To maintain and periodically update the database, the ATI-MoC, the management agency of the Database and the Web-site, has further collected the data and updated the Database for the year of 2012. The updating process is described below:
For the purpose of data collection, the ATI has sent dispatch to 90 water utilities, requesting them to provide questionnaire filled the data of 2012 under the previous guidance and training. The questionnaire for 2012 is the same that used for 2011 (it is presented in Annex 1 of the Report).
Filled questionnaires from 77 WSUs were received. Compared with the 2011:
- 7 of 81 WSUs which provided the questionnaires in 2011 did not send their 2012 questionnaires, including 3 Utilities with large capacities: Can Tho WSU, WSU Ha Dong and WSU Dak Lak
- There are 3 new participants: Thuan Thanh WSU, Hai Phong Construction and Water Supply Co. and QuangNam WSU. All of them are small utilities,
To improve the reliability of the national figures for a number of data (such as water supply capacity, abstracted water volume, the population in the service area, the served population) as well as for the purpose of comparison of national values between 2011 and 2012 it is necessary to include in the 2012 database the data of all Utilities which participated the 2011 database (including 7 Utilities who did not further participate in 2012), in total 84 WSUs. The Utilities submitted questionnaires in 2011 and/ or 2012 are listed in Annex 2 under classification according to their provinces and geographic areas. (This classification allows further adding any newly participated WSU into the list in the future).
It should be noted that the list of these 84 Utilities covers all the major WSUs of the whole 63 provinces and cities across the country (this is demonstrated through the design capacities of WSUs stated below). So the data of the 84 Utilities provide a good basis for calculation of National urban water supply indicators.
The experts of ATI have gathered data in 77 received questionnaires and conducted the preliminary data handling. The clarification of the unreasonable data has been conducted but not achieved the needed results.
Review of original values of indicators
From the original input data provided in the questionnaires the original values of indicators were calculated through Microsoft Excel workbook. The review of these values has indicated that:
In a great number of cells on the Microsoft Excel worksheet it is displayed the #DIV/0! Errors instead of calculated values;
A number of indicator values undoubtedly are physical or mathematical errors;
A number of values are unreasonable regarding technical or management aspects because they rarely exist in any normally operated WSU.
Details of these errors and unreasonable values are presented in item 3.2 below.
Adjustment of original values of data and indicators
In order to improve the reliability of the Database 2012, the indicator values which were found as errors or unreasonable in step 3 have been adjusted to the extent possible. These adjustments were conducted with the constraint that the data clarification or supplement from the Utilities is unavailable. In case that the original values are not adjustable they will be excluded from the database.
Details of adjustment of original input data and indicators are presented below (section 4)
Preparation of the report on the Urban Water Supply Database 2012
Based on the values of performance indicators, an assessment report has been elaborated, including comments and recommendations.
Updating the Urban Water Supply Database 2012
The adjusted input data and indicator values are used for updating the individual water utility reports as well as National Urban Water Supply Report for the year 2012.
The set of performance indicators includes 51 indicators and covers all urban water supply indicators specified in the MoC’s Circular No. 05/2012 / TT-BXD dated 10 / 10/2012 on Issuance of statistical indicator system in construction sector. These Urban Water supply indicators consist of four criteria, namely:
Total water supply capacity, code 0207;
Level of unaccounted-for-water (Non-revenue water-NRW), code 0208;
Water service Coverage, code 0209 and
Domestic water consumption rate (per capita), code 0210.
Among them the service coverage indicator is one the national statistical indicators (i.e. at higher statistical level).
In this indicator set, there are four (4) indicators on water tariffs for non-domestic customers which are not included in the National annual report as well as in Individual utility reports. In fact, many WSUs did not provide these data in their 2012 questionnaire. Therefore, this report ignores these four indicators and considers 47 others only.
As presented, the review of indicator original values, which are automatically computed from the original input data, has indicated that a number of indicator values are not computable (due to input errors), or are errors or unreasonable. Specifically:
A number of values due to indicator nature are obviously unrealistic, including:
The service coverage exceeded 100%: nine (9) IV GCs and ten (10) V GCs have their coverage greater than 100%. In establishment of database 2011, these facts also occurred and the calculated coverages greater than 100% were defaulted to 100%.
The NRW has a negative value: ten (10) IV GCs and ten (10) V GCs and eleven (11) combined indicators are negative values.
Water treatment Plant efficiency has a negative value: seven (7) IV GCs, six (6) V GCs and six (6) Combined Indicators
Revenue collection efficiency is greater than 100%: eleven (11) Utilities
Quality of water supplied value (Indicator 8.2: the number of pass sample is greater than the tested sample number) is greater than 100%: five (5) WSUs
the value of combined indicator of two city types, IV GC and V GC is not between respective ones of these two types, namely: the national figure of the domestic water consumption rate.
Various values obviously are that rarely exist for a normally operated WSU:
The NRW is 100%: one (1) WSU. Additionally, a number of WSUs have very high NRWs, which are greater than 70%
the water treatment plant efficiency is 100%: In four (4) WSUs
Working ratio (the ratio of total operating expenses to total operating revenues) is greater than 100%: five (5) WSUs (i.e. the total operating expenses is more than total operating revenues)
Revenue collection efficiency is 0% (i.e. Water supply Revenues collected in the year is equal to zero): one (1) WSU;
Debt Service Ratio greater than 100% (total debt service more than total direct tariff income): three (3) WSUs
Investment in domestic connections greater than 100% (investment in connection more than total annual tariff revenues): two (2) WSUs
Total training costs per employee is too big and much greater than their average salary: two (2) WSUs
There is big difference between the amount of water abstracted from the environment in 2011 and that in 2012:
Compared with 2011, the amount of raw water abstracted in 2012 decreased by 3 times. Additionally the proportions of surface water and groundwater in the total amount of raw water abstracted are also quite different between the two years.
Therefore, the data of raw water amount of 2011 and 2012 have been reviewed and it is investigated that for a number of WSUs there are mistakes in unit of data: using m3/ year instead of ‘000 m3 / year (so these data were increased by 1000 times), namely:
In the year 2011: six (6) data on surface water and three (3) data on ground water
In the year 2012: one (1) datum on surface water and two (2) data on ground water
Besides, it is also found some errors in the data, such as:
Raw water amount of “Hanoi clean water one-member Ltd. Co. “ for 2011 is zero and
Viwaco’s raw water for 2012 is surface water while it is ground water in 2011
As presented above, in a great number of cells on the Microsoft Excel worksheet it is displayed the “#DIV/0!” instead of calculated values. As the data clarification by the related WSUs is not available, the only method can be used for data adjustment is analysis of submitted input data. The analysis shows that most of these calculation errors are related to indicators of the two city types, IV GC and V GC. Therefore the serviced cities were reviewed to identify the reason for these errors that is whether the WSU does not supply water for this city type or the WSU did not provide the input data even that he provides services for this city type.
In each questionnaire the number of serviced IV GC and V GC has been provided under questions A4 and A5. In many cases, these filled data are contradictory with other data. So to adjust the number of serviced city under two types, it is necessary to review four following data simultaneously:
The number of IV GCs and V GCs serviced by the WSU: at questions A4 and A5
The population of these two city types: at questions A29 and A30
The connections of these two city types: at questions A33 and A34
The water supply design capacities for these two city types: at questions A65 and A66
Correction results are presented in Table 1 and show that of the 84 Utilities included in the data base there are: