Commerce department international trade



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Cargo Clause C covers:

1.1 Loss of or damage to the subject-matter insured attributable to:

1.1.1 fire or explosion,

1.1.2 vessel or craft being stranded, grounded, sunk or capsized,

1.1.3 overturning or derailment of land conveyance,

1.1.4 collision or contact of vessel craft or conveyance with any external object other than water,

1.1.5 discharge of cargo at a port of distress,

1.2 Loss of or damage to the subject-matter insured caused by:

1.2.1 general average sacrifice,

1.2.2 jettison.


Below paying a claim for loss, insurers study the circumstances fully.

They examine the insurance document to check that the lost or damaged goods were correctly described. If the description and the goods are materially different, the insurer may refuse to pay. In one famous case, an exporter bought leather flying jackets from the British government. The jackets were twenty years old, but they had never been used. The exporter described the goods as "new men's clothing in bales." When the goods were stolen, the insurer refused to pay because of material misdescription. The court agreed: the description was inaccurate.31 In general, the insured must disclose any fact "which would influence the judgment of a prudent insurer in fixing the premium or accepting the risk."32


Some policies allow for innocent misdescription with a "held covered" clause: under given conditions, the goods are held (= considered) to be covered. An example: an exporter bought second-hand machinery in order to export it. On the insurance document the goods were described simply as "machinery." When the goods were lost, the insurer refused to pay, pleading material misdescription. The policy contained, however, a "held covered" clause: "held covered at premium to be arranged”. The court ordered the insurance company to pay, but allowed it an extra premium.33

In summary, always remember the cardinal principal of insurance:

A contract of marine insurance is a contract based upon the utmost good faith, and, if the utmost good faith be not observed by either party, the contract may be avoided by the other party.34



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31 Anglo-African Merchants v. Bay ley (1970) 1 QB 311, 319-320.

32 Schmiuhoff, p. 503.

33 Greenock SS. Co. v. Maritime Insurance Co. (1903) 1 KB. 367.

34 Marine Insurance Act. (UK) 1907, § 17.



CASE STUDY

TAKE OVER
Pacific Exports is a new company founded in Verbena to export textiles. The company anticipates sales of about $500,000 during its first year of operations, with most orders between $1,000 and $30,000. Since Verbena is an island, consignments of goods always travel by ship. The company wants advice on the best kind of insurance for its CIF contracts. What would you recommend among the choices below? In each case be ready to give your reasons.

1. □Tailor-made policies □Floating policy □Open cover

...Because there is no need for a full insurance policy to be negotiated for each order.

2. □Valued policy □Unvalued policy

...Because this allows claims for the loss of expected profit if the goods are destroyed or damaged.

3. □Voyage policy □Time policy □Time and voyage policy


...Because this policy maintains insurance cover on the goods even if there is a delay.

4. □Cargo Clause A (All risks) □Cargo Clause B □Cargo Clause C

Debatable. Because for the exporter, Cargo Clause C is cheapest. Furthermore, nothing more is required under CIF contracts. However, the buyer may be very unhappy if the texttiles are lost and the insurance arranged by the exporter fails to offer the expected compensation. The exporter and the buyer should discuss this issue.

5. Institute War Clauses □YES □NO □depends on __

Depends on route and political situation.

6. Institute Strikes Clauses □YES □NO □depends on __

Depends on social and political situation. Normally cover against strikes is recommended.

6. TERMS OF TRADE: INCOTERMS




THE PROBLEM

Although the purpose of ICC Incoterms is to standardize terms of trade worldwide, many business people do not know what these terms mean or the nature of their rights and duties under an Incoterm contract.





CÁC VẤN ĐỀ Mặc dù mục đích của ICC Incoterms là để tiêu chuẩn hóa các điều khoản thương mại trên toàn thế giới, nhiều doanh nhân không biết những điều khoản này có nghĩa là tính chất của các quyền và nghĩa vụ của mình theo một hợp đồng Incoterm.

