ĐỀ CƯƠng ôn thi tốt nghiệp thpt quốc gia môn tiếng anh



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§éng tõ chia theo ch ng sè nhiÒu.

Ex: England, Scotland and Wales form Great Britain.

Ex: EJohn and I are cousins.

Ex: The headmaster and the teacher are talking.


*But: The secretary and accountant hasn't come yet. (Một người làm hai nhiệm vụ)

The great doctor and 'discoverer is no more.

Whisky and soda has always been his favourite drink.

( trong trường hợp 2 danh từ nối với nhau bằng AND nhưng chúng cùng chỉ 1 người, 1 bộ hoặc 1 món ăn. Đối với trường hợp cùng chỉ 1 người thì dấu hiệu nhận biết là danh từ thứ 2 không có THE, còn với bộ hoặc món ăn thì tùy vào ý của người nói).

Ex : - Fish and chips is a popular meal in Britain.

Ex - Fish and chips make a good meal (If we think of the items as "separate", we use plural verb)


NOTE: "Each" or "every" preceding singular subjects joined by "and" takes a singular verb,

Ex : Each boy and each girl is to work independently.


bS1+ OR +S2 =>§éng tõ hoµ hîp víi S2:

Ex: Has your mother or father given you permission to use the car?


cEither+S1+ or + S2  V hoµ hîp víi S2 :

Neither+ S1+Nor +S2

Ex: Neither the students nor their teacher regrets the approach of summer


. EACH/EVERY/EITHER/NEITHER + singular noun + singular verb

of + plural noun / pronoun


•. ALL / BOTH / FEW /A FEW/ MANY / SEVERAL / SOME + plural noun  PLURAL VERB

of + plural noun / pronoun


. ALL/ SOME /LITTLE/A LITTLE +Non count noun  singular verb

of+ Non count noun


6. Chñ ng÷ lµ danh tõ tËp hîp dïng nh­ 1 ®¬n vÞ =>V chia theo S số ít ( GROUP / JURY/ ARMY / FAMILY / CLASS /COMMITTEE / TEAM /ENEMY/ COUNCIL...)

Ex: The football team practises every day.

Ex: The herd of elk is in the meadow

Ex: The family arrives together at 8.00.


*Danh tõ tËp hîp chØ tõng thµnh viªn =>V chia theo S s nhiu.

Ex: The football team buy their own uniforms .

Ex: John has just arrived and now the family are all here.
*C¸c danh tõ nh­: the police, the military, the people, cattle, poultry, clergy,… => V chia theo S số nhiều.

Ex: The police are questioning him.


***. Danh từ tập hợp được hình thành bởi by "the + adjective" => V chia theo S số nhiều.

Ex: The sick need medical care and tenderness.

Ex: The American people don't trust the news
****. Danh từ tập hợp như FURNITURE / LUGGAGE / INFORMATION / KNOWLEDGE / TRAFFIC / EQUIPMENT / SCENERY / MACHINERY... (không bao giờ có _S với những danh từ này) => V chia theo S số ít.

Ex: The furniture was more expensive than I thought.

Ex: Traffic is heavy .

Ex: The traffic has increased rapidly in the downtown areas.


7. Chñ ng÷ lµ nhãm tõ chØ sè l­îng (kho¶ng thêi gian, ®o l­êng, träng l­îng, thÓ tÝch sè tiÒn...)=>V chia theo S số ít.

Ex: Twenty-two inches is a tiny waist measurement.

Ex: Fifty dollars seems a reasonable price
*Ph©n sè / phn trăm+N(sè Ýt )=> V chia theo S sè Ýt. Ex: A quarter of the cake is gone.

+ N( sè nhiÒu) => Vchia theo S sè nhiÒu. Ex: Half of the tables are occupied.
*The majority of+N(sè Ýt) => V chia theo S sè Ýt.

+N(sè nhiÒu) => Vchia theo S sè nhiÒu.

Ex: The majority of the customers are happy.


8. Tiªu ®Ò s¸ch b¸o, tªn c¬ quan, tæ chøc ®oµn thÓ, quèc gia, dï viÕt ë sè nhiÒu=> ®éng tõ chia theo S sè Ýt.

Ex: Chaucer's Canterbury Tales includes many humorous characterizations.

Ex: The Malay States is now part of the Federation of Malaysia.
9. C¸c danh tõ chØ bÖnh tËt, m«n häc, m«n thÓ thao, tªn n­íc, thñ ®«: news, means, series, billiards, mathematics, species, measles, mumps, rickets, mathematics, economics, , linguistics, physics, phonetics, athletics, politics, statistics, Algiers, Athens, Brussels, Marseilles, Naples, the Philippines, the United Nations, the United States, Wales.........) => ®éng tõ chia theo S sè Ýt.
Ex: The morning news is on at 6 o'clock.

Ex: Measles is sometimes serious.


10. Nh÷ng danh tõ sau ®©y lu«n ®i sè nhiÒu (glasses, scissors (keo), pants, shorts, jeans, tongs (cai kep), pliers (kim), tweezers (nhip), eye-glasses, ear-rings......)  §éng tõ chia theo S sè nhiÒu.

Ex: My trousers are torn .

Ex: These scissors are dull.
But:- A pair of glasses costs quite a lot these days.

- This pair of scissors is sharp.
11. THE NUMBER OF +N(sè nhiÒu)=> ®éng tõ chia theo S sè Ýt.

Ex: The number of road accidents is increasing.


12. A NUMBER OF +N (sè nhiÒu) => ®éng tõ chia theo S sè nhiều.

Ex: A number of spectators were injured


13. No + singular noun + singular verb : Ex: No example is right in this case.

plural noun + plural verb : Ex: No examples are right in this case.


14. None of the + non-count noun + -singular verb

plural noun + plural verb Ex: - None of the counterfeit money has been found.

Ex: - None of the students have finished the exam yet.
15. It + be + noun / pronoun (in the subject form)

Ex - It is they who provide the modem medical aids.

Ex- Go and tell them it is I who did it.
16. There + be + noun: ( động từ phụ thuộc vào danh từ).

Ex: There have not been many large-scale epidemics lately.


* PHẦN II:BÀI TẬP VẬN DỤNG

A. Choose the best answers to the following questions.

1. The Vietnamese people ----------- a heroic people.

A. is B. are C. was D. were

2. Miss White------------ her parents is going to pay a visit to the Great Wall.

A. and B both C. as well as D. or

3. The Vietnamese ----------hard-working and brave.

A. is B. are C. be D. being

4. A good deal of money ------------- spent on the books.

A. have B. has C. have been D. has been

5. The manager or his secretary ------------ to give you an interview.

A. is B. are C. were D. have

6. Mary is one of the girls who-------------often late for school.

A. is B. are C. comes D. get

7. Two hours -------------- not long enough for this rest.

A. have B. has C. is D. are

8. Ninety percent of the work -------------- been done.

A. is B. are C. has D. have

9. Those who ----------------- to go with me, please raise your hand.

A. want B. wants C. wanting D. are wanting

10. Salt and water ------------ to wash the wound

A. is used B. are used C. was used D. were used

11. The news ------------- bad last night.

A. were B. was C. has D. has been

12. Three-fifths of the police-------------in the school near the town.

A. has trained B. have trained C. has been trained D. have been trained

13. ------------ not only you but also he going to Japan?

A. Are B. Is C. Were D. Was

14. All the books on the shelf ----------------to me.

A. belong B. belongs C. belonging D. is belonging

15. The trousers you bought for me ------------ me.

A. don’t fit B. doesn’t fit C. fits D. fit not

16. Mumps _________ usually caught by children.

A. are B. was C. is D. were

17. The United States _________ between Canada and Mexico.

A. lying B. lies C. lain D. lie

18. Physics_________ us understand the natural laws.

A. helps B. help C. have helped D. helped

19. The police _________ the robber.

A. were arrested B. has arrested C. have arrested D. was arresting

20. The cattle __________ in the field.

A. is grazingB. grazes C. has grazed D. are grazing

21. Either you or he ____________ wrong.

A. are B. were C. have been D. is

22. John as well as Mary __________ very kind.

A. were B. are C. is D. have been

23. The doctor with the nurses ___________ exhausted after the operation.

A. were B. was C. have been D. are being

24. Five miles ___________ not very far.

A. is B. are C. were D. have been

25. ____________ ten years too long?

A. Are B. Is C. Are being D. Were

26. Neither his parents nor his teacher ____________ satisfied with his result.

A. are beingB. were C. is D. are

27. Each boy and each girl ___________ a book.

A. are havingB. have had C. have D. has

28. Writing a lot of letters ___________ her tired.

A. makes B. make C. have made D. are making

29. ___________ everybody ready to start now?

A. Are being B. Is being C. Is D. Are

30. None of the butter in the fridge ____________ good.

A. is being B. is C. have been D. are

31. None of the students ___________ the test yet.

A. have finished B. has finished C. finished D. is finishing

32. A pair of shoes ____________ under the bed.

A. have been B. are C. are being D. is

33. 200 tons of water ___________ last month.

A. was used B. had been used C. were used D. is used

34. In the hotel, the bread and butter _____________ for breakfast.

A. is served B. are served C. serves D. serve

35. ___________ were nice to me when I was in England.

A. The Brown’s B. Brown’s C. The Browns D. Browns

B. Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order to make the sentence correct.

36. Neither his parents nor his teacher are satisfied with his result when he was at high school.

37. Daisy was the only one of those girls that get the scholarship.

38. Working provide people with personal satisfaction as well as money.

39. Either the doctor or the nurses takes care of changing the patients’

bandages.

40. Every student who majors in English are ready to participate in the

oratorical contest.

41. One hundreds eight thousand miles is the speed of light.

42. The guest of honour, along with his wife and children, were sitting at the first table when we had a party yesterday.

43. The audience was enjoying every minute of the performance.

44. All the books on the top shelf belongs to me.

45. Five thousand pounds were stolen from the bank.

46. Happiness and success depends on yourself.

47. The loss of her husband and two of her sons were too much for her.

48. David and his brother was indicted yesterday on charges of grand theft.

49. Current research on AIDS, in spite of the best efforts of hundreds of scientists, leave serious questions unanswered.

50. Everyone have to plan a program that fits into the day’s schedule and that allows for good exercise and appropriate rest.


CHUYÊN ĐỀ 3
DANH ĐỘNG TỪ VÀ ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN THỂ ( GERUND AND INFINITIVE)
* PHẦN I: LÝ THUYẾT
I. GERUND :

1. Chức năng:

 Là chủ ngữ của câu: Dancing bored him

 Bổ ngữ của động từ: Her hobby is painting

 Là bổ ngữ: Seeing is believing

 Sau giới từ: He is interested in watching films on Tv.

 Sau một vài động từ: avoid, mind, enjoy.........



2. Một số cách dùng đặc biệt:

a. Verb + V-ing: Danh động từ theo sau một số động từ:

Admit: thú nhận

Anticipate: trông mong, mong đợi

Avoid: tránh

Appreciate: tán thành

Consider: xem xét

Delay: hoãn lại

Defer: trì hoãn

Deny: từ chối

Detest: ghét

Dislike: không thích

Dread: sợ

Enjoy: thích thú Escape: trốn thoát

Excuse: thứ lỗi

Fancy: đam mê

Finish


Forgive: tha thứ

Like: thích

Love: yêu thích

Imagine: tưởng tượng

Involve: dính líu, liên quan

Keep: giữ, tiếp

Mind: phiền

Miss: lỡ, nhớ

Mention: đề cập

Pardon: tha thứ, tha lỗi

Prefer

Prevent: ngăn ngừa



Postpone: hoãn lại

Practice: thực hành

Prevent

Propose (= suggest)



Quit: từ bỏ

Recollect: nhớ lại

Resent: căm thù

Recall: gợi nhớ/ recollect

Resume: cho rằng

Resist : kháng cự, ngăn cản

Risk : mạo hiểm

Remember/ forget

Suggest: gợi ý

Stop/ begin/ start

Understand: hiểu

Discuss: thảo luận

Hate: ghét

Ex: He admitted taking the money.

Avoid over-eating

He detests writing letters.

He didn’t want to risk getting wet.

I can’t understand his/ him leaving his wife.

Chú ý: excuse, forgive, pardon, prevent không trực tiếp theo sau bởi danh động từ mà theo sau bởi:

Possessive adjective/ pronoun + danh động từ hoặc pronoun + preposition + danh động từ

Appreciate thường theo sau bởi tính từ sở hữu hoặc danh động từ ở dạng bị động

Ex: Forgive my/ me ringing you up so early.

Forgive me for ringing you up so early.

You can’t prevent his/ him spending his own money.

You can’t prevent him from spending his own money.

I appreciate your giving me o much of your time./ I appreciate being given this opportunity.

b. common phrasal verbs + V-ing: (sau một số cụm động từ)

carry on, end up, give up, go round, keep on, put off, set about…



c. Expression + V-ing: Một số thành ngữ theo sau bởi V-ing

- have fun/ a good time + V-ing : vui vẻ …

- have trouble/ difficulty + V-ing:

- have a hard time/ difficult time + V-ing

- spend + time/ money + V-ing (present participle)

He spends 3 hours studying English every day.

- waste + time/money + V-ing :

- sit + Danh từ nơi chốn + V-ing : she sat at her desk writing a letter

- stand + danh từ nơi chốn + V-ing

- lie + danh từ nơi chốn + Ving

- can’t help = can’t bear = can’t stand = can’t resist (không thể chịu được)



I can’t bear hearing his lies

         I can’t stand seeing him here           

- it is no good / it is no use (vô ích / không có ích) :             It’s no use phoning him at this time

- there’s no point in …

- What’s the point of…

      - to be busy           bận rộn

            My mother is busy cooking in the kitchen.

- to be  worth                  đáng 

            This book is worth reading

- be use to = get used to = be accustomed to : quen với

- S + prefer + V-ing + to + V-ing: thích làm gì hơn làm gì

= S + would rather Vinf than Vinf



d. go + gerund để chỉ một hoạt động đặc biệt nào đó: (Present participle)

- go fishing                      đi câu cá go hunting go bowling go jogging

- go shopping                  đi mua sắm go camping go sightseeing go sailing

- go swimming                đi bơi go dancing go running ….

