Syncrip facilitates porcine parvovirus viral dna replication through the alternative splicing of ns1 mrna to promote ns2 mrna formation



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PPV.NS

Keywords: PPV, SYNCRIP, NS1 mRNA, Alternative splicing, NS2 mRNA
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Introduction
Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) is a major causative agent 
of stillbirth, mummification, and embryonic death in 
swine [
1
]. PPV is a single negative strand DNA virus that 
belongs to the species ungulate protoparvovirus 1 in the 
genus protoparvovirus [
2
], which contains two identical 
inverted terminal repeats (ITR) at both ends (Figure 
1
A). 
The genome contains two major open reading frames 
(ORF), the ORF1 encodes the nonstructural proteins 
NS1, NS2 and NS3, whereas the ORF2 encodes struc-
tural proteins VP1, VP2 and nonstructural protein SAT 
(Figures 
1
B, C). NS1 is a multifunctional protein, which is 
necessary for effective viral replication and production of 
infective virion [
3

4
]. It is related to cell apoptosis induc-
tion [
5

6
], cell cycle arrest and the suppression of type I 
interferon responses [
7

8
]. Mature NS2 mRNA is com-
pletely located in NS1 mRNA, which is formed by NS1 
mRNA after alternative splicing. During the life cycle of 
virus, it is very important that the ratio of NS2 to NS1 
is precisely regulated. PPV NS2 protein suppresses type 
I interferon responses [
9
] and participates in viral egress 
from the nucleus by interacting with nuclear export fac-
tor CRM1 [
10
]. However, how NS1 mRNA is spliced to 
form NS2 mRNA is unclear.
SYNCRIP is a member of heterogeneous nuclear 
ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP), also known as NS1 

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