* Câu điều kiện mệnh lệnh
If S + V1, V2
– Dạng câu điều kiện này dùng để nêu một yêu cầu, một mệnh lệnh mà người nói muốn người nghe thực hiện nếu điều kiện được nêu xảy ra.
– Dạng câu mệnh lệnh chỉ có thể dùng với câu điều kiện loại I.
– Cuối câu ta đặt một dấu chấm than, biểu thị cho thức mệnh lệnh.
– Khi dùng dạng câu này, mệnh đề điều kiện vẫn giữ nguyên, riêng mệnh đề chính sẽ được chuyển thành mệnh đề mệnh lệnh bằng cách sử dụng nguyên động từ và khuyết đi chủ ngữ.
Ex: If you meet him, tell him to write to me!
Ex: Don’t go outside the harbor if the wind is strong.
2/ Conditional sentences :TYPE 2:
use : câu điều kiện loại 2 dùng để diễn tả một hành động không có thật ở hiện tại.
If + S + V(quá khứ đơn ) , S +Would (could , might ..) + V( nguyên mẫu).
( S +Would( could , might) + V( nguyên mẫu ) + If +S +V (quá khứ đơn)) .
Note : Động từ trong mệnh đề điều kiện nếu là động từ tobe thì ta dùng were cho tất cả các chủ ngữ.
Ex. If I were you , I would go abroard.
If I knew his address , I would give it to you.
3/ Conditional sentences : Type 3.
a/ use: Diễn tả hành động không có thật ở quá khứ.
b/ Form :
If +S +had +V(PII) , S + Would ( could ,might ) + have + V(PII).
( S + Would (could , might ) +have +V(PII) +IF + S +had +V (PII ).
Ex :If he had studied harder for that test ,he would have passed it
4/ Một số trường hợp câu điều kiện đặc biệt
a/ CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN KẾT HỢP
Form: If + S + had + P2, S + would have + P2
Ex: 1. If I hadn’t stayed up late last night, I wouldn’t be so tired now.
2. You wouldn’t be so hungry if you had had breakfast this morning
Trong trường hợp này, mệnh đề If chia động từ ở loại 3, mệnh đề chính chia động từ ở loại 2
b/CẤU TRÚC ĐẢO NGỮ CỦA CÂU ĐK
* Đảo ngữ đk loại 1
Should + S + Vinfinitive, S + Will + Vinfinitive
* Đảo ngữ câu điều kiện loại 2:
Were + S + (to + Vinfinitive), S + Would + Vinfinitive
If I learnt Russian, I would read a Russian book.
=> Were I to learn Russian, I would read a Russian book
* Đảo ngữ câu điều kiện loại 3:
Had + S + P2, S + would have + P2
Ex : If Ann had found the right buyer, she would have sold the house.
Had Ann found the right buyer, she would have sold the house
* Đảo ngữ của câu điều kiện kết hợp:
Had + S + P2, S + would Vinfinitive
c/CÁC CÁCH KHÁC ĐỂ DIỄN TẢ ĐIỀU KIỆN
* Imperative (mệnh lệnh) + or/and + S + V(simple future).
Ex: Prepare the lesson carefully or you will get a bad mark.
= If you don't prepare the lesson carefully, you will get a bad mark.
* Unless = If .... not ( Trừ khi)
If he doesn’t come, I will bring this package to him
Unless he comes, I will bring this package to him
* In case ( Phòng khi điều gì đó xảy ra)
Trong mệnh đề theo sau In case thường dùng thì hiện tại đơn hoặc quá khứ đơn, không dung will hoặc would
I always take an umbrella in case it rains
* Dùng With/Without/ But for
With/ Without/ But for + a noun/ a noun phrase
Eg: If you help me, I can finish this assignment
= With your help, I can finish this assignment
Without water, life wouldn’t exist
= If there were no water, life wouldn’t exist.
* As long as/ So long as/ Provided (that)/ Providing (that)/ On condition that + Clause ( Miễn là/ với điều kiện)
Ex: As long as you drive carefully, you can use my car.
= If you drive carefully, you can use my car.
* Otherwise ( Nếu không thì ) : Dùng để thay thế cho vế If và liên quan đến một ý tưởng của câu trước.
