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IV. Correlative Conjunctions: Some conjunctions combine with other words to form what are called correlative conjunctions. They always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal.


  • She led the team not only in statistics but also by virtue of her enthusiasm.

  • Polonius said, "Neither a borrower nor a lender be."

  • Whether you win this race or lose it doesn't matter as long as you do your best.

both . . . and
not only . . . but also
not . . . but
either . . . or


neither . . . nor
whether . . . or
as . . . as


1. both ... and ...

E.g. She is both intelligent and beautiful (adj)



Both his brother and he are students ( nouns)

* Note: Trong câu sử dụng “Both ….and…” thì động từ phải chia ở dạng số nhiều.

- Ask for some more examples with both ...... and from Ss.

2. not only.... but (also) .......

e.g. Not only workers but (also) farmers take part in the strike

He studies not only Japanese but (also) Chinese.

*Note: Trong câu sử dụng “Not only ….but also…” thì động từ phải chia phù hợp với chủ ngữ đứng trước nó.

E.g. Not only does he speak English but also speaks German.

E.g. Not only his friend but also his brother gives him presents

- Ask for some more examples with not only ..... but (also) from Ss.

3. either.... or....

E.g. Either you or your friend is responsible for the damage.

My brother likes either footbal or volleyball.

- Ask for some more examples with either ..... or from Ss.



4. neither ... nor....

E.g. She likes neither tea nor coffee.



Neither Tom nor his friends want to go camping.

Neither Tom nor Tim wants to go camping

5. Inversion

E.g 1. My mother doesn’t like drinking coffee, I don’t like, either.

My mother doesn’t like drinking coffee, neither do I.

E.g 2. Linh is interested in learning English. I am interested in learning English, too.

Linh is interested in learning English, so am I.

E.g 3. Not only did they take care of me, but they also treated me as if I were their own daughter.



* When a clause with neither or nor is used after a negative clause, we invert the subject and the verb after neither and nor:

E.g 4. He hadn’t done any homework, neither had he brought any of his books to class.

E.g 5. We didn’t get to see the castle, nor did we see the cathedral.

V. PRACTICE

Exercise 1: Find out the sentence that has the same meaning as the original one.