THE PRINCIPLE

The ICC publication, Incoterms 1990, gives full and clear information about the rights and duties of buyer and exporter in Incoterm contracts. Ignorance of these terms can be expensive.




NGUYÊN TẮC ấn phẩm ICC, Incoterms 1990, cung cấp thông tin đầy đủ và rõ ràng về quyền và nghĩa vụ của người mua và xuất khẩu trong hợp đồng Incoterm. Không biết các điều khoản này có thể tốn kém.

IN MORE DEPTH

World trade depends to an increasing extent of standardization: international weights and measures are metric: many contracts are priced in U.S. dollars; letter of credit follow standard rules. Misunderstandings can be expensive: anything that makes them likely less likely is welcome.


The Thirteen Incoterms

One source of international confusion are delivery conditions. We have already looked at a number of problems and seen how national laws vary in their preferred solutions. To clarify the situation, the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) issued as early as 1936 standardized terms- the so-called International Commercial Terms or Incoterms. Over the years, the ICC has updated the Incoterms as the nature of commerce has changed- increased use of aircraft, the introduction of containers, electronic document transfer and so on.- all have required new or revised terms. The latest issue of Incpterms is the 2010 revision.




Sâu hơn về

Thương mại thế giới phụ thuộc vào một mức độ ngày càng tăng của tiêu chuẩn: trọng lượng quốc tế và các biện pháp được số liệu: nhiều hợp đồng có giá bằng đô la Mỹ, thư tín dụng theo quy tắc tiêu chuẩn. Sự hiểu lầm có thể tốn kém: bất cứ điều gì mà làm cho họ có thể ít có khả năng được chào đón. Incoterms Mười ba Một nguồn tin gây nhầm lẫn quốc tế là điều kiện giao hàng. Chúng tôi đã xem xét một số vấn đề và nhìn thấy như thế nào luật pháp quốc gia khác nhau trong các giải pháp ưa thích của họ. Để làm rõ tình hình, Phòng Thương mại quốc tế (ICC) ban hành sớm nhất là 1936 về tiêu chuẩn hóa cái gọi là thương mại quốc tế điều khoản này hoặc Incoterms. Trong những năm qua, ICC đã cập nhật Incoterms như bản chất của thương mại đã thay đổi tăng sử dụng tàu bay, việc giới thiệu các thùng chứa, chuyển giao tài liệu điện tử và vv. Tất cả đều có yêu cầu mới hoặc được sửa đổi, bổ sung các điều khoản. Các vấn đề mới nhất của Incpterms là bản sửa đổi 2010.



In establishing the 13 Incoterms, the ICC has looked at the most common variations in an arrangement for delivery and established for each variation the exact duties of the exporter and the buyer. In setting up the 13 terms, the ICC has taken into account three variables:

  • Where along the transportation route delivery takes place;

  • What means of transport is used; and

  • What costs the exporter might pay after the point of delivery.

The 13 terms are grouped in four categories: E-terms, F-terms, C-terms and D-terms. The E-term deals with deliveries at the exporter’s factory. The F-terms all concern delivery within the exporter’s country. The C-terms involve delivery in the exporter’s country, with extra costs for the exporter after delivery. D-terms take care of delivery outside the exporter’s country. A table gives us an overview:


QUESTION: Explain EXW, CFR, DDU

EXW is one of the E-terms in the Incoterms. It stands for Ex-work, a method of delivery, where the exporter is free from charge when exporter notifies buyer of availability of goods at exporter’s premises (factory or warehouse). Then the exporter is not responsible for transport or any other costs.


CFR is one of the C-terms in the Incoterms. It stands for Cost and Freight, a method of delivery, where the exporter is free from charge when the goods pass the ship’s rail. Then the exporter is responsible for ship transport and freight.

