girl.
à I know the girl whom I spoke to.
3. WHICH: - thay thế đồ vật, làm chủ ngữ /tân ngữ trong MĐQH.
Ex: - She works for a company. It makes cars
à She works for a company which makes cars.
The accident wasn’t very serious. Daniel saw it.
=> The accident which Daniel saw ……
* Thay thế cho cả mệnh đề đứng trước nó – a connector
Ex: He passed his exam. This pleased his parents.
He passed his exam, which pleased his parents. (dùng dấu phẩy trước đại từ quan hệ)
4. THAT: thay thế cho WHO/ WHOM/ WHICH trong MĐQH hạn định (Mđ không có dấu phẩy)
Ex: - I need to meet the boy that/ who is my friend’s son.
- I know the girl that/ who/ whom I spoke to.
- She works for a company that/ which makes cars.
+ Những trường hợp thường dùng THAT:
- Sau đại từ bất định: something, anyone, nobody,…hoặc sau “ all, much , none, little...” được dùng như đại từ.
Ex: I’ll tell you something that is very interesting.
All that is mine is yours./ These walls are all that are remains of the city.
- Sau các tính từ so sánh hơn nhất, các từ chỉ thứ tự : only, first, last, second, next…
Ex: - This is the most beautiful dress that I’ve ever had.
- You are the only person that can help us.
Trong cấu trúc : It + be + … + that … (chính là …)
It is/was not until + time/clause + that……(mãi tới khi….thì…)
Ex: It is my friend that wrote this sentence.
It was not until 1990 that she became a member of the team.
+ Những trường hợp không dùng THAT:
- Trong mệnh đề tính từ không hạn định.
Ex: Mr Brown, that we studied English with, is a very nice teacher. (sai)
- Sau giới từ.
Ex: The house in that I was born is for sale. (sai)
+ Bắt buộc dùng THAT :
- Sau cụm từ vừa chỉ người và vật, bắt buộc dùng “that”:
Ex: He told me the places and people that he had seen in London.
We can see the farmers and their cattle that are going to the field.
- Trong cấu trúc : It be ………. that …………. (có thể dùng WHO khi chủ ngữ Hoặc tân ngữ đứng giữa “It be N / O that ….” chỉ người
5. WHOSE (OF WHICH): thay thế cho các danh từ có tính từ sở hữu đi kèm (his-, her-, its-, their-).
Ex: - John found the cat. Its leg was broken.
à John found a cat whose leg/(the leg of which) was broken. (Of which is informal)
- This is the student. I borrowed his book.
àThis is the student whose book I borrowed.
*Các từ chỉ số lượng như (quantifiers): All of, None of, each of, most of, many of, neither of, the majority of …=> có thể dùng với WHICH / WHOM/ WHOSE trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định:
Ex: - Daisy has three brothers. All of them are teachers.
à Daisy has three brothers, all of whom are teachers.
- He asked me a lot of questions. I couldn’t answer most of them.
à He asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn’t answer
She has a teddy- bear. Both of its eyes are brown.
=> She has a teddy-bear, both of whose eyes are brown.
*Lưu ý về mệnh đề quan hệ:
1. Giới từ có thể đứng trước Whom và which.
- in formal written style: prep + which/ whom Eg:The man about whom you are talking is my brother.
- in informal style: giới từ thường đứng sau động từ:The man whom you are talking about is my brother.
Chú ý: Khi ĐTQH làm tân ngữ trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định và giới từ đứng sau động từ trong mệnh đề thì ta có thể bỏ đại từ quan hệ.
Eg: The picture (which) you are looking at is very expensive.
Nhưng khi giới từ đứng trước đại từ quan hệ thì ta không thể bỏ đại từ quan hệ:
Eg: The picture at which you are looking is very expensive.
2. Giới từ không dùng trước That và Who:
3. Khi động từ trong mệnh đề là Phrasal verbs : không được chuyển giới từ lên trước ĐTQH whom /which:
Eg: Did you find the word which you were looking up?
The child whom I have looked after for a year is very naughty.
The man whom you are looking forward to is the chairman of the company.
4. Without luôn đứng trước whom/ which:
Eg: The woman without whom I can’t live is Jane.
Fortunately we had a map without which we would have got lost.
5. Các đại từ quan hệ có chức năng tân ngữ ( mà trước chúng không có giới từ ) trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định đều có thể lược bỏ. Tuy nhiên trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định thì không thể lược bỏ.
Eg: That’s the house (which) I have bought.
The woman (whom) you met yesterday works in advertising.(làm nghề quảng cáo)
Eg: Mr Tom, whom everybody suspected, turned out to be innocent.