  1. Ron enjoys horseback riding. Bob enjoys horseback riding, too.

A. Both Ron and Bob enjoys horseback riding.

B. Both Ron and Bob enjoy horseback riding.

C. Neither Ron nor Bob enjoys horseback riding.

D. Either Ron or Bob enjoys horseback riding.



2. Arthur is absent. Ricardo is absent, too.

A. Arthur is absent but Ricardo is not.

B. Both Ricardo and Arthur is absent.

C. Both Ricardo and Arthur are present.

D. Both Ricardo and Arthur are absent.

3. Coal is an irreplaceable natural resource. Oil is also an irreplaceable natural resource.

A. Neither coal nor oil is an irreplaceable natural resource.

B. Either coal or oil is an irreplaceable natural resource.

C. Both coal and oil are irreplaceable natural resources.

D. Both coal and oil is irreplaceable natural resources.

4. She is both beautiful and intelligent.

A. She is not only beautiful but also intelligent.

B. She is either intelligent or beautiful.

C. She is neither intelligent nor beautiful.

D. She is beautiful but she is not intelligent.

5. She is both a teacher and a good wife.

A. She is not a good wife and a teacher.

B. She is a teacher although she is a good wife.

C. In spite of being a good wife, she is not a teacher.

D. She is not only a teacher but also a good wife.

6. Jane hasn’t written me a letter for 2 weeks. Tom hasn’t written me for two weeks.

A. Jane hasn’t written me a letter for 2 weeks, so has Tom.

B. Jane hasn’t written me a letter for 2 weeks, neither has Tom.

C. Jane hasn’t written me a letter for 2 weeks, Tom has, too.

D. Jane hasn’t written me a letter for 2 weeks, Tom also has.

7. His grandma was surprised at his school report. His dad’s feeling was the same.

A. His grandma was surprised at his school report, his dad, either.

B. His grandma was surprised at his school report, so was his dad’s feeling.

C. His grandma was surprised at his school report, neither his dad’s feeling.

D. His grandma was surprised at his school report, his dad did, too.

8. I haven’t ever tasted caviar, my classmate Lam has, either.

A. I haven’t ever tasted caviar, neither my classmate Lam has.

B. I haven’t ever tasted caviar, neither has my classmate Lam.

C. I haven’t ever tasted caviar, also my classmate Lam has.

D. Both I and Lam haven’t tasted caviar.

Exercise 2: Choose the best answer

1. You can use my bicycle ______ you bring back tomorrow.

A. as long as B. although C. nevertheless D. in spite of

2. She spoke quietly to him _______ nobody else could hear a word.

A. because B. if C. although D. so that

3. You may stay _________ you like.

A. as far as B. as long as C. so much as D. so far

4. I’m going to Britain _________ learn English.

A. so as to B. in order to C. both A&B D. in order that

5. He went to the library ____________.

A. so as to borrow a book C. to borrowing a book

B. in order that I borrow a book D. both A&B



Exercise 3: Choose the best answer to fill in the gaps.
1. I can’t come out tonight ___________I’ve got too much homework.

A. but B. while C. because D. although

2. Three nuclear power stations were built ___________ widespread opposition.

A. so B. whether C. in case D. despite

3. He is an excellent student. His recent behavior, ___________, has been terrible.

A. despite B. while C. however D. even though

4. I think he’s telling the truth. __________, I don’t trust him.

A. So B. When C. Therefore D. Nevertheless

5. I was going to go to his party, ___________I was ill.

A. but B. after C. before D. because

6. _________ the Asian crisis, the company’s profits fell by 15% during 1997.

A. In case B. Because of C. In spite of D. Even though

7. _________ it was raining, we decided to go for a walk.

A. While B. Whether C. Although D. Therefore

8. Could you look after the children ___________I cook lunch?

A. though B. while C. whether D. because

9. __________it rained a lot, they enjoyed their holiday.

A. Despite B. Although C. Due to D. In spite of

10. ________ there was no electricity, I was able to read because I had a candle.

A. Unless B. Until C. Because D. Even though

11. I managed to get to sleep__________ a lot of noise.

A. although B. because C. because of D. in spite of

12. I invited him to join us for lunch, ___________ he refused.

A. however B. but C. so D. and

13. He went to work early this morning ___________he had to translate an urgent letter into English for his boss.

A. although B. because C. in spite of D. because of

14. Last summer, we went our holiday by the sea. __________it rained a lot, we enjoyed ourselves.

A. In spite of B. Although C. Because D. Because of

15. We didn’t go anywhere yesterday_________the rain.

A. in spite of B. though C. because D. because of

16. __________ what she said yesterday, he still loves her.

A. In spite of B. Though C. Because D. Because of

17. Houses are very expensive nowadays. ___________, they have managed to buy one.

A. So B. However C. But D. Therefore

18. Studying in the USA is good for your son. __________, I think you should let him go.

A. Therefore

B. But

C. And

D. However

19. He went to the cinema ____________he had done his homework.

A. before

B. until

C. by the time

D. after

20. My sister didn’t get the job____________she had all the qualifications.

A. therefore

B. although

C. however

D. in spite of

21. You won’t pass the examination___________you study more.

A. unless

B. as long as

C. if

D. whether

22. Mary searched all over the house,___________she could not find the key.

A. but

B. although

C. however

D. because

23. She neither talked nor___________her feeling.

A. show B. shown C. showing D. showed

24. They told me much about him. When I met him, however, I was disappointed to find that he is __________handsome___________polite.

A. either/ or B. neither/nor C. both/and D. either/ nor

25. Neither I nor she _________enjoying the party now.

A. is B. are C. was D. were

26. Either she or they____________seen the film.

A. has B. have C. having D. has had

27. Don’t be so unreasonable. I can’t_________cook __________iron your clothes.

A. either/ or B. neither/nor C. both/and D. either/ nor.

28. The teacher speaks slowly___________ the pupils may understand him.

A. because B. in order to C. so that D. or

29. They got up very early __________ to the top of the hill before sunrise.

A. so as to get

B. in order not to get

C. A &D

D. in order to get

30. He turned off the lights _________ waste electricity.

A. so as to

B. in order to

C. so as not to

D. in spite of

Exercise 4: Fill in each blank of the following sentences with a suitable conjunction.