- go hiking                       đi bộ dã ngoại go birdwatching go boating go canoening

- go mountain climbing

* Cụm giới từ theo sau bới V-ing:

be excited/ worried about V-ing

complain keep (someone)

dream about/ of + V-ing prevent (someone) from V-ing

talk stop (someone)

think

apologize believe

blame (someone) be interested in V-ing

forgive (someone) for V-ing succeed

be responsible

thank (someone)

      


be tired of V-ing in addition

be waste look forward to V-ing


* Preposition +gerund (giới từ +gerund):

Be interested in (thích thú) think about (nghĩ về) apologize for (xin lỗi về)

Insist on (khăng khăng về) talk about (nói về) instead of (thay vì)
Be accustomed to look forward to ( mong đợi )

be / get used to quen /thích nghi với be familiar with



3. The perfect gerund:

Form: having Vpp

The perfect gerund được sử dụng thay the present form of gerund (V-ing) khi chúng ta đề cập tới một hành động đã hoàn tất trong quá khứ:

Ex: He was accused of having stolen her money.

He denied having been there.



4. The passive gerund:

Form: being + past participle (present)

Having + been + Vpp (past)

Ex: She hates being called a dull.

The mountain climbers are in danger of being killed by an avalanche.

I am interested in being given money by my mother.

He was punished by being sent to bed without any supper.

The safe showed no signs of having been touched.
II. INFINITIVES: §éng tõ nguyªn thÓ

1. Chức năng:

- Làm chủ ngữ của câu: (cùng với các động từ: appear, seem, be)



Ex: To save money now seems impossible.

= It seems impossible to save money (more usual)

- Làm bổ ngữ của động từ (be):



Ex: His plan is to keep the affair secret.

- Làm tân ngữ của động từ:

Ex: He wants to play

- Chỉ mục đích: He learns English to sing English songs.

- Sau một số tính từ:

2. Bare infinitive (infinitive without to)



    • Được dùng sau động từ make, have với nghĩ nguyên cớ (causative)

The Brown made their children clean their room.

The guest had the porters carry their luggage upstairs.



  • Được dùng sau động từ giác quan như see, hear, feel,notice, taste, smell, ....

We incidentally saw the plane crash into the moutain.

The man noticed his assistant leave work earlier than usual.



* chú ý:

Feel, hear, see, watch, smell , find + O + Ving (present participle): bắt gặp ai đó đang làm gì

Feel, hear, see, watch, smell , find + O + bare inf. : thấy ai đó đã làm gì

  • Đuợc dùng sau động từ let và help.

My brother let me use computer.

The parents helped their children set up the tent.



  • Được dùng sau các đọng từ khuyết thiếu và trợ động từ: can, could, will, shall, would, should, used to, had better, need, ought to, do, did …

  • Trong cấu trúc: would rather + bare infinitve/ had better

3. To – infinitive:

A. To infinitive sau động từ:

D¹ng 1: V + TO INFINITIVE : Mét sè ®éng tõ theo sau lµ to infinitive

1.agree: đồng ý 2.aim: nhằm mục đích 3. appear: có vẻ 4.arrange: sắp xếp

5.ask: yêu cầu 6.attempt: cố gắng 7.bother: phiền 8.care: để ý

9.choose: chọn 10.claim: công bố 11.decide: quyết định 12.demand: yêu cầu

13.determine: định đoạt 14.fail: thất bại 15.guarantee: bảo đảm 16.happen: xảy ra

17. hesitate: do dự 18.hope: hy vọng 19.learn: học 20.manage: xoay xở 21.neglect: lơ đãng 22.offer: đề nghị 23.plan: có kế hoạch 24.prepare:chuẩn bị 25.pretend: giả vờ 26. proceed: tiếp nối 27.promise: 28.prove: chứng tỏ

29.refuse: từ chối 30.resolve: nhất quyết 31.seem: 32.swear: thề

33.tend: có xu hướng 34.threaten: dọa 35.volunteer: tình nguyện

36.vow: dụ dỗ 37.wish 38.want 39.need

40.wait 41. expect 42. intend 43. would like/ would love

44. beg 45. begin/ start 46. afford : đủ khả năng 47. be willing 48. be able 49. expect 50. intend 51.beg: cầu khẩn

52. prefer



D¹ng 2: V + O + TO INFINITIVE

- Danh từ/ đại từ làm tân ngữ (objects) đi sau, rồi mới đến “to infinitive”

Ví dụ:

- She advised  me to go to the English Club.



* Một số động từ thường gặp:

+ advise : khuyên + allow: cho phép

+ ask: yêu cầu. + cause: gây ra.