Thành lập 13 Incoterms, ICC đã xem xét các biến thể phổ biến nhất trong một sự sắp xếp giao hàng và thiết lập cho mỗi biến thể các nhiệm vụ chính xác những nước xuất khẩu và người mua. Trong việc thiết lập trong 13 thuật ngữ, ICC đã đưa vào tài khoản ba biến: - dọc theo tuyến đường vận chuyển giao hàng diễn ra - phương tiện vận tải được sử dụng; và chi phí xuất khẩu có thể trả tiền sau khi các điểm giao hàng. 13 thuật ngữ được nhóm lại thành bốn loại: các điều kiện điện tử, các điều kiện nhóm F, C điều kiện và điều kiện D. Các giao dịch E-dài với việc giao hàng tại nhà máy xuất khẩu. F-về tất cả các mối quan tâm phân phối trong nước xuất khẩu. C-thuật ngữ liên quan đến phân phối trong nước xuất khẩu, với chi phí thêm cho các nhà xuất khẩu sau khi giao hàng. D điều kiện chăm sóc cung cấp bên ngoài nước xuất khẩu. Một bảng cho chúng ta một cái nhìn tổng quan: CÂU HỎI: Giải thích EXW, CFR, DDU EXW là một trong các điều khoản E trong Incoterms. Nó là viết tắt của Ex công việc, một phương pháp giao hàng, xuất khẩu là miễn phí từ phí khi xuất khẩu thông báo cho người mua sẵn có của hàng hoá tại cơ sở xuất khẩu (nhà máy hoặc kho). Sau đó, xuất khẩu không chịu trách nhiệm vận chuyển, hoặc bất kỳ các chi phí khác.
CFR là một trong những C-điều khoản trong Incoterms. Nó là viết tắt của Chi phí vận tải, một phương pháp giao hàng, xuất khẩu được miễn phí khi hàng hóa vượt qua lan can tàu. Sau đó, xuất khẩu chịu trách nhiệm đối với tàu vận tải và vận chuyển hàng hóa.


THE PROBLEM

Although the purpose of ICC Incoterms is to standardize terms of trade worldwide, many business people do not know what these terms mean or the nature of their rights and duties under an Incoterm contract.


THE PRINCIPLE

The ICC publication, Incoterms 1990, gives full and clear information about the rights and duties of buyer and exporter in Incoterm contracts. Ignorance of these terms can be expensive.


IN MORE DEPTH

World trade depends to an increasing extent of standardization: international weights and measures are metric: many contracts are priced in U.S. dollars; letter of credit follow standard rules. Misunderstandings can be expensive: anything that makes them likely less likely is welcome.


The Thirteen Incoterms

One source of international confusion are delivery conditions. We have already looked at a number of problems and seen how national laws vary in their preferred solutions. To clarify the situation, the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) issued as early as 1936 standardized terms- the so-called International Commercial Terms or Incoterms. Over the years, the ICC has updated the Incoterms as the nature of commerce has changed- increased use of aircraft, the introduction of containers, electronic document transfer and so on.- all have required new or revised terms. The latest issue of Incpterms is the 2010 revision.


In establishing the 13 Incoterms, the ICC has looked at the most common variations in an arrangement for delivery and established for each variation the exact duties of the exporter and the buyer. In setting up the 13 terms, the ICC has taken into account three variables:

  • Where along the transportation route delivery takes place;

  • What means of transport is used; and

  • What costs the exporter might pay after the point of delivery.

The 13 terms are grouped in four categories: E-terms, F-terms, C-terms and D-terms. The E-term deals with deliveries at the exporter’s factory. The F-terms all concern delivery within the exporter’s country. The C-terms involve delivery in the exporter’s country, with extra costs for the exporter after delivery. D-terms take care of delivery outside the exporter’s country. A table gives us an overview:


QUESTION: Explain EXW, CFR, DDU

EXW is one of the E-terms in the Incoterms. It stands for Ex-work, a method of delivery, where the exporter is free from charge when exporter notifies buyer of availability of goods at exporter’s premises (factory or warehouse). Then the exporter is not responsible for transport or any other costs.


