A. is made B. is making C. made D. make
Mr. Wilson is _________ as Willie to his friend. A. known B. knew C. is known D. know
References _________ in the examination room. A. not are used B. is not used C. didn’t used D. are not used
Laura _________ in Boston. A. are born B. were born C. was born D. born
His car needs _________
A. be fixed B. fixing C. to be fixing D. fixed
Her watch needs _________. A. repairing B. to be repaired C. repaired D. A and B
My mother is going _________ this house. A. sold B. sell C. to be sold D. to sell
There’s somebody behind us. I think we are _________.
A. being followed B. are followed C. follow D. following
Have you _________ by a dog? A. bite B. bit C. ever been bitten D. ever been bit
The room is being _________ at the moment. A. was cleaned B. cleaned C. cleaning D. clean
It _________ that the strike will end soon.
A. is expected B. expected C. are expected D. was expected
It is _________ that many people are homeless after the floods.
A. was reported B. reports C. reported D. reporting
He was said _________ this building. A. designing B. to have designed C. to design D. designed
Ted _________ by a bee while he was sitting in the garden.
A. got sting B. got stung C. get stung D. gets stung
These tennis courts don’t _________ very often. Not many people want to play.
A. got used B. used C. get used D. get use
I’ll get Minh _________ this for you. A. do B. done C. did D. to do
Those letters _________ now. You can do the typing later.
A. need typing B. needn't be typed C. need to type D. needn't typing
“What a beautiful dress you are wearing”- “thanks, it_________ especially for me by a French tailor.”
A. is made B. has made C. made D. was made
Somebody cleans the room every day.
A. The room everyday is cleaned. B. The room is every day cleaned.
C. The room is cleaned every day. D. The room is cleaned by somebody every day.
People don’t use this road very often.
A. This road is not used very often. B. Not very often this road is not used.
C. This road very often is not used. D. This road not very often is used.
How do people learn languages?
A. How are languages learned? B. How are languages learned by people?
C. How languages are learned? D. Languages are learned how?
Over 1500 new houses _________ each year. Last year, 1720 new houses _________.
A. were built/ were built B. are built/ were built C. are building / were built D. were built/ were being built
Tom bought that book yesterday.
A. That book was bought by Tom yesterday. B. That book was bought yesterday by Tom.
C. That book yesterday was bought by Tom D. That book was bought yesterday.
The new computer system _________ next month.
A. is be installed B. is being installed C. is been installed D. is being installed by people
CHUYÊN ĐỀ 6
CÂU GIÁN TIẾP (REPORTED SPEECH)
* PHẦN I: LÝ THUYẾT
A. Câu trực tiếp và câu gián tiếp (Direct and Reported speech):
Giống: Luôn có 2 phần: mệnh đề tường thuật và lời nói trực tiếp hay lời nói gián tiếp
Eg: Tom says, “I go to college next summer”
MĐTT Lời nói trực tiếp
Tom says (that) he goes to college next summer
MĐTT Lời nói gián tiếp
a. Direct speech: Là lời nói được thuật lại đúng nguyên văn của người nói. Được viết giữa dấu trích hay ngoặc kép và ngăn cách với mệnh đề tường thuật bởi dấu phẩy
eg: John said, “I like reading science books”
The teacher said, “I’ll give you a test tomorrow”
b. Reported speech / Indirect speech: Là lời nói được thuật lại với ý và từ của người thuật, nhưng vẫn giữ nguyên ý. Không bị ngăn cách bởi dấu phẩy hay dấu ngoặc kép, và luôn tận cùng bằng dấu chấm câu.
Eg: John said (that) he liked reading science books
The teacher said (that) he would give us a test the next day
B/ Các thay đổi trong câu gián tiếp
1. Thay đổi động từ tường thuật: Động từ tường thuật của lời nói trực tiếp phải được đổi phù hợp với nghĩa hoặc cấu trúc câu của lời nói gián tiếp
Eg: He said, “Do you like coffee?” He asked me if I liked coffee
“If I were you, I’d not buy that coat,” said Mary Mary advised me not to buy the coat
Chú ý: SAY TO: không bao giờ được dùng ở lời nói gián tiếp. (phải đổi bằng TELL + (O))
TELL: không bao giờ được dùng ở lời nói trực tiếp.
2. Thay đổi các ngôi ( đại từ, tính từ, đại từ sở hữu):
VD: Mr Nam said to Hoa, “You take your book out and show it to me”
- Tình huống 1: Một người bạn của Hoa tường thuật với người bạn khác: Mr Nam told Hoa that she took her book out and showed it to him.
