1.: The simple present perfect tense
-Diễn tả 1 sự việc vừa mới xảy ra.
Ex: She has just arrived at the airport.
They have begun a new English class recently.
- Diễn tả sự việc xảy ra không nhớ rõ thời gian.
Ex: I have already seen that play.
Have you ever been to New York?
He has not repaired his car yet?
- Diễn tả một sự việc đã xảy ra trong quá khứ và còn liên quan đến hiện tại
Ex: I have lived in Vinh city since 2004.
I have lived in Vinh city for 4 years.
3 – Các từ đi kèm:
Just, since, for, recently, yet, never, ever, already, before, so far, it’s the first/ second time…, up to now, up to the present, till now(cho tới bây giờ)…
* Vị trí của các từ: - Just, never, ever, already đứng ngay sau have/ has.
- Yet, before đứng cuối câu.
*Notes: yet: chỉ dung trong câu phủ định và câu hỏi.
For + khoảng thời gian.
Since + mốc thời gian ở quá khứ.
Never: mang nghĩa phủ định.
2: the past continuous tense
1-Th× qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn: (past continuous)
(-) S + was/ were + not + V-ing…
(?) Was/ Were + S + V-ing...?
-Yes, S + was/ were.
-No, S + was/ were + not.
-DiÔn t¶ 1 hµnh ®éng ®ang diÔn ra t¹i 1 thêi ®iÓm x¸c ®Þnh trong qu¸ khø.
Ex: I was watching TV at 8 o’clock last night.
-DiÔn t¶ 1 hµnh ®éng ®ang x¶y ra th× hµnh ®éng kh¸c c¾t ngang.
Ex: When my mother came, I was watching TV.
(hµnh ®éng nµo x¶y ra tríc: chia ë QKTD, hµnh ®éng x¶y ra sau: chia ë QK§ vµ ®i kÌm when)
-DiÔn t¶ 2 hµnh ®éng cïng x¶y ra t¹i 1 thêi ®iÓm x¸c ®Þnh trong qu¸ khø.
Ex:While I was watching TV, my father was reading a newspaper.
c-C¸c tõ ®i kÌm:
At 8 o’clock last night, at this time last week/ month/ year, when , while.
You are always getting up late in winter.
Mai is always getting up late in winter.
SA : You are always talking in class.
Minh is always talking in class.
S + am/ is / are + always + V ing
- It’s dangerous to swim in that river. ( Bôi ôû con soâng ñoù thaät nguy hieåm.)
- It’s easy to learn English. ( Hoïc tieáng Anh raát deã.)
- It’s difficult to do that exercise. ( Laøm baøi taäp ñoù raát khoù.)
Nhöõng tính từ thöôøng gaëp trong caáu truùc naøy laø:
It’s + easy, difficult, hard, dangerous, important, necessary, interesting, nice, great…
=> adj + to V….. = To V .. + tobe + adj = V-ing.. + tobe + adj…
2-: Subject + Verb + adjective + noun clause
- They are delighted that you passed your exam. (Hoï raát vui khi baïn thi ñaäu.)
- He was happy that you remembered his birthday. ( OÂng aáy raát vui khi baïn nhôù sinh nhaät cuûa oâng aáy.)
- I’m sure that they will come. (Toâi chaéc chaén hoï seõ ñeán.)
Nhöõng Adjectives thöôøng gaëp trong caáu truùc naøy laø:
happy, delighted, sad, sure, certain, relieved, afraid, sorry…
3. PHRASE OF PURPOSE
Ta coù theå duøng caáu truùc so as (not) to + Vo hoaëc in order (not) to + Vo ñeå dieãn taû 1 muïc ñích.
- I study hard so as to pass the exam
Coù 2 loaïi Participle Phrases : Present Participle Phrases vaø Past Participle Phrases.
a. Present Participle Phrases: dieãn taû yù “ñang laøm gì”.
- The boy standing over there is Jack.
- The boys playing in the garden are his sons.
b. Past Participle Phrases: dieãn taû yù thuï ñoäng (Passive)
- Do you mind opening the window? (Phieàn baïn môû duøm cöûa soå.)
- Would you mind opening the window? (Phieàn baïn môû duøm cöûa soå.)
* Neáu ñoàng yù, ta coù theå duøng 1 trong nhöõng caùch sau ñaây:
III: passive voice
Ex: The workers make the pens.
The pens are made by workers.
*C©u bÞ ®éng ë th× qu¸ khø ®¬n:
EX: I visited my grandparents last week.
My parents were visited by me last week.
*C©u bÞ ®éng ë th× hiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh:
Ex:They have built this house since last week.
This house has been built since last week (by them)
*C©u bÞ ®éng cña c¸c ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu:
Ex:He can mend this bike.
This bike can be mended by him.
C¸ch chuyÓn tõ c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng:
-X¸c ®Þnh chñ ng÷, ®éng tõ, t©n ng÷ cña c©u chñ ®éng.
