Need to do = it is necessary to do :cần phải làm ( động từ nguyên mẫu mang nghĩa chủ động)
Need doing = need to be done: cần phải được làm ( động từ nguyên mẫu mang nghĩa bị động)
Ex: Tom needs to work harder. (It is necessary for Tom to work harder.)
The grass in front of the house needs cutting. (The grass in front of the house needs to be cut.)
Stop to do = stop in order to do : dừng lại để làm việc gì khác
Stop doing = not to do something any longer : dừng làm việc gì đó (đang làm)
Ex: They stopped to look at the pictures.
They stopped smoking because it is bad for their health.
* REGRET/ REMEMBER/ FORGET:
Remember/forget/regret + to V: nhớ/quên/tiếc sẽ phải làm gì (ở hiện tại và tương lai)
+ Remember to send this letter (hãy nhớ gửi bức thư này). Don’t forget to buy flowers (đừng quên mua hoa đấy)
+ I regret to inform you that the train was canceled (tôi rất tiếc phải báo tin cho anh rằng chuyến tầu đã bị hủy bỏ)
Remember/forget/regret + Ving: nhớ/quên/tiếc đã làm gì (ở quá khứ).
Ex: I paid her $2. I still remember that. I still remember paying her $2 (tôi nhớ đã trả cô ấy 2 đô la).
She will never forget meeting the Queen (cô ấy không bao giờ quên lần gặp nữ hoàng)
He regrets leaving school early. It is the biggest mistake in his life.
Try to do : cố gắng làm
Try doing : thử làm
Ex: She tries to pass the entrance exam to the college of pharmacy.
I’ve got a terrible headache. I try taking some aspirins but they didn’t help.
* GO ON:
Go on doing s.th. : tiếp tục làm cùng một việc gì đó.
Go on to do s.th. : làm hay nói việc gì khác
Ex: The Minister went on talking for two hours.
We must change our ways. We can’t go on living like this.
After discussing the economy, the Minister went on to talk about foreign policy.
Mean + to V = intend to V: dự định làm gì đó
Mean + V-ing = involve: bao gồm, bao hàm, có nghĩa là
III. BARE INFINITIVE ( INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO)
1. Sau các động từ như: make, help, let:
a. Cấu trúc với MAKE
S+ MAKE/MADE + O + Vo . (Câu chủ động)
S + BE + MADE + TO Vo + BY O. (Câu bị động)
EX: What makes you laugh? She made me cry. I was made to study hard. She is made to be sad.
b. Cấu trúc với HELP: S + HELP + O + Vo
EX: Please help me carry this heavy bag.
c. Cấu trúc với LET:
S + LET + O + Vo (Chủ động)
S + BE + LET + Vo (bị động)
LET’S + Vo …(chúng ta hãy…)
EX: We let him go. He lets me sit down. Let’s go out for a walk.
2. Được dùng sau động từ giác quan như see, hear, feel,notice, taste, smell, ....
Ex: We incidentally saw the plane crash into the moutain.
The man noticed his assistant leave work earlier than usual.
* Chú ý:
Feel, hear, see, watch, smell , find + O + Ving (present participle): bắt gặp ai đó đang làm gì
Feel, hear, see, watch, smell , find + O + bare inf. : thấy ai đó đã làm gì
+ Đuợc dùng sau động từ let và help.
Ex: My brother let me use computer.
The parents helped their children set up the tent.
+ Được dùng sau các đọng từ khuyết thiếu và trợ động từ: can, could, will, shall, would, should, used to, had better, need, ought to, do, did …
+ Trong cấu trúc: would rather + bare infinitve/ had better
Ex: I can speak 3 languages You’d better to study harder.
3. Sau các động từ như: had better, would rather, have to, used to.
Eg: We would rather wait till tomorrow.
You had better put your money in the bank.
4. NEED (cần) , NEEDN’T ( không cần thiết)
S (người) + need + toVo
S (vật) + need + VING/ TO BE VED/ V3
S + NEEDN”T + Vo
EX: Mai needs to buy some salt and sugar.
This car needs repairing/ to be repaired.
She needn’t walk to work, she has a bike.
I. Some common verbs followed by the Gerund
avoid practise imagine enjoy appreciate*
escape keep fancy detest understand*
deny finish mind resent excuse*
mention delay miss recall forgive*
suggest postpone risk recollect pardon*
can’t help (stand, resist, face)
E.g.: We must avoid hurting other people’s feelings
James suggested going to the movies
I can’t stand seeing you bite your nails
+NOTE: The verbs marked (*) are nearly always followed by a possessive Adj / noun in the
Possessive case + Gerund.
E.g.: Please excuse (forgive, pardon) my disturbing you.
II. Some common verbs followed by the Infinitive:
afford choose help offer swear
agree decide hesitate prepare threaten
appear expect hope pretend undertake
arrange fail learn promise want
ask happen manage refuse wish
E.g.: He agreed to come with us.