+ command : yêu cầu, ra lệnh + encourage: khuyến khích

+ expect: mong chờ. + forbid: cấm

+ force : buộc + instruct: chỉ dẫn

+ invite: mời + oblige: bắt buộc

+ need: cần - We need you to help us

+ teach: dạy - My brother taught me to swim

+ tell: bảo. + want: muốn

+ warn : cảnh báo + remind: nhắc nhở

+ order: yêu cầu, ra lệnh + persuade : thuyết phục

+ request: yêu cầu + show :

+ train : đào tạo, huấn luyện + instruct: chỉ dẫn

+ permit: cho phép + remind: nhắc nhở



* NOTES :

+ allow / permit / advise/ recommend/ encourage + object + to infinitive

Ex: She doesn’t allow me to smoke in her room



+ allow/ permit/ recommend/ encourage/ advise + gerund

Ex: She doesn’t allow smoking in her room



D¹ng 3: V + TO INFINITIVE/ GERUND (một số động từ theo sau bởi to infinitive and gerund)

Nhóm 1: V + to Infinitive / Gerund ( không khác nghĩa )

- begin                   bắt đầu - prefer                  thích .. hơn - can’t stand

- start                     bắt đầu - hate                     ghét - can’t bear

- continue              tiếp tục - love                    yêu thích - intend

- like                      thích - bother làm phiền

Các động từ trên có thể được theo sau bởi to Infinitive hoặc Gerund mà ý nghĩa hÇu nh­ không đổi.

Ví dụ:

          - He began to laugh

          = He began laughing

  Chú ý :



a) Không nên dùng: It’s beginning raining

Nên nói: It is begining to rain



b) Động từ nguyên mẫu thường mang ý nghĩa của một mục đích, một dự tính trong tương lai, trong khi danh động từ mang ý nghĩa một kinh nghiệm sẵn có. Cách sử dụng chúng đôi khi rất tinh tế như sau:

Ví dụ

 - I like to meet the public

  (Tôi thích gặp công chúng – Tôi thấy nên gặp, cần gặp → dự định)

- I like meeting the public

  (Tôi thích gặp công chúng. Tôi thấy vui khi gặp và tôi luôn làm thế).

          Nhóm 2: V + infinitive / Gerund ( khác nghĩa)



  remember, forget, regret, try, stop, need , go on

  1. NEED




Need to do = it is necessary to do :cÇn ph¶i lµm ( ®éng tõ nguyªn mÉu mang nghÜa chñ ®éng)

Need doing = need to be done : cÇn ph¶i ®­îc lµm ( ®éng tõ nguyªn mÉu mang nghÜa bÞ ®éng)


  • Tom needs to work harder. (It is necessary for Tom to work harder.)

  • The grass in front of the house needs cutting. (The grass in front of the house needs to be cut.)




  1. STOP




Stop to do = stop in order to do : dõng l¹i ®Ó lµm viÖc g× kh¸c

Stop doing = not to do something any longer : dõng lµm viÖc g× ®ã (®ang lµm)


  • They stopped to look at the pictures.

  • They stopped smoking because it is bad for their health.


c. REGRET/ REMEMBER/ FORGET:

Remember/forget/regret + to V: nhớ/quên/tiếc sẽ phải làm gì (ở hiện tại và tương lai)
* Remember to send this letter (hãy nhớ gửi bức thư này). Don’t forget to buy flowers (đừng quên mua hoa đấy)

* I regret to inform you that the train was canceled (tôi rất tiếc phải báo tin cho anh rằng chuyến tầu đã bị hủy bỏ)




Remember/forget/regret + V-ing: nhớ/quên/tiếc đã làm gì (ở quá khứ).
I paid her $2. I still remember that. I still remember paying her $2 (tôi nhớ đã trả cô ấy 2 đô la).

She will never forget meeting the Queen (cô ấy không bao giờ quên lần gặp nữ hoàng)

He regrets leaving school early. It is the biggest mistake in his life.
d. TRY
Try to do : cè g¾ng lµm

Try doing : thö lµm

  • She tries to pass the entrance exam to the college of pharmacy.

  • I’ve got a terrible headache. I try taking some aspirins but they didn’t help.


e. GO ON:




Go on doing s.th. : tiÕp tôc lµm cïng mét viÖc g× ®ã.

Go on to do s.th. : lµm hay nãi viÖc g× kh¸c


  • The Minister went on talking for two hours.

  • We must change our ways. We can’t go on living like this.

  • After discussing the economy, the Minister went on to talk about foreign policy.

f. MEAN

Mean + to V = intend to V: dự định làm gì đó

Mean + V-ing = involve: bao gồm, bao hàm, có nghĩa là

B. To infinitive sau một số tính từ:


  • Trong cấu trúc sau: IT + BE + ADJECTIVE + TO INFINITIVE

Ví dụ:

- It’s difficult to find their house   Thật khó tìm ra nhà của họ

- It’s dangerous to drive fast   Lái xe nhanh thì nguy hiểm.