II. Phó từ quan hệ (Relative Adverbs)
1. WHERE: thay thế cho cụm từ chỉ nơi chốn hoặc thay cho (in/ at / on ... which), there / here.
Ex: - The movie theater is the place. We can see films at that place.
à The movie theater is the place where we can see films.
Eg: That is the house. We used to live in it.
=> That is the house where we used to live. (= in which)
This is the table. My teacher put his book on it.
=> This is the table where my teacher put his book. (= on which)
2. WHEN:thay thế cho cụm từ chỉ thời gian hoặc thay cho (in/ on/at... which), then
Ex: - Do you remember the day. We first met on that day.
à Do you remember the day when/on which we first met?
Eg: That was the time when he managed the company. (= at which)
à Spring is the season when flowers of all kinds are in full bloom. (= in which)
3. WHY (for which): thay thế cho cụm trạng từ chỉ lí do.
Ex: - Tell me the reason. You are so sad for that reason.
à Tell me the reason why/for which you are so sad.
“Where” có thể được sử dụng mà không cần cụm từ chỉ nơi chốn.
Eg: Put it where we all can see it.
Không sử dụng giới từ trước “Where, When, Why”.
Eg: The building in where he lives/ where he lives in is very old. (sai)
=> The building in which he lives is very old.
III. CÁC LOẠI MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ (Defining & Non-Defining relative clauses)
1. Defining Relative Clauses:
Dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước chưa được xác định rõ, nếu bỏ đi thì mệnh đề chính sẽ không rõ nghĩa. (modify the antecedent which is unclear in meaning)
Ex: - I saw the girl. She helped us last week.
à I saw the girl who/that helped us last week.
LƯU Ý: Ta có thể bỏ đại từ quan hệ: WHO, WHOM, WHICH, THAT khi chúng làm tân ngữ trong MĐQH hạn định.
2. Non-Defining Relative Clauses:
- Dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước đã được xác định rõ (nó chỉ là phần giải thích thêm), nếu bỏ đi thì mệnh đề chính vẫn rõ nghĩa (modify the antecedent which is clear in meaning, so it’s just an extra information).
- Mệnh đề này ngăn cách với mệnh đề chính bằng dấu phẩy (use commas to separate with main clause) .
Ta dùng mệnh đề quan hệ không hạn định khi:
+ Trước đại từ quan hệ có: this/that/these/those/my/her/his/…+ N
+ Từ trước đại từ quan hệ là tên riêng, danh từ riêng, vật duy nhất.
Ex: - My father is a doctor. He is fifty years old.
à My father, who is fifty years old, is a doctor.
- Mr. Brown is a very nice teacher. We studied English with him.
à Mr Brown, who we studied English with, is a very nice teacher.
- The sun made the traveler thirsty. It was hot at midday.
à The Sun, which was hot at midday, made the traveler thirsty.
* LƯU Ý: + KHÔNG được bỏ đại từ quan hệ trong MĐQH không hạn định.
+ Không dùng THAT trong mệnh đề này.
B. REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSES
Điều kiện : Khi đại từ quan hệ làm chủ ngữ trong mệnh đề quan hệ, trước ĐTQH không có giới từ.
1. Dùng phân từ:
a. Dùng hiện tại phân từ (present participle) : V-ing -> Khi V trong MĐ ở dạng chủ động
Eg: + The man who is standing there is my brother.
=> The man standing there is my brother
+ Bill, who wanted to make an impression on Ann, invited her to his house.
=> Bill, wanting to make an impression on Ann, invited her to his house.
* Notes: Không nên dùng HTPT để diễn đạt hành động đơn trong quá khứ.
Eg: + The police wanted to interview the people who saw the accident.
=> The police wanted to interview the people seeing the accident. (không nên)
But: + The people who saw the accident had to report it to the police.
=> The people seeing the accident had to report it to the police.
b) Dùng quá khứ phân từ ( Past participle): Ved/3 Khi V trong MĐ ở dạng bị động
Eg: + The boy who was injured in the accident was taken to the hospital.
=> The boy injured in the accident…………………………………….
+ Most of the goods that are made in this factory are exported.
=> Most of the goods made in this factory are exported.
+ Some of the people who have been invited to the party can’t come.
=> Some of the people invited to the party can’t come.
2) Dùng cụm to inf: (To V/ For sb to V / to be + PII... ) (2)
-Dùng khi danh từ đứng trước có các từ sau đây : The ONLY, LAST, FIRST, NEXT, SECOND...
Ex: + This is the only student who can solve the problem. (động từ mang nghĩa chủ động)
=> This is the only student to solve the problem.
+ She is the youngest player who won the game.
=> She is the youngest player to win the game.
- ĐTQH là tân ngữ trong mệnh đề, khi muốn diễn đạt mục đích, sự cho phép.
Ex: + The children need a big yard which they can play in.