She chose to stay at home that evening.
They promised not to be late
*Group 1: Either the gerund or the Infinitive may be used after these verbs, but there is often a difference of meaning.
begin like remember intend
start love forget propose
continue adore prefer mean
cease dislike dread omit
stop hate regret can’t bear
E.g.: He began to see the truth.
I must remember to post the letter.
I remember seeing her when I was a little girl.
*Group 2: The Gerund or a Personal object + Infinitive follows these verbs in the active voice; in the passive voice only the Infinitive is used.
advise allow forbid require
admit consider permit
E.g.: He doesn’t allow talking in this room.
He doesn’t allow us to talk in this room.
We aren’t allowed to talk in this room
*Group 3: The Gerund used after these verbs in equivalent to the Passive Infinitive. (The gerund is the only form used after TO BEAR)
need want require deserve bear
E.g.: My shirt needs mending (needs to be mended)
OTHER USES OF THE GERUND AND THE INFINITIVE
I. The Gerund is used after Prepositions and after nearly all two – word verbs:
E.g.: I’m tired of meeting the same people every day.
People can’t live without eating and drinking.
*NOTE: The Infinitive, general without TO, is used after the Prepositions BUT, EXCEPT, THAN and TO (in BE ABOUT TO, OUGHT TO, USED TO)
E.g.: He did nothing else than laugh.
I used to live alone, but I don’t know.
II. The Gerund is used after these expressions :IT’S NO GOOD , IT’S NO USE , IT ISN’T WORTHWHILE , BE WORTH , BE NEAR , BE BUSY , FEEL LIKE , THERE IS ( NO , LITTLE , MUCH , NOTHING LIKE )
E.g.: It’s no good talking to him.
She was very near dying
III. The Gerund may follow Possessive Adjectives (MY, YOUR, HIS ….)and nouns in the Possessive case. These Adjectives and nouns are the subject of the Gerund.
E.g.: His having won the prize made him very happy.
Would you mind my opening the window?
IV. The Infinitive with TO is used after most Intransitive verbs to express a purpose, an intention or a result.
E.g.: We stopped to have a rest.
You will live to regret it.
V. The Infinitive is used after most Transitive verbs in the pattern S + V + O + infinitive
E.g.: I forbid you to go there again.
* NOTE :The Infinitive without TO is used after verbs of Perception ( SEE , HEAR , WATCH , FEEL , SMELL , NOTICE , OBSERVE …) and such verbs as LET , MAKE , HAVE .
E.g.: Did you see him go out?
VI. The Infinitive with TO is used after HOW, WHEN, WHERE, WHAT, WHICH, as the equivalent of noun clauses.
E.g.: Would you please show me how to do this?
VII. The Infinitive with TO is used after Nouns, Indefinite, Pronouns, Adjectives and Adverbs as their Modifier.
E.g.: You are very kind to say so.
One is never too old to learn.
EXERCISE ON GERUND AND INFINITIVE
III. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. (infinitive with or without to)
1. _______________(save) money now seems impossible.
2. The main thing is _______________ (stay) calm.
3. It’s cold. You had better _______________ ( wear) a coat.
4. I don’t want _______________ (see) you again.
5. They don’t allow people _______________ ( smoke) .
6. My parents permit me_______________ ( go) camping with my classmates.
7. I’d rather _______________ ( stay) at home.
8. We both heard him (say) that he was leaving.
9. It made him angry (wait) for people who were late.
10. I must _______________ ( speak) to the manager.
11. Who was the first person _______________ ( climb) Everest without oxygen.
12. They warned us _______________ ( not go) near the beach .
13. She lets her children (stay) up very late.
14. I keep getting this pain in my leg. I think I’d rather _______________ ( see) a doctor.
15. She watched him _______________ ( drive ) off.
16. Peter is very funny. He makes me _______________ ( laugh) a lot.
17. Did you see that lovely old car _______________ ( go ) past a moment ago?
18. We wish us _______________ ( receive) a lot of toys and presents form Santa Clause.
19. I’m pleased _______________ (see) you.
20. He’s the oldest athlete ever _______________ ( win) an Olympic gold medal.
21. The boy saw the cat _______________ ( jump) through the window.
22. I didn’t have enough time ___________ (finish) my work yesterday.
23 He need her_______________ ( give) him a drink. o to
24. She made her son (wash) the windows before he could go outside (play) with his friends.
25. Where would you like (have)................... lunch?
IV. Supply an appropriate form, gerund or infinitive, of the verb in parentheses.
Keep (talk)……………………. I’m listening to you.
The children promised (play)…………………. more quietly. They promised (make, not) ……………..so much noise.
Linda offered (look after) ……………………. my cat while I was out of town.
You shouldn’t put off (pay) ……………………. your bills.
Alex’s dog loves (chase) …………………….sticks.