-T©n ng÷ cña c©u chñ ®éng chuyÓn thµnh chñ ng÷ cña c©u bÞ ®éng.
-ViÕt be ë th× cña ®éng tõ chÝnh trong c©u chñ ®éng.
-ViÕt ®éng tõ chÝnh cña c©u bÞ ®éng ë d¹ng qu¸ khø ph©n tõ.
-Chñ ng÷ cña c©u chñ ®éng chuyÓn thµnh t©n ng÷ cña c©u bÞ ®éng, viÕt sau ch÷ BY.
-NÕu chñ ng÷ lµ ®¹i tõ nh©n xng (they, he, she, we, you) hay ®¹i tõ bÊt ®Þnh (someone, everyone...) cã thÓ bá ë c©u bÞ ®éng.
-§èi víi ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu ë c©u bÞ ®éng, ta thªm BE vµo gi÷a ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu vµ ®éng tõ chÝnh (ë d¹ng qu¸ khø ph©n tõ)
+C©u trùc tiÕp: lµ c©u nãi ®îc thuËt l¹i ®óng nguyªn v¨n lêi cña ngêi nãi.
VD:Tom said, “I like reading books”.
Note: c©u trùc tiÕp ®îc viÕt trong ngoÆc kÐp, vµ ng¨n c¸ch víi mÖnh ®Ò têng thuËt bëi dÊu phÈy.
+C©u gi¸n tiÕp: Dïng lêi m×nh ®Ó thuËt l¹i lêi cña ngêi kh¸c.
VD: Tom said he liked reading books.
Note: C©u gi¸n tiÕp kh«ng bÞ ng¨n c¸ch bëi dÊu phÈy, dÊu ngoÆc kÐp vµ lu«n tËn cïng b»ng dÊu chÊm.
*C©u trùc tiÕp vµ c©u gi¸n tiÕp bao giê còng gåm hai phÇn:
-C©u têng thuËt/ mÖnh ®Ò têng thuËt.
-C©u trùc tiÕp hay c©u gi¸n tiÕp.
C©u trùc tiÕp: Tom said, “I like reading books”.
C©u gi¸n tiÕp: Tom said he liked reading books.
-§æi ng«i, ®æi th×, tõ chØ thêi gian vµ n¬i chèn theo quy t¾c.
--> Tom said he liked reading books.
He said to me, “You can take my book”.
--> He said (that) I could take his book”.
Last night/ week/ month/ year
Next week/ month/ year
Then/ at one/ immediately.
The next/ following day.
The day before/ the previous day
The night/ week/ month/ year before hoÆc the previous night…
The following week/ month/ year.
-LÆp l¹i tõ said/ say.
-Bá ngoÆc kÐp, bá dÊu phÈy .
-Thay ®æi th×, tõ chØ thêi gian vµ n¬i chèn, ng«i cho phï hîp víi nghÜa cña c©u (nÕu cã)
-->Lan said (that) she was a student.
-§æi ®éng tõ say-->tell, said-->told, sau ®ã thªm t©n ng÷ vµo sau nã.
-Bá dÊu phÈy, dÊu ngoÆc kÐp, dÊu chÊm than, tõ please (nÕu cã).
-§æi ®¹i tõ nh©n xng, tÝnh tõ së h÷u, tr¹ng tõ chØ thêi gian, n¬i chèn (nÕu cÇn thiÕt)
+Kh¼ng ®Þnh: Trùc tiÕp: S + say/ said, “V…”
-->She told the students to close the books.
+Phñ ®Þnh: Trùc tiÕp: S + say/ said, “Don’t + V…”
-->She told me not to sit down
-§æi said-->asked (hoÆc wanted to know/ wondered) sau ®ã thªm t©n ng÷ (nÕu cÇn thiÕt).
-Bá dÊu ngoÆc kÐp, dÊu phÈy vµ dÊu hái.
-§Æt If/ whether lªn tríc chñ ng÷ cña c©u gi¸n tiÕp +®éng tõ lïi th×.
-§æi ng«i, ®æi tõ chØ thêi gian vµ n¬i chèn(nÕu cÇn thiÕt).
Trùc tiÕp: Do/ Does/ Did + S + V...?
-->Gi¸n tiÕp: S + asked + O + if/ whether + S + V-lïi th×…
VD: “Do you go to school?” he said.
-->He asked me whether/ if I went to school.
-->Mary asked Nam if/ whether he could speak English.
-§Æt tõ hái wh lªn tríc chñ ng÷ cña c©u gi¸n tiÕp +®éng tõ lïi th×.
-§æi ng«i, ®æi tõ chØ thêi gian vµ n¬i chèn(nÕu cÇn thiÕt).
*C«ng thøc: Trùc tiÕp: Tõ hái + do/ does/ did + S + V...?
-->Gi¸n tiÕp: S + asked + O + tõ hái + S + V-lïi th×…
VD: “Where do you live?” he said.
-->He asked me where I lived.