(Trước Otherwise thường có dấu; hoặc dấu , sau otherwise có dấu ,)
Eg: You must read the instruction; otherwise, you don’t know how to do it
PART B - WISH / IF ONLY
I- PHẦN LÝ THUYẾT
Wish và if only thường được để diễn đạt ước muốn ( if only mạnh mẽ và rõ ràng hơn wish). Sau wish và only là một mệnh đề chỉ sự ao ước một ĐK không có thật . Mệnh đề sau wish và if only được xem như một mệnh đề danh từ .
Sau wish /only có 3 loại mệnh đề được dùng để chỉ sự ao ước ở hiện tại , quá khứ và tương lai .
1.Ao ước ở hiện tại (present wish) .
a. Cấu trúc:
S + WISH (es) /IF ONLY + S+ V (past subjunctive)
b. Cách dùng : diễn đạt mong ước về một điều không có thật hoặc không thể thực hiện được ở hiện tại .
Eg1 :I wish I lived nearer. Then we could meet more often. (I'm sorry that I don't live nearer)
Eg2: Cathy wishes she had blond hair. (Cathy is sorry that she doesn't have blond hair)
- Would không được dùng để diễn đạt mong muốn ở hiện tại , nhưng chúng ta có thể dùng could .
Eg3: You're brilliant. I wish I could play the guitar like you. (I'm sorry that I can't play the guitar like you)
2.Ao ước ở quá khứ (past wish)
a. cấu trúc:
S + WISH(es) /IF ONLY + S+ V (past perfect subjunctive)
b. Cách dùng : diễn đạt mong ước về một điều đã xảy ra trong quá khứ hoặc diễn đạt sự hối tiếc về một điều gì đó đã không xảy ra.
Eg: I wish I had never told him my secret. (I'm sorry that I told him my secret)
Eg: Santiago wishes he hadn't spent so much money last night. (Santiago regrets spending so much money last night)
-Chúng ta có thể dùng could have +past participle để vao ước về quá khứ khi chủ ngữ trước và sau wish là một người hay một vật.
Eg : I wish I could have been at the wedding ,but I was in New York.
3.Ao ước ở tương lai(future wish)
a. Cấu trúc :
S + WISH(es) /IF ONLY + S+ would/ could /might + V (bare-infinitive
b. Cách dùng :mong muốn điều gì đó xảy ra hoặc muốn người nào đó làm điều gì đó.
Eg: I wish it would stop snowing.
Eg: I wish Mark would call me back.
Eg: I wish more people would read my blog.
Chú ý: I wish ....woud ...được dùng khi nói về hành động và sự thay đổi ,would không được nói về một tình trạng
Eg: I wish something exciting would happen.
PART C:Một số cấu trúc giả định khác
1. Clause after AS IF, AS THOUGH:
* AS IF, AS THOUGH có nghĩa là “như thể, dường như”
* Hai từ nối trên đứng trước một mệnh đề chỉ một điều không thật hoặc trái với thực tế.
a/Điều không có thật ở hiện tại
S + V + as if /as though + V past subjunctive (V-ed/ were).
Eg: The old lady dresses as if it were winter even in the summer (It is not winter).
+ She walks as though she studied modeling. (She didn’t study modeling).
+ He acts as though he were rich. (He is not rich).
b/Điều không có thật ở quá khứ
S + V + as if /as though + V past perfect subjunctive /(had + V-ed/ (pp)).
Eg: + Tom looked very tired as if he worked very hard.
+ The child ate as though he had been hungry for a long time.
+ He looked as if he hadn’t taken a bath for month.
Note: Past Subjunctive (quá khứ giả định) có hình thức giống thì Simple past nhưng với động từ TO BE thì phải đổi thành WERE cho tất cả các ngôi.
- Past Perfect Subjunctive (quá khứ hoàn thành giả định) có hình thức giống thì Past perfect.
- Động từ đứng trước as if/as though có thể ở thì hiện tại hoặc quá khứ mà không có sự thay đổi thì trong mệnh đề giả định
Eg: He talks/talked as if he knew everything.
Eg : He looks /looked as though he hadn’t a decent meal for a month.
- Trong mệnh đề so sánh ( mệnh đề chỉ cách thức và mệnh đề chính có cùng chủ ngữ ), chúng ta có thể dùng as if /as though theo sau bởi một phân từ (present /past participle) hoặc động từ nguyên mẫu có to (to –infinitive).
2.It’s time, It’s high time
It’s time/it’s high time có thể được theo sau bởi:
a. Động từ nguyên mẫu có to (to-infinitive)
It’s time/ It’s high time + (for + Object) + to-infinitive
E.x: It’s time to buy a new car. (Đã đến lúc phải mua xe mới rồi.)
It’s high time for the children to go to bed. (Đã đến giờ bọn trẻ đi ngủ rồi)
b. Mệnh đề ( động từ chia ở quá khứ nhưng mang nghĩa hiện tại)
It’s time/ It’s high time + S + V past simple
E.x: Ten o’clock - It’s time you went home.
(10 giờ rồi - Đã đến lúc các bạn phải về nhà)
It’s high time the children were in bed.
(Đã đến giờ bọn trẻ đi ngủ)
Lưu ý: Were có thể dùng thay cho Was.
E.x: It’s time I was/were in bed
3. Would rather
a. Would rather (thích ….hơn) được dùng để diễn đạt những gì mà một người nào đó muốn thực hiện trong một tình huống cụ thể (không được dùng trong trường hợp tổng quát). Would rather (do) = Would prefer (to do).
* ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai
S + would rather (+not) + V_bare infinitive …..(+ than+ V_bare infinitive )
E.x: I would rather stay at home tonight. ( Tối nay tôi thích ở nhà.)
Would you rather have tea or coffee? (Bạn thích dùng trà hay cà phê hơn?)
I’m tired. I’d rather not go out this evening.
(Tôi mệt. Chiều nay tôi không thích đi chơi.)
John would rather go for a swim than play tennis.
(John thích đi bơi hơn chơi quần vợt.)
We’d rather walk than take a bus. (Chúng tôi thích đi bộ hơn là đi xe buýt.)
*Ở quá khứ
S + would rather (+not) + have + V_past participle (+ than)
E.x: We went by sea but I’d rather have gone by air.
(Chúng tôi đã đi bằng tàu thủy nhưng tôi thích đi bằng xe máy hơn.)
→ I wanted to go by air but I didn’t get my wish.
Tommy would rather have gone skiing than fishing last week.
(Tuần trước, Tommy đã thích đi trượt tuyết hơn là đi câu)
→ But he didn’t get his wish
b. Would rather (mong muốn) còn được dùng để diễn đạt nghĩa một người muốn người khác làm điều gì đó.
*Ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai.
S + would rather (that) + S + V _past simple
E.x: I’d rather you went home now. (Tôi muốn anh về nhà ngay bây giờ)
I’d rather you didn’t tell anyone what I said.
(Tôi không muốn bạn kể với bất kỳ ai những gì tôi đã nói.)
We’d rather she was/were here tomorrow.
(Chúng tôi muốn cô ta có mặt ở đây ngày mai.)
*Ở quá khứ
S + would rather (that) + S + V_past perfect
E.x: Roberto would rather we hadn’t left yesterday.
(Roberto muốn hôm qua chúng tôi không ra đi.)
→but we left yesterday.
I would rather you had met my future wife.
(Tôi muốn là bạn đã gặp vợ sắp cưới của tôi)
→but you didn’t meet
c.Diễn tả sự việc ở hiện tại (present subjunctive):
Là loại câu người thứ nhất muốn người thứ hai làm việc gì (nhưng làm hay không còn phụ thuộc vào người thứ hai). Xem thêm về câu cầu khiến ở phần sau. Trong trường hợp này động từ ở mệng đề hai để ở dạng nguyên thể bỏ to. Nếu muốn thành lập thể phủ định đặt not trước nguyên thể bỏ to.
S1 + would rather that + S2 + [verb in simple form] …
E.x: I would rather that you call me tomorrow.
He would rather that I not take this train.
Ngữ pháp nói ngày nay đặc biệt là ngữ pháp Mỹ cho phép bỏ that trong cấu trúc này mà vẫn giữ nguyên hình thức giả định
Present subjunctive (Hiện tại bàng thái)
Được dùng trong mệnh đề “that” đứng sau một số động từ chỉ các cảm giác mạnh như: to demand (đòi hỏi), to request (yêu cầu), to insist (nài nỉ), to recommend (khuyến nghị, đề nghị), và các từ ngữ it is essential (điều cốt yếu là), it is necessary (điều cần thiết là), it is important (việc quan trọng là)…. để nhấn mạnh.