 - It’s important to learn English   Học tiếng Anh thì rất quan trọng

     Có hai dạng tương đương như sau:

= To infinitive + be + Adjective

  Gerund



Ví dụ:

- It’s exciting to play football   Chơi bóng đá thật thú vị.

= to play football is exciting

= playing football is exciting



    • To infinitive sau 1 số tính từ:

Able, unable, happy, delighted (vui vẻ), easy, lovely, glad, sorry, eager (háo hức), amazed (ngạc nhiên), pleased (hài lòng), disappointed, surprised, willing (sẵn lòng), certain (chắc chắn)

  • Trong cấu trúc:

* S + be/ get/ look/ seem/ become...+ too + Adj +(for O) + to infi.

S + V (thường) + too + Adv +(for O) + to infi.

Ex: The water in this glass is too hot to drink.



This coffee is too hot for me to drink.

He runs too slowly to catch the bus.

*S + be + Adj + enough (for O) + to infi.

S + V (thường) + Adv + enough (for O) + to infi.

Ex: He is old enough to get married.



He’s intelligent enough to get good marks.

They speak slowly enough to understand.

* so + adjective + as + infinitive

Ex: He was so foolish as to leave his car unlocked.



*It + cost/ take + O + to infinitive…

Ex: It would cost millions/ take years to rebuild the castle.

C. Sau một số từ để hỏi:

Verb + how/what/when/where/ which/why + infinitive

Những động từ sử dụng công thức này là ask, decide, discover, find out, forget, know, learn, remember, see, show + object, think, understand, want to know, wonder.



Ex : He discovered how to open the safe.

I found out where to buy fruit cheaply.

She couldn’t think what to say

I showed her which button to press.

She wondered whether to write or phone.

D. Chỉ mục đích:

Ex: He tried to study hard in order to / so as to/ to pass every exam



E. Noun + to infinitive ( replace a relative clause)

Ex: 1. I have many things which I must do/ to do

2. She is always the last to go/ who goes

F. S + V + Đại từ bất định + To V

(anywhere, anybody, anything, somebody, something, somewhere, nobody, nothing, nowhere, everything, everybody, everywhere)

Ex: Is there anywhere to go?

He has got nothing to eat



G. Sau một số cụm từ sau:

be about :định, sẽ

be able : có thể

do one’s best : cố gắng

make an/ every effort: nỗ lực

make up one’s mind: quyết định

can’t afford

Ex: He is just about to leave

We can’t afford to live in the centre

H. Thay cho một mệnh đề quan hệ:

- Động từ nguyên thể có thể được sử dụng sau the first, the second..., the last, the only và thỉnh thoảng sau so sánh hơn nhất



Ex: He loves parties; he is always the first who comes and the last who leaves.

= He loves parties; he is always the first to come and the last to leave

He is the second one to be killed in this way.

4. The perfect infinitive:

+ Form: to have + Vpp

+ Use:

- Dùng với was/ were để diễn tả một kế hoạch chưa thực hiện được

Ex: The house was to have been ready today (but it isn’t)

- Dùng sau would/ would like để diễn tả một điều ước vẫn chưa hoàn thiện

Ex: He would like to have seen it (but it was impossible)

- Dùng với một số động từ: appear, happen, pretend, seem, believe, consider, find, know, report, say, suppose, think, understand…



III. PASSIVE INFINITIVE AND GERUND:

+ Passive gerund: being + past participle

Ex: She hates being called a dull.

The mountain climbers are in danger of being killed by an avalanche.

I am interested in being given money by my mother.

+ Passive infinitive: to be + past participle

Ex: I hoped to be invited to the party.

He refused to be taken to hospital.

She doesn’t want to be asked personal questions

Được dùng để nhấn mạnh hành động/ sự kiện hơn là tác nhân gây ra hành động


* PHẦN II: BÀI TẬP VẬN DỤNG

Exercise 1: Multiple choice

  1. I enjoy _________ alone.

a. be b. to be c. being d. to have been

  1. Would you like _______to the party?

a. to come b. come c. coming d. to have come

  1. Do you mind_______ such a long way to work everyday?

a. to travel b. travel c. to have travelled d. travelling

  1. I don’t like that house. I would hate _______there.

a. live b. living c. to live d. to have lived

  1. Sometimes I would like_______ to play the piano.

a. to learn b. learning c. learn d. to have learned

  1. Please remember _______this letter.

a. to post b. post c. posting d. to have posted

  1. We tried _______the fire out but we were unsuccessful. We had to call the fire­- brigade.

a. putting b. put c. to put d. to have put

  1. Someone must have taken my bag. I clearly remember_______ it by the window and now it has gone.

a. leave b. to leave c. to have left d. leaving

  1. Jane needed some money. She tried _______Harry but he couldn’t help her.

a. to have asked b .to ask c. asking d. ask

  1. Please tell me how _______this

a. do b. to do c. doing d. to have done

  1. One is never too old_______

a. to learn b. learning c. learn d. to have learned

  1. You are old enough _______out alone.

a. going b. to go c. to have gone d. go

  1. I’m glad _______you

a. to meet b. meet c. meeting d. to have met

  1. It’s nice _______you

a. to know b. know c. knowing d. to have known

  1. We stopped_______ hello to her.

a. say b. to say c. saying d. to have said

16. It’s no use ______ those things.

a. buy b. buying c. to buy d. to be bought

17. After ______, she invited the audience to ask questions.

a. finish b. finished c. finishing d. to finish

18. Robbins started ______ a few years ago.

a. to jog b. jogging c. jog d. A and B are correct

19. I suggest ________ some more mathematics puzzles.

a. do b. to do c. doing d done

20. My computer needs _______.

a. repair b. to repair c. repairing d. repaired


  1. I want ----- at home tonight

a. staying b. to stay c. stay d. stayed

  1. Alice isn’t interested in ------- for a new job

a. look b. to look c. looks d. looking

  1. We’re going out for dinner. Would you like ----- us?

a. joining b. to join c. join d. joins

  1. When Beth got tired, she stopped -------

a. working b. to work c. work d. works

  1. Don’t forget ------ the letter I gave you yesterday

a. post b. posting c. posts d. to post

  1. Her boss refuses ------ her a raise

a. giving b. to give c. give d. a & b correct

  1. She enjoys ----- with many people

a. work b. working c. to work d. works

  1. Mary was in a difficult situation, so he agreed ------- her some money

a. to lend b. lend c. lending d. a & c correct

  1. They sometimes avoid ------ him

a. meeting b. meet c. to meet d. meets

  1. It was a nice day, so we decided -------- for a walk

a. going b. go c. to go d. goes

  1. Would you mind -------- the door? Thanks

a. opening b. open c. opens d. to open

32. The man wanted to avoid ...................... on security cameras.

a. to see b. seeing c .to be seen d. being seen

33. I tried ........................... the bus, but I missed it.

a. to catch b. catching c. to be caught d. being caught

34. The plants want ........................... daily.

a. to water b. watering c. to be watered d. both b and c

35. Will you remind me .................... this letter at the post office?

a. to post b. posting c. to be posted d. being posted

36. The goods ought ....................... two weeks ago.

a. to deliver b. delivering c. to be delivered d. being delivered

37. I have expected ......................... the secret of happiness.

a. to tell b. telling c. to be told d. being told

38. John had agreed ......................... me in his office.

a. to meet b. meeting c. to be met d. being met

39. I don’t like _____ when I am not there.

a. criticizing b. being criticized c. to criticize d. to be criticized

40. She expected ________ to the principal.

a. to introduce b. being introduced c. to be introduced d. being introduced

41. Tom was sad about ________ in class yesterday.

a. punishing b. being punished c. to be punished d. punished

42. You shouldn’t make your son _______ too much.

a. study b. studied c. to study d. studying

43 John had agreed ......................... me in his office.

a. to meet b. meeting c. to be met d. being met

44. It’s important for the figures ......................... regularly.

a. to update b. updating c. to be updated d. being updated

45. It is no good ............................ sorry for yourself.

a. to feel b. feeling c. feel d. felt

46. Peter regrets …………Marry’s birthday party

a. not to attend b. not attending c. not to be attending d. not to be attended

47. Will you remind me .................... this letter at the post office?

a. to post b. posting c. to be posted d. being posted

48. I shall never forget-----------with you to Paris last year.

a. staying b. to staying c. to stay d. stayed

49. I am looking forward to -----------you.

a. having seen b. seeing c. to see d. all are wrong

50. I am always remember------------ off the lights before I leave my house.

a. turning b. to turn c. turned d. being turned

51.She was able………………English when she was very young.

a. to sing b. sing c. singing d. sang

52. Could you please stop …………..so much noise?



  1. make b. to make c. made d. making

53. She said that she had talked to me but I didn’t remember ……………her before.

  1. seeing b. to see c. not seeing d. see

54. Let your name…………..in the sheet of paper.

  1. write b. be written c. written d. to write

55. We hoped……………..by our teacher.

  1. to help b. helping c. to be helped d. being helped


Exercise 2: Sentence transformation

56. My teacher wouldn’t let me leave early.



A. My teacher refused to let me leave early.

B. My teacher refused letting me leave early.

C. My teacher allowed me to leave early.

D. My teacher permitted me to leave early.

57. It is your duty to tell him what to do.

A. You are supposed to tell him what to do.

B. You are given the duty to tell him what he has to do.

C. It is said that you tell him what to do.

D. Please tell him what he has to do.

58. It is pointless to try to make him change his mind.

A. It is a waste of time trying and making him change his mind.

B. It is a waste of time to try and make him change his mind.

C. There is no time to try to make him change his mind.

D. There is no time trying to make him change his mind.

59. I want to know the depth of the river at this point.

A. I want to know how the river is deep at this point.

B. I want to know how deep is the river at this point.

C. I want to know how deep the river is at this point.

D. I want to know how the deep river is at this point.

60. The tea wasn’t sweet enough for Betty to drink.

A. Betty didn’t like to drink the sweet tea.



B. Betty couldn’t drink the tea. She liked more sugar.

C. There wasn’t enough tea, and Betty had nothing to drink.

D. Betty drank some of the tea but not enough.

61. You had better take some medicine.

A. You ought to drink medicine.

B. You must take a number of tablets.

C. You have to have some medicine.

D. You should have some medicine.

62. The doctor advised him to go the local hospital for a check-up.

A. He was advised to go to the international hospital for a check-up.

B. He was advised to go to the hospital where he is now living for a check-up.

C. He was advised to go to the best hospital for a check-up.

D. For a check-up, he was told to stay at home.

63. It’s a waste of time trying to explain anything to Tony.

A. Tony should be given explanation.

B. It’s not worth trying to explain anything to Tony.

C. To save time, explain it to Tony.

D. It’s well worth trying to explain things to Tony.

64. I couldn’t help laughing when he told me that story.



A. I couldn’t resist laughing when he told me that story.

B. I couldn’t help him tell that story.

C. I did not laugh when hearing that story.

D. The story he told me not help at all.

65. We think he was in London last year.

A. He was thought to be in London last year.

B. He was thought to have been in London last year.

C. He is thought to be in London last year.



D. He is thought to have been in London last year.

66. There’s no point in persuading him to do this.

A. he is able to do this although he does not want to.

B. It would be useful to persuade him to do this.

C. I enjoy persuading him to do this.

D. It is useless to persuade him to do this.

67. The court found the man innocent of murdering his wife.



A. The man was judged not guilty of killing his wife.

B. The man was found murdered by his wife.

C. The court found a murdered man and his wife.

D. The court decided that the man had killed his wife.



Exercise 3: Find a mistake in the four underlined parts A,B,C or D of each sentence.

68. I decided to change jobs because my boss makes me work over time.

A B C D

69. Get more exercise appears to be the best way to lose weight.



A B C D

70. Let’s stop to watch so much TV so that we can read or go out instead.

A B C D

71. I advise you starting looking for a flat at once.



A B C D

72. He postponed to make a decision till it was too late to do anything.

A B C D

73. It is extremely important for an engineer to know to use a computer.



A B C D

74. There’s no point having a car if you never use it.

A B C D

75. I’d like him going to a university, but I can’t make him go.



A B C D

76. Simon finds it hard for making friends with other children.

A B C D

77. During a curfew it is not possible walking on the streets after a specified hour.



A B C D

78. His teacher encouraged him talking part in the international piano competition.

A B C D

79. Don’t let the children to stay up too late.



A B C D

80. We were made doing a lot of homework at our school.

A B C D
KEYS:

1.C 2.A 3.D 4.C 5.A 6. A 7.C 8. D 9. C 10.B 11A 12.B

13.A 14.A 15.B 16.B 17.C 18.D 19.C 20.C 21.B 22.D 23.B 24.A 25.D 26.B 27.B 28.A 29.A 30.C 31.A 32.D 33.A 34.D

35.A 36. C 37. C 38.A 39. D 40.C 41. B 42. A 43. A 44.C 45. B

46. B 47. A 48. A 49. B 50. B 51. A 52.D 53. A 54.B 55.C

56.A 57.A 58.A 59.C 60.B 61.D 62.B 63.B 64.A 65.D 66.D 67.A 68.D 69.A 70.B 71.A 72.A 73.D 74.B 75.A 76.C 77.B 78.B 79.C 80.B


CHUYÊN ĐỀ 4
CÂU GIẢ ĐỊNH (SUBJUNCTIVE)
* PHẦN I: LÝ THUYẾT

PART A- CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

I/ GRAMMAR:

1, Conditional sentences: TYPE 1:

a) use: câu điều kiện loại 1 còn được gọi là câu điều kiện có thực ở hiện tại .Điều kiện có thể xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai.

b) Form:



If + S + V (hiện tại đơn ) , S + Will(can,may) + V (nguyên mẫu) .

(S + Will(can,may) + V(nguyên mẫu) + If + S + V(hiện tại đơn).

Ex: If it is sunny ,I will go fishing.

If she gets up late ,she will miss the bus.

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