CFR is one of the C-terms in the Incoterms. It stands for Cost and Freight, a method of delivery, where the exporter is free from charge when the goods pass the ship’s rail. Then the exporter is responsible for ship transport and freight.



TERM TYPE

SHORT FORM

FULL FORM

POINT OF DELIVERY

TRANSPORT

COST AFTER DELIVERY

E-TERMS

EXW

Ex-work

When exporter notifies buyer of availability of goods at exporter’s premises, he is free from responsibility

None

None

F-TERMS

FCA

Free Carrier

When goods are handed over to the carrier

Any

None




FAS

Free Alongsi-de Ship

When goods are alongside the ship, ready for loading

Ship

None




FOB

Free On Board

When the goods pass the ship’s rail at the port of loading

Ship

None

C-TERMS

CFR

Cost and Freight

When the goods pass the ship’s rail at the destination

Ship

Freight to destination




CIF

Cost, Insurance and Freight

When the goods pass the ship’s rail

Ship

Freight and Insurance to destination




CPT

Carriage Paid To

When the goods are handed over to the carrier

Any

Freight to destination




CIP

Carriage and Insurance Paid

When the goods are handed over to the carrier

Any

Freight and insurance to destination

D-TERMS

DAF

Delivered At Frontier

When the goods are cleared for export at a named frontier

Any

None




DES

Delivered Ex-Ship

When the ship carrying the goods arrives at the port of destination

Ship

None




DEQ

Delivered Ex-Quay

When the goods are on the quay at the port of destination, and cleared for import

Ship

None




DDU

Delivered Duty Unpaid

When the goods are available to the buyer at a named destination, duty unpaid

Any

None




DDP

Delivered Duty Paid

When the goods are available to the buyer at a named destination, duty paid

Any

None




Incoterms obviously save a great deal of work in contract drafting. Compare the two versions of the delivery clause below:

The equipment listed in Annex 1 shall be delivered FOB (Beira) (Incoterms 1990).

For the equipment listed in Annex 1 the price is for delivery free on board the carrying vessel designated by the Buyer at the port of Beira including the cost of packing, as well as expenses incurred before loading the equipment on board the carrying vessel.

The first wording—using an Incoterrrt—is more than simple shorthand: it incorporates six pages of the ICC booklet Incoterms 1990 specifying numerous duties of both buyer and exporter. The exporter, for example, must "Deliver the goods on board the vessel named by the buyer..." and 'pay all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have passed the ship's rail."36

A word of caution on Incoterms: the 1990 Incoterms are radically new. Some old terms have disappeared: FOT and FOR (Free On Truck and Free on Rail) have been replaced by FCA; C&F has been renamed CFR. Further, some traditional terms now have very restricted meanings: FOB, for example, applies only to transport by ship; for other means of trans­port, the correct "FOB equivalent" is now FCA. Also remember that Incoterms apply only to international trade; for trade within a country, Incoterms are not appropriate.

Two questions often arise about Incoterms: first, is it necessary to state in the contract that FOB, CIF, and so on are Incoterms? And secondly, what happens if the "small print" of Incoterms 1990 conflicts with a provision of the contract? Let's look at these issues.




Incoterms rõ ràng là tiết kiệm rất nhiều công việc soạn thảo hợp đồng. So sánh hai phiên bản của các điều khoản giao hàng dưới đây: Các thiết bị được liệt kê trong Phụ lục 1 được giao FOB (Beira) (Incoterms 1990). Đối với các thiết bị được liệt kê trong Phụ lục 1, giá giao hàng miễn phí trên tàu thực hiện theo chỉ định của người mua tại cảng Beira bao gồm cả chi phí đóng gói, cũng như chi phí phát sinh trước khi tải các trang thiết bị trên tàu thực hiện.
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