Động từ trong mệnh đề “that” ở dạng nguyên thể
Eg: I demand(ed) that he be here on time.
It is necessary that he take the exam.
Hiện tại bàng thái cách cũng thường được thay thế bởi should + infinitive
I request(ed) that I should be given more time to consider the matter further.
Past subjunctive (quá khứ bàng thái)
được dùng trong mệnh đề “that” đứng sau động từ wish diễn tả ước muốn ước ao ở hiện tại, trái với thực tế
I wish (that) I had a car now.
* PHẦN II: BÀI TẬP VẬN DỤNG
Exercise 1: Choose the word or phrase that best complete the sentence (A,B,C or D)
If that hat costs much , I ……………a small one .
A . would have bought B.will buy C.bought D.would buy.
2) If you …………more carefully ,you wouldn’t have had so many accidents.
A. drive B.drove C.had driven D.driven
3) If I spoke English , my job …………………a lot easier.
A.was B.were C.will be D.would be
4. If he …………….to London yesterday, he ………….his old friend
A.went / would meet B.go / would meet
C.had gone / would have met D.went / would have met
5.I will lend them some money If they …………….me .
A.ask B.will ask C.asked D.had asked
6.If we had known who he was , we …………….him to speak at our meeting .
A.would have invited B.have invited C.will invite D.would invite
7.My dog will bark if it …………….any strange sound.
A.hear B.hears C.heard D.had heard.
8.If I ………….enough money ,I will buy a house.
A.had B had had C.will have D.have
9.If you …………..away , I will send for a policeman.
A.not go B.don’t go C.hadn’t gone D.didn’t go
10. If I ………in your place , I would accept Mr Anderson’s invitation .
A.were B.am C.be D.was
11.What ………..we do if they don’t come tomorrow?
A.would B.will C.did D.had
12.If I …………….you, I would tell the truth.
A.is B.am C.were D.was
13.If I had enough time now , I ………..to my parents.
A.would write B.write C.will write D.wrote
14.It’s too bad Helen isn’t here .If she ………..here , she ……..what to do.
A.is / will know B.was / knows
C.were / would know D.are / would have known
15.If she ………….late again , she will lose her job.
A.come B.came C comes D.had come
16.I will let you know if I ………..out what’s happening .
A.find B.finds C.found D.had found
17.If we …………….in a town , life would be better .
A.live B.lived C.would live D.had lived
18.I’m sure he wouln’t mind if we ……………early .
A.arrive B.arriving C.arrived D.had arrived
19 .If I won the lottery , I …….you half the money .
A.gave B.had given C.will give D.would give
20.It ………..be a pity if she married Fred.
A.will B.would C.can D.may
21.If I’m free on Saturday , I …………..to the mountains.
A.to go B.could go C.went D.can go
22.we …………….you if we have time .
A.will phone B.would phone C.phoned D.had phoned
23.If I ………….you ,I would help them .
A.am B will be C.were D.had been
24.I could have understood him if he ……………more slowly.
A.speaks B.spoke C.had spoken D.would speak
25.If I had known that you were in hospital, I ……………..you.
A.will visit B.would have visited C.visit D.don’t visit
26.I wouldn’t have believed it if I ………………it with my own eyes.
A.had seen B.saw C.hadn’t seen D.didn’t see
27.What would you have done if the lift ………..struck between two floors at that time.
A.had got B.got C.gets D.getting
28.If I …………that the traffic lights were red, I …………………..
A.had realized / would have stopped B. had realized / wouldn’t have stopped
C.realized / would stop C.realize / will not stop
29. If we have some eggs ,I ……………you a cake .
A.made B.makes C.will make D.would make
30.If you …………so busy , I would have shown you how to play .
A.hadn’t been B.weren’t C.aren’t D.wouldn’t be .
Exercise 2: Choose the best answer.
Had you told me that this was going to happen, I _______ it.
A. would never have believed B. don’t believe
C. hadn’t believed D. can’t believe
2. Put all the toys away……….. someone slips and falls on them.
A. provided that B. unless C. in case D. so long as
3. Many argue that the world will never make the switch to cleaner forms of energy………… easily obtainable soil sources remain.