- Tình huống 2: Hoa tường thuật với một người bạn khác: Mr Nam told me that I took my book out and showed it to him
- Tình huống 3: Thầy Nam tường thuật với người khác: I told Hoa that she took her book out and showed it to me
3. Thay đổi thời gian, địa điểm, các từ chỉ định
a. Từ chỉ thời gian
Câu trực tiếp
Câu gián tiếp
- an hour ago
- Yesterday morning/ afternoon
- Tomorrow morning
- the day before yesterday
- the day after tomorrow
- last year
- next month
then, at that time, at once, immediately
an hour before/an hour earlier
the day before/the previous day
the next day/the following day
the previous morning/ afternoon
the next/following morning
two days before
(in) two days’ time
the year before/the previous year
the month after/the following month
b. Từ chỉ nơi chốn, địa điểm:
HERE THERE: Khi chỉ một địa điểm xác định
Eg: “Do you put the pen here?” he said He asked me if I put the pen there
HERE cụm từ thích hợp tùy theo nghĩa:
Eg: She said to me, “You sit here” She told me to sit next to her.
“Come here, John,” he said He told John to come over him.
c. Các đại từ chỉ định:
THIS/ THESE + từ chỉ thời gian THAT/THOSE
Eg: “They’re coming this evening,” he said. He said (that) they were coming that evening
THIS/THESE + danh từ THE
Eg: “Is this book yours?” said Mary Mary asked me if the book was mine
THIS/THESE: chỉ thị đại từ IT/ THEM
Eg: He said, “I like this” He said (that) he liked it
Ann said to Tom, “Please take these into my room” Ann asked Tom to take them into her room
4. Thay đổi thì của động từ
Các trường hợp thay đổi thì:
Khi các động từ tường thuật (say, tell, ask…) ở thì quá khứ, động từ trong câu gián tiếp phải lùi về quá khứ một thì so với câu trực tiếp.
Câu trực tiếp
Câu gián tiếp
Simple Present: “I don’t know this man”
Present Continuous: “I’m working for a foreign company”
Present Perfect: “I’ve read a good book”
Present Perfect Continuous: “I have been writing my report”.
Simple Past: “I finished my assignment”
Simple Future: “I will do it later”
“I can work late today”
“I may see her tonight”
“I must/have to go now”
Simple Past: He said he didn’t know that man
Past Continuous: He said he was working for a foreign company
Past Perfect: He said he had read a good book
Past Perfect Continuous: He said he had been writing his report
Past Perfect: He said he had finished his assignment
Future in the past: He said he would do it later.
Past forms of modals:
He said he could work late that day
He said he might see her that night
He said he had to go then
Các trường hợp không thay đổi thì:
a. Khi động từ tường thuật (say, tell, ask…) ở thì hiện tại đơn, tương lai đơn hay hiện tại hoàn thành:
Eg: He says, “I don’t know the answer to your question”
He says to me that he doesn’t know the answer to my question
They’ll say, “We’ll buy a new house” They’ll say (that) they will buy a new house
b. Khi động từ tường thuật (say, tell, ask…) ở thì quá khứ, động từ trong câu gián tiếp không đổi thì trong các trường hợp sau :
- Tường thuật một sự thật hiển nhiên, một chân lý, định luật khoa học hay vật lý:
Eg: My teacher said, “Russia is the biggest country in the world”
My teacher said that Russia is the biggest country in the world
He said, “health is more precious than gold” He said (that) health is more precious than gold
- Được tường thuật ngay sau khi nói hay khi thuật lại sự kiện vẫn không đổi:
Eg: (In class): A: What did the teacher say?
B: He said (that) he wants us to do our homework
- Khi động từ trong câu trực tiếp là các động từ như: USED TO, hay các động từ khiếm khuyết: COULD, WOULD, SHOULD, MIGHT, OUGHT TO, HAD TO, HAD BETTER
Eg: He said, “They might win the game” He said to me that they might win the game.
- Với MUST diễn tả lời khuyên:
Eg: “This book is very useful. You must read it”, Tom said to me.
Tom told me (that) the book was very useful and I must read it.
- Khi động từ trong câu trực tiếp ở các thì: Past Continuous, Past perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, (nếu thì Simple Past đi kèm một thời gian cụ thể có thể không thay đổi thì).
Eg: He said, “I was eating when he called me” He told me he was eating when she called him.
- Khi tường thuật mệnh đề ước muốn (wish): theo sau động từ WISH, WOULD RATHER, IF ONLY
Eg: He said, “I wish I were richer” He told me he wished he were richer
She said, “I wish I had a good memory” She said she wished she had a good memory
- Các câu điều kiện loại 2, 3 (câu điều kiện không thật)
Eg: He said, “If I had time, I would help you” He said to me if he had time, he would help me
- Cấu trúc “It’s (high) time…”
Eg: He said, “It’s time we went” He said it was time they went.
He said, “It’s time we changed our way of working” He said (that) it was time they changed their way of working.