Mark mentioned (go) …………….to the market later today. I wonderif he’s still planning (go). …………
Fred suggested (go) …………. (ski) ………… in the mountain this weekend. How does that sound to you?
The doctor offered Mr. Gray (smoke, not) ……………………..
Don’t tell me his secret. I prefer (know, not) ……………………..
Could you please stop (whistle) ……………….? I’m trying (concentrate) ……………………on my work.
She finally decided (quit) ……………… her present job and (look for) ……………………. another one.
Did you remember (turn) …………………….off the stove?
Jack was allowed (renew) …………………….his student visa.
Pat told us (wait, not) …………………….for her.
Mr. Buck warned his daughter (play, not) ……………………. with matches.
Would you please remind me (call) …………………….Alice tomorrow?
Liz encouraged me (throw) ……………………. away my old running shoes and (buy) …………………….a new pair without holes in the toes.
He’s expecting (make) …………………….a trip to Ha Long bay.
Sally reminded me (ask) ……………. you (tell) …………….Bob (remember) ……………. (bring) ……………………. his soccer ball to the picnic.
Don’t forget (tell) …………….Jane (call) …………. me about (go)…………. (swim) …………………….tomorrow.
V. Rewrite each sentence as directed ( using the structures with To Infinitive and Bare Infinitive above)
1. If I were you, I wouldn’t lend him any money.
=> I advised _________________________________________________________________
2. I felt nervous when I traveled by air.
=> Travelling by air made _______________________________________________________
3. He could not afford to buy the car.
=> The car was too expensive ____________________________________________________
4. I advised you to put your money in the bank.
=> You had better _____________________________________________________________
5. There is no need for you to talk so loudly.
=> You don’t have ____________________________________________________________
6. “You must ask me for permission before leaving” the teacher said to Tom
=> The teacher made Tom _______________________________________________________
7. Mr. Puncher doesn’t allow his children to go out in the evening.
=> Mr. Puncher doesn’t let ______________________________________________________
8. Can you sign the papers please? They are ready.
=> The papers are ____________________________________________________________
9. My father said I could use his car.
=> My father allowed _________________________________________________________
10. Contacting her at work in usually quite easy.
=> It’s quite easy ____________________________________________________________
VI. Make complete sentences:
It/ exciting/ hear/ he has won/ gold medal.
It/ hard/ me/ breathe through my nose.
It/ difficult/ them/ understand this lesson.
The patient/ feel/ well/ enough/ eat/ some soup.
The doctor/ warn/ them/ not/ let/ spray/ touch/ food.
Bacteria/ too/ tiny/ be/ seen/ the naked eye.
The nurse/ kind enough/ help him walk.
He/ had better/ not/ stay up late.
VII. Find out one mistake by circling A, B, C or D.
1. She is afraid of to go out at night.
A B C D
2. He can’t understand her behave like that.
A B C D
3. She is looking forward to meet you.
A B C D
4. You had better to stop smoking.
A B C D
5. She suggests go to the park.
A B C D
6. The teacher decided accepting the paper.
A B C D
7. When it's very hot, I would like drinking some beer.
A B C D
8. I'll remember sending you a poscard when I reach London.
A B C D
9. Do you feel like to go to a film or would you rather stay at home ?
A B C D
10. He told me try to come early to finish my work.
A B C D
I. CLAUSES OF CONCESSION
Though/Although/Even though + A clause ( S + V)
In spite of / Despite + Noun phrase/Gerund
1. Though he is rich, he is not happy.
In spite of his money, he is not happy.
2. She decided to accept the job despite the low salary.
Though the salary is low, she decided to accept the job.
* Note: Remember that but is never used with though, although or even though.
- Ask for some more examples from Ss with the above linking words.
II. CLAUSES OF REASONS
1. Form: The concept of clause can be express by:
Since As a result of
As + A Clause = On account of + Noun/Gerund
Because Due to
I couldn’t get to work because I was ill.
(= I couldn’t get to work because of my illness.)
- Ask for some more examples from Ss with the above linking words.
III. coordinating conjunctions: or, but, nor, yet, however, but, therefore and so
1. However, but, yet : Dùng để nối 2 mệnh đề đối lập
E.g. The test was easy. However I couldn’t finish it.
- The test was easy, but I couldn’t finish it.
- John plays basketball well, yet his favorite sport is badminton.
- The visitors complained loudly about the heat, yet they continued to play golf every day.
2.Therefore, So, for: Nối 2 mệnh chỉ nguyên nhân và kết quả.
- Therefore đứng sau dấu(.) và (;)
- “So” đứng sau dấu (,)
Eg: He hadn’t studied hard. Therefore he failed the exams.
He hadn’t studied hard, so he failed the exams.
- John thought he had a good chance to get the job, for his father was on the company's board of trustees.
- Most of the visitors were happy just sitting around in the shade, for it had been a long, dusty journey on the train.