A. suppose that B. providing that C. unless D.as long as
4. …………..you to be offered that job, would you have to move to another city?
A. should B. Were C. had D. Provided that
5. You will find their house __________ you take a good street map with you.
A. as long as B. even if C. if only D. otherwise:
6. You’d better stop spending money, _______ you will end up in debt
A. unless B. otherwise C. if D. in case
7. Henry__________ a rich man today if he had been more careful in the past.
A. will have been B. will be C. would have been D. would be
8._________ you visit him, give him my best wishes.
A. Could B. Would C. Should D. Might
9. Were she ten years younger, she ______________ the beauty contest.
A. will enter B. had entered C. would enter D. would have entered
10. If it………..their encouragement, he could have given it up.
A. had been for B. hadn’t been C. hadn’t been for D. wouldn’t have been for
11. _________ any employee be ill, they must call the office to inform their head of departure.
A. Were B. Should C. Had D. If
12. If Lucy’s car ___________ down, she would be here right now.
A. didn’t break B. hadn’t broken C. wouldn’t have been D. doesn’t break
13. Harry would certainly have attended the proceedings _________ .
A. if he didn’t get a flat tyre B. had he not had a flat tyre
C. had the tyre not flattened itself D. if the flat tyre didn’t happen
If I _____ my wallet at home this morning, I _____ money for lunch now.
A. leave / will have B. didn’t leave / would have
C. hadn’t left / would have D. hadn’t left / would have had
I………you sooner had someone told me you were in the hospital.
A-would have visited B-visited C-had visited D-visit
………then what I know today,I would have saved myself a lot of time and trouble over the years.
A-had I known B-did I know C-If I know D- If I would know
If someone ……in to the store,smile and say, “May I help you?”
A-comes B-came C-would come D-could come
Trees won’t grow ……….. there is enough water.
A. if B. when C. unless D. as
Exercise 3 choose the best answer
1. But for two minor mistakes, I would have got full marks for the test.
A. If I didn’t make two minor mistakes, I would have got full marks for the test.
B. I would have got full marks for the test if there hadn’t been these two minor mistakes
C. Had I made two minor mistakes, I would have got full marks for the test.
D. If the mistakes hadn’t been minor, I could have got full marks for the test.
2. Get in touch with me as soon as possible if you change your mind about the trip.
A. Should you change your mind about the trip, contact me as soon as possible
B. If you changed your mind about the trip, get in touch with me as soon as possible.
C. You should call me whenever you changed your mind about the trip.
D. Having changed your mind about the trip, you should get in touch with me soon
3. If it hadn’t been for the goalkeeper, United would have lost.
A. United didn’t lose the game thanks to their goalkeeper.
B. United lost the match because of their goalkeeper.
C. Without their goalkeeper, United could have won
D. If their goalkeeper didn’t play so well, United would have lost.
4. Without his help, we would all die.
A. We died because he didn’t help us. B. He didn’t help us, so we died.
C. If it hadn’t been for his help, we would all have died D. If he had helped us, we wouldn’t have died.
5. Had the announcement been made earlier, more people would have attended the lecture.
A. Not many people came to hear the lecture because it was held too late,
B. The lecture was held earlier so that more people would attend
C. Fewer people attended the lecture because of the early announcement.
D. Since the announcement was not made earlier, fewer people came to hear the lecture.
6. But for Helen acting so wonderfully, the play would be a flop
A. Helen acted so wonderfully, but the play was a flop. B. If it wasn’t for Helen’s wonderful acting, the play would be a flop
C. The play was a flop although Helen acted so wonderfully. D. The play was a flop although Helen was such a wonderful actor.
7. Provided your handwriting is legible, the examiner will accept your answer.
A. Although the examiner cannot read your handwriting, he will accept your answer,
B. Whatever your handwriting, the examiner will accept your answer.
C. The examiner will accept your answer if your handwriting is beautiful
D. So long as the examiner can read your handwriting, he will accept your answer.
8. But for his father’s early retirement, Richard would not have taken over the family business.
A. Richard only took over the family business because his father decided to retire early.
B. Richard didn’t take over the family business because his father didn’t retire early
C. His father retired early but he still ran the family business
D. Richard’s father didn’t want him to take over the family business despite his retirement
9. Were it not for the money, the job wouldn’t be worthwhile
A. This job is not rewarding at all
B. This job offers a poor salary
C. Although the salary is poor, the job is worthwhile
D. The only thing that makes this job worthwhile is the money.
10. You can stay in the flat for free if you pay the bills.
A. Provided you pay the bills, you can stay in the flat for free.
B. Without the bills paid, you can stay in the free flat.
C. Unless the flat is free of bills, you cannot stay in it.
D. Whether you pay the bills or stay in the flat, it is free.
11: She is now leading a normal life as a result of all the support she received from social workers.