C/ Các loại câu gián tiếp
1. Tường thuật câu trần thuật (statements)
- Dùng say hoặc tell để tường thuật
- Thường bắt đầu bằng: He said that…./ she said to me that…/ they told me that….,
eg: She said, “I’m happy to see you again”
She said that she was happy to see me again
She said to me that she was happy to see me again
She told me that she was happy to see me again
- Chú ý đổi thì, các đại từ, các từ chỉ thời gian, địa điểm…
2. Tường thuật câu hỏi (questions)
a. Đối với câu hỏi trực tiếp (Wh-question)
- Thường bắt đầu bằng: He asked (me) …/ He wanted to know…/ She wondered….
Eg: She asked, “What is his job?” She asked what his job was.
They asked me, “Where did you have lunch?” They asked me where I had lunch.
- Không đặt trợ động từ trước chủ ngữ như trong câu hỏi trực tiếp.
- Không đặt dấu chấm hỏi cuối câu.
- Thay đổi thì , đại từ, các từ chỉ thời gian, địa điểm…
b. Đối với câu hỏi “Yes – No” hoặc câu hỏi lựa chọn “Or”
- Phải thêm từ “if/whether” để mở đầu câu tường thuật
eg: She asked, “are you a teacher?” She asked him if/whether he was a teacher
They asked me, “Do you want to go or stay at home?” They asked me if/ whether I wanted to go or stay at home.
- Câu hỏi đuôi được tường thuật giống câu hỏi Yes/No nhưng bỏ phần đuôi phía sau
eg: She asked, “You will stay here, won’t you?” She asked me if/whether I would stay there.
3. Câu tường thuật với “infinitive”:
a. Tường thuật câu mệnh lệnh, yêu cầu (Imperatives / Commands or Requests) dùng cấu trúc: tell/ ask/ request/ order somebody (not) to do something
Eg: “Read carefully before signing the contract,” he said. He told me to read carefully before signing the contract)
“The commander said to his soldier, "Shoot!" The commander ordered his soldier to shoot.
“Please talk slightly,” they said. They requested us to talk slightly.
“Listen to me, please” He asked me to listen to him.
“Will you help me, please?” He asked me to help him.
“Will you lend me your dictionary?” He asked me to lend him my dictionary.
b. Tường thuật lời khuyên (Advice) dùng cấu trúc: advise somebody (not) to do something
Lời khuyên: - Had better, ought to, should, must
- Why don’t you + V?
- If I were you, I’d (not) + V…
Eg: “Why don’t you take a course in computer?” my teacher said to me.
My teacher advised me to take a course in computer.
c. Tường thuật lời mời (Invitation) dùng cấu trúc: invite somebody to do something
Eg: “Would you like to have breakfast with me?” Tom said to me. Tom invited me to have breakfast with him.
d. Tường thuật lời cảnh báo (warn) dùng cấu trúc: warn somebody (not) to do something
“Don’t touch the red buttons,” said the mom to the child. The mom warns the child not to touch the red buttons
e. Tường thuật lời nhắc nhở (reminders) dùng cấu trúc: remind somebody to do something
“Don’t forget to turn off the lights before leaving,” Sue told me Sue reminded me to turn off the lights before leaving
f. Tường thuật lời động viên (encouragement) dùng cấu trúc: encourage / urge somebody to do something
“Go on, take part in the competition,” said my father My father encouraged me to take part in the competition
g. Tường thuật lời cấu khẩn dùng cấu trúc: beg/implore somebody to do something
“Do me a favor, please,” said the servant to his master The servant begged/implored his master to do him a favor.
h. Tường thuật lời đề nghị , tự nguyện (offers) dùng cấu trúc: offer to do something
Lời đề nghị: - Shall I + V
- Would you like me + to V
- Let me + V
Eg: Mary said to Ann, “Shall I get you a glass of orange juice?” Mary offered to get Anna a glass of orange juice.
“Shall I bring you some tea?” He asked He offered to bring me some tea
i. Tường thuật lời hứa (Promises) dùng cấu trúc: promise (not) to do something
Eg: “I’ll give the book back to you tomorrow,” he said He promised to give the book back to me the next day.
j. Tường thuật lời đe dọa (threat) dùng cấu trúc: threaten to do something.
“I’ll shot if you move,” said the robber The robber threatened to shoot if I moved
4. Câu tường thuật với “gerund”
Các cấu trúc của câu tường thuật với danh động từ:
S + V + V-ing: admit, deny, suggest…
S + V + preposition + V-ing: apologize for, complain about, confess to, insist on, object to, dream of, think of…
S + V + O + preposition + V-ing: accuse..of, blame…for, congratulate…on, criticize…for, warn…about/against, praise…for, thank…for, prevent…from…
Eg: “I’ve always wanted to study abroad,” he said. He’s dreaming of studying abroad.
“It’s nice of you to give me some fruit. Thanks,” Ann said to Mary Ann thanked Mary for giving her some fruit
“I’m sorry, I’m late,” Tom said to the teacher. Tom apologized to the teacher for being late
“Shall we meet at the theater?” he asked He suggested meeting at the theater.
5. Câu cảm thán trong lời nói gián tiếp
What a lovely dress! She exclaimed that the dress was lovely.
She exclaimed that the dress was a lovely one.
She exclaimed with admiration at the sight of the dress.
6. Các hình thức hỗn hợp trong lời nói gián tiếp
She said, “Can you play the piano?” and I said “no”
She asked me if I could play the piano and I said that I could not
* PHẦN II: BÀI TẬP VẬN DỤNG
A. Choose the correct answer among A , B C or D.
1. “I wish..............eat vegetables”, he said.
A. my children will B. my children would C. whether my children would D. my children must
2. He wants to know whether I_____________ back tomorrow.
A. come B. came C. will come D. would come
3. I wonder why he______________ love his family.
A. doesn’t B. don’t C. didn’t D. hasn’t
4. He begged them --------------.
A. help him B. should help him C. to help him D. help to him
5. Peter asked Jane why -------------- the film on T.V the previous night.
A. didn’t she watch B. hadn’t she watched C. she doesn’t watch D. she hadn’t watched
6. He advised them -------------- in class.
A. to not talk B. not to talk C. to talk not D. don’t talk
7. Some one was wondering if the taxi -------------- yet.
A. had arrived B. arrived C. arrives D. has arrived
8. The government has announced that taxes --------------.
A. would be raised B. had been raised C. were raised D. will be raised
9. He proved that the earth -------------- round the Sun.
A. had gone B. was going C. goes D. would go
10. Claire wanted to know what time --------------.
A. do the banks close B. the banks closed C. did the banks close D. the banks would close
11. Julia said that she ___________ there at noon.
A. is going to be B. was going to be C. will be D. can be
12. He _______ that he was leaving that afternoon.
A. told me B. told to me C. said me D. says to me
13. She said to me that she __________ to me the Sunday before.
A. wrote B. had written C. was writing D. has written
14. Nam wanted to know what time ________.
A. does the movie begin B. did the movie begin C. the movie begins D. the movie began
15. He asked me _______ Robert and I said I did not know _______.
A. that did I know / who were he B. that I knew / who he had been
C. if I knew/ who he was D. whether I knew / who had he been
16. I asked Martha ______ to enter law school.
A. was she planning B. is she planning C. if she was planning D. are you planning
17. I wondered_______ the right thing.
A. whether I was doing B. if I am doing C. was I doing D. am I doing
18. Thu said she had been___________ the day before.
A. here B. there C. in this place D. where
19. Peter said that if he ________rich, he _________ a lot.
A. is – will travel B. were- would travel C. was – will travel C. been–would travel
20. They said that they had been driving through the desert__________.
A. the previous day B. yesterday C. the last day D. Sunday previously
21. He asked the children _________too much noise.
A. not to make B. not making C. don’t make D. if they don’t make
22. Laura said she had worked on the assignment since _______.
A. yesterday B. two days ago C. the day before D. the next day
23. Mr Hawk told me that he would give me his answer the………..day
A. previous B. following C. before D. last
24. John said he _________ her since they ________ school.
A. hasn’t met–left B. hadn’t met-had left C. hadn’t met/ left D. didn’tmeet – left
25. The woman asked __________get lunch at school.
A. can the children B. whether the children could C. if the children can D. could the children
26. She said that when she_________ to school, she saw an accident.
A. was walking B. has walked C. had been walking D. has been walking
27. He asked, “Why didn’t she take the final exam?” - He asked why __________ the final exam.
A. she took B. did she take C. she hadn’t taken D. she had taken
28. Peter said he__________ some good marks the semester before.
A. gets B. got C. had gotten D. have got
29. They told their parents that they___________ their best to do the test.
A. try B. will try C. are trying D. would try
30. Mary asked me where I___________ from.
A. came B. coming C. to come D. come
31. She asked me _______ my holidays _______.
A. where I spent / the previous year B. where I had spent/ the previous year
C. where I spent / last year D. where did I spend / last year
32. He asked me who____________ the editor of that book.
A. was B. were C. is D. has been
33. Jason told me that he _______ his best in the exam the _______ day.
A. had done/ following B. will do/previous C. would do/ following D. was going/ previous
34. The guest told the host that _______.
A. I must go now B. he must go now C. he had to go now D. he had to go then
B. Choose the sentence that is closest in meaning to each sentence below.
35. '' Where did you go last night''? she said to her boyfriend.
A. She asked her boyfriend where did he go last night.
B. She asked her boyfriend where he went the night before.
C. She asked her boyfriend where had he gone the night before.
D. She asked her boyfriend where he had gone the night before.