1. It looks like they are going to succeed _________ their present difficulties.

2. I like spending my holidays in the mountains___________ my wife prefers the seaside.

3. He could not tell you about that _________ he felt ashamed.

4. My flight was delayed until 3:45. ________, I bought a book to read.

5. He loves his wife......... her long hair.

6. He is kind and polite to me. ___________, I don’t like him.

7. I went to the cinema last night___________ it rained.

8. ________ he wasn’t feeling very well, Alex was determined to take part in the race.

9. The food prices rise too much; _________, people’s life becomes difficult.

10. The test was difficult; ________, all students were able to finish it.

Exercise 5. Choose the best answer to fill in the gaps.
1. I can't come out tonight _________ I've got too much homework.

A. but B. while C. because D. although

2. Three nuclear power stations were built ___________ widespread opposition.

A. so B. whether C. in case D. despite

3. He is an excellent student. His recent behavior, _________, has been terrible.

A. despite B. while C. however D. even though

4. I knew they were talking about me............... they stopped when I entered the room.


A. because

B. therefore

C. despite

D. so that

5. I was going to go to his party, _________ I was ill.

A. but B. after C. before D. because

6. _________ the Asian crisis, the company's profits fell by 15% during 1997.

A. In case B. Because of C. In spite of D. Even though

7. __________ it was raining, we decided to go for a walk.

A. While B. Whether C. Although D. Therefore

8. Could you look after the children ________ I cook lunch?

A. though B. while C. whether D. because

9. _________ it rained a lot, they enjoyed their holiday.

A. Despite B. Although C. Due to D. In spite of

10. _________ there was no electricity, I was able to read because I had a candle.

A. Unless B. Until C. Because D. Even though

11. I managed to get to sleep _________ there was a lot of noise.

A. although B. because C. because of D. in spite of

12. I invited him to join us for lunch, ________ he refused.

A. however B. but C. so D. and

13. He went to work early this morning _________ he had to translate an urgent letter into English for his boss.

A. although B. because C. in spite of D. because of

14. We didn't go anywhere yesterday _______ the rain.

A. in spite of B. though C. Because D. Because of

15. _________ what she said yesterday, I still love her.

A. In spite of B. Though C. Because D. Because of

16. Houses are very expensive nowadays. ________ they have managed to buy one.

A. So B. However C. But D. Therefore



17. Your son has decided to study in the USA. __________ I think you should let him go.

A. Therefore

B. But

C. And

D. However

18. He went to the cinema __________ he had done his homework.

A. before

B. until

C. by the time

D. after

19. My sister didn’t get the job _________ she had all the qualifications.

A. therefore

B. although

C. however

D. in spite of

20. You won’t pass the examination __________ you study more.

A. unless

B. as long as

C. if

D. whether

21. Mary searched all over the house, ________ she could not find the key.

A. but

B. although

C. however

D. because

22. Don’t forget to say goodbye to the interviewer _______ leaving the office.

A. before

B. after

C. while

D. when

23. _______ most of the food we eat comes from plants or animals, the variety of food is remarkable.

A. Although

B. Even

C. Despite

D. However

24. She failed the test ________ she studied hard.

A. as

B. in spite of

C. despite

D. although

25. Jack insisted that he didn’t need any help, ________ I helped him anyway.

A. but

B. however

C. besides

D. so

26. _________ David was warned about the dangers of smoking, he continued to smoke.

A. Even though

B. Despite

C. However

D. In spite of

27. She didn’t eat much ___________ she was hungry.

A. though

B. because

C. but

D. however

28. _________ the rain, we have cancelled the party.

A. Because

B. Because of

C. despite

D. in spite of

29. We decided to leave early ________ the party was boring.

A. because

B. because of

C. although

D. however

30. _________ he had taken any kinds of exercise, he got fatter and fatter.

A. Although

B. In spite of

C. Despite

D. Because

31. ___________ they’re very rich, they still want more money. They seems to be no limit to their greed

A. Though

B. Although

C. Even though

D. A &B & C

32. We have no money, ________ Tom has some.

A. either

B. but

C. or

D. so

33. They left the room ___________ they had finished the exam.

A. while

B. soon

C. during

D. as soon as

34. We have studied hard _________ we will be well prepared for the examination.

A. because

B. since

C. so that

D. in case

35. He is learning English __________ he can study in England.

A. so as

B. so that

C. in order to

D. so as to


PREPOSITIONS

I. THEORY
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