A. Had it not been for the social workers, she wouldn’t be leading such a normal life now.
B.Because she receives all the support from social workers, she is leading a normal life now
C. If she didn’t receive all the support from social workers, she wouldn’t be leading a normal life now.
D. Had she not received so much support from social workers, she wouldn’t be leading such a normal life now.
12.In my experiments, the liquid is cooled to 32ºF. It always freezes.
If you cool the liquid to 32 degrees, it froze.
If you cooled the liquid to 32 degrees, it would freeze.
If you cool the liquid to 32 degrees, it will freeze.
If you had cooled the liquid to 32 degrees, it would have frozen.
Exercise 4: Choose the best answer:
1. I'm not very fit. I wish ______
A. I would be fitter B. I were fitter C. I was fitter D. I am fitter
2. It's very hot.
A. I wish it were cooler. C. A. I wish it were hotter.
B. I wish it was rain tomorrow. D. If only it had rained.
3. He likes to swim.
->He wishes he ……………… near the sea.
A. liked B. living C. lives D. to live
4. She wishes she ………………. blue eyes.
A.has B. had C. had had D. would have
5. If only I ___ him now.
A. see B. saw C. have seen D. seen
6. I wish it ___ a holiday today.
A. were B. will be C. is D. had been
7. . What a pity I didn’t meet you yesterday.
A. If only I met you yesterday. B. If only I meet you yesterday.
C. If only I had met you yesterday. D. If only I hadn’t met you yesterday.
8. . Susan regretted not buying that villa.
A. Susan wished she had bought that villa. B. Susan wished she bought that villa.
C. Susan wished she could buy that villa. D. Susan wished she hadn’t bought that villa.
9. It’s a pity that you didn’t tell us about this.
A. I wish you told us about this. B. I wish you would tell us about this.
C. I wish you had told us about this. D. I wish you have told us about this.
10. He wishes he …………… buy a new car.
A. can B. will C. could D. would
11. Those children are really noisy.
A. I wish they were quieter B. I wish they would be quiet
C. If only they were quieter D. Both A and C are correct
12. She misses him. She wishes he ……………. her a letter.
A. would send B. will send C. has sent D. would have sent
13. I wish I …….................... help you.
A. would B. can C. could D. will
14. She wishes she ……………………. him yesterday.
A. would meet B. meets C. met D. had met
15. Yesterday, John told me that he wishes he ________ harder in high school because then university might not be so difficult for him.
A. studied B. would study C. had studied D. studies
16. If only my motorbike………………broken down again, I would have arrived on time
A.would B. hadn’t C. didn’t D. wasn’t
17. I wish I _________ in prison, but I am
A. wasn't B. am not C. weren't D. were
18. I wish you…………….make that noise, it’s annoying!
A. don't B. wouldn't C. would D. couldn't
19. I wish I…………………………….to the movies with you last night.
A. went B. did go C. could go D. could have gone
20. . I hate Canadian winters. I wish I ______ in Hawai right now.
A. was B. am C. will be D. were
Exercise 5: Choose the best option to complete these following sentences.