+D¹ng ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu:
Trùc tiÕp: Tõ hái + can/ shall/ will+ S + V...?
-->Gi¸n tiÕp: S + asked + O + Tõ hái + S + could/ should/ would + V…
VD: Mary said to Nam, “How can you speak English?”
-->Mary asked Nam how he could speak English.
VD1: “Are you a student?” She asked me.
-->She asked me if I was a student.
VD2: “Is she doing her homework?” Mary asked him.
-->Mary asked him if she was doing her homework.
VD3: “What are you doing?” Mai said to Hoa
-->Mai asked Hoa what she was doing.
V: COMPOUND WORDS WITH noun V-ing / TO-INFINITIVE
Nhöõng ñoäng töø thöôøng duøng trong caáu truùc naøy laø: tell, show, point out, learn …
Nhöõng ñoäng töø thöôøng duøng trong caáu truùc naøy laø:
1. She hasn’t finished the letter _______(already / yet / never ).
2. Lan’s studying hard ______ pass the final exam ( as to / in order to).
3. Do you mind ______ the window ? ( close / closing / to close ).
4. I am happy ______ all the exams. ( to pass / passing / pass ).
5. Finally, we decided _______ to the concert. ( going / go / to go ).
6. The boy ______ next to Hoa is a new comer. ( sits / sitting / to sit ).
7.Would you mind if I_______ you a question. ( asking / to ask / asked ).
8. Ba _____ a shower at 8 o’clock last night. ( is talking / was talking )
9. He ______ he was aplumber .( says / said / to say ).
10. It is a ___________ contest.(cooking - rice / riced - cooking / rice – cooking )
11. Which of the following is not a wonder of the world ? ( Angkor Wat / Big Ben / Hanging Gardens of Babylon ).
12. Last week, our school held ______ ( a contest arranging – flower / an arranging – flower contest / a flower – arranging contest ).
13. Would you mind if I _______ off the light. ( turning / turn / turned ).
14. Empty milk bottels are ______ by the milkmen in Britan. (collect / collecting / collected )
15. Can I get you some madicine ? This sentence is a(n)_______ ( offer / request / promise ).
16. You can only see the ________ nowadays. ( Hangig Gardens of Babylon / Statue of Zues / Piramid of cheops )
17. We are watching a _______ on TV ( fighting – bull festival / bull – fighting festival / festival bull fighting ).
18. A: Could you call an ambulance, please ?
B: ____________ ( all right / yes, please / I’m glad )
19. The school gate ________ at 5.30 PM every day. ( lock / locks / is locked )
20.This is a picture os Mount Rushnore where a heads of a four American presidents are ______ into the rock. ( put / carved / cut )
21. I can see a boy ________ a water buffalo. ( ride / riding / to ride )
22. It is _________ to travel around Vietnam. ( interesting / interested / interestedly )
23. Cool the burns immediately so as to ________ tissu damage. ( ease / relieve / minimize )
24. Milk bottels can be _________ after being cleaned (recycled / thrown away / broken / reused)
25. We are looking for ward to _________ you in May ( seeing / see / to see / be seen )
26. The Piramid of cheops is one of the seven __________ of the world. ( pyramids / temples / wonders
27. Angkor Wat _______ around 1100 to honor a Hindu God ( is built / was built / has been built )
28. What is a _________ contest ? ( fire – making / fires – making / fire – make )
29. Do you mind if I __________ here ? ( sitting / to sit / sit )
30. The boy __________ a book is Ba ( reading / read / to read )
31. I _______ Cuba in 1990 ( visit / visited / have visited )
32. Don’t forget to give the vitim a cup of tea when he ( revives / revive / reviving ).
33. It’s _______ to travel around Vienam. ( interesting / interested / interest ).
34. Milions of Christmas cards ________ every year. ( were sent / are sent / send / is sending ).
1. Last night, I _______ ( walk ) along a country road when suddenly I _______ ( hear ) footsteps behind me .
2. A new supermarket ________ ( build ) next year.
3. They ________ ( hold ) the rice – cooking festival every two years.
4. Nga advised Nhi how ________ ( go ) from My Son to Hoi An
5. The rice – cooking festival _________ ( hold ) every two years .
6. The letter _______ ( post ) a week ago and it _______ ( arrive ) yesterday.
7. My mother ________ ( wait ) for me when I _________ ( come ) home .
8. The light ________ ( go ) out while we ________ ( have ) dinner.
9. “What _______ you __________ ( do ) this time yesterday ?”
10. It suddenly _______( begin ) to rain while Laura _________( sit ) in the garden.
11. It is late, so we decided _______ ( take ) a taxi home.
12. It started _______ ( rain ) when they left home .
13. Don’t forget _______ ( turn off ) the lights before _______( go ) out .
14. I ______ ( have ) to go to the dentist last Sunday.
15. Ann ______ ( do ) her homework at 8 o’clock this morning.
16. Would you mind if I _______ ( open ) the door.
17. Nga told Nhi what ________ ( do ) there during the visit.