1. Tom looked tired as though he __________very hard.
A. has worked B. worked C. work D. had worked
2. Henry talks with his dog as if it _________him.
A. understand B. understood C. understanding D. had understood.
3. She sings as if she ________ a singer.
A. were B. is C. had been D. has been
4. I feel as if my head ________fire now.
A. were B. is C. had been D. has been
5. Mary dresses as if she _______ a queen.
A. is B. be C.were D. had been
6. She acted as if she_______ big amount of money.
A. had B. has C. have D. had had
7. He spends his money as though he ________ a millionaire.
A. were B. is C. be D. has been
8. He talked about Paris as if he ____________there before
A.be B. been C. has been D. had been
9. Tom acts as if he __________my boss.
A. had been B. have been C be D. were
10. He talked as if he __________ all the work himself, but in fact Tom and I did most of it.
A. has done B. have done C did D.had done
11. Barbara looked at me as though she ___________me before.
A. has never met B. have never met C had never met D.never met
12. She behaved as though she _________ crazy
A. has been B. had been C. be D. B and C are right
13. He treats us as if we__________ all idiots
A. has been B. have been C. be D.were
14. The spacemen felt as if he ______ in a paradise.
A. had been B. falls C. fall D. has fallen
15. He behaved as though he __________to the USA.
A. has been B. had been C. were D. was
16. I wish the more effective teaching method______ used.
A. is B. was C. were D. has been
17. She wishes she ______ a fairy now.
A. was B. were C. is D. had been
18. She spent money as if she always______ plenty of it.
A. have B. had C. had had D. has
19. Mr Nam ate as if he ________anything for days
A. didn’t eat B. haven’t eaten C. hadn’t eaten D. not ate
20. She walks as if she_______ a wooden leg.
A. has B. have C. had D. have had
Exercise 6: Choose the correct answer
1. I ______watch the football game than basketball game
A. like B. would rather C. prefer D. would like
2. Jane would rather that it ______ winter now.
A. were B. be C. is D. had been
3. Would you rather ______ in ink or in pencil?
A. write B. writing C. to write D. wrote
4. I would rather that you ______ me tomorrow.
A. call B. to call C. calling D. will call
5. Henry would rather that his girlfriend ______in the same department as he does.
A. work B. to work C. working D. worked
6. It’s time you _________the house.
A. paint B. painted C. painting D. paints
7. Bob would rather that Jill ______ to class yesterday.
A. go B. went C. had gone D. have gone
8. It’s time we all .........................now.
A. had gone B. go C. should go D. went
9. John would rather ________ than worked last night.
A. slept B. was sleeping C. have slept D. had slept
10. It’s time __________a car.
A. go B. buy C. to buy D. buying
Exercise 7 : Choose the best answer
I requested that he …………..the work on time.
A.finishes B. will finish C. finish D. finished
It is necessary that she ………….. the club.
Ajoin B. joins C. would join D. has joined
The doctor suggested that the patient …………..smoking.
A.stop B. should stop C. would stop D. both A and B are correct
It is important that you ………..on time.
A.comes B. coming C. having come D. come
It is necessary that she …………..the housework.
A.do B. would do C. doing D. done
They requested that I …………early.
A.leave B. should leave C. left D. A or B
It is our wish that he…………… what he please.
A.is doing B. does C. do D. should have done
I propose that the minutes of the previous meeting……….. read.
A.to be B. be C. being D. should have been
The court ordered that the man …………..released.
A.be B. was C. is D. has been
It is essential that he ………..the bike.
A.to repair B. should repair C. would repair D. had better repair
CHUYÊN ĐỀ 5
CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG (PASSIVE VOICE)
* PHẦN I: LÝ THUYẾT
I. C¸ch dïng c©u bÞ ®éng.
- Khi kh«ng cÇn thiÕt ph¶i nh¾c ®Õn t¸c nh©n g©y hµnh ®éng( do t×nh huèng ®· qu¸ râ rµng hoÆc do kh«ng quan träng).
Eg: The road has been repaired.
-Khi chóng ta kh«ng biÕt hoÆc quªn ngêi thùc hiÖn hµnh ®éng.
Eg: The money was stolen.
- Khi chóng ta quan t©m ®Õn b¶n th©n hµnh ®éng h¬n lµ ngêi thùc hiÖn hµnh ®éng.
Eg: This book was published in Vietnam.
- Khi chñ ng÷ cña c©u chñ ®éng lµ chñ ng÷ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh nh : people, they, someone…
Eg: People say that he will win.
It’s said that he will win.
- Khi ngêi nãi kh«ng muèn nh¾c ®Õn chñ thÓ g©y ra hµnh ®éng
Eg: Smoking is not allowed here.
VÒ cÊu tróc c©u bÞ ®éng trong tiÕng Anh , t«i sÏ chia thµnh hai lo¹i sau :
Lo¹i 1: BÞ ®éng ®èi víi c¸c th× kh«ng tiÕp diÔn.
D¹ng nµy cã c«ng thøc tæng qu¸t sau: