I. so sánh bằNG: Affirmative: As + adj/adv + As Ví dụ



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CẤU TRÚC SO SÁNH VÀ BÀI TẬP ỨNG DỤNG

I. SO SÁNH BẰNG:

1. Affirmative: As + adj/adv + As

Ví dụ:

1. My house is as big as yours.

2. This watch is as expensive as mine.

3. He runs as fast as I do.



2. Negative: As/So + adj/adv + As

Ví dụ:

1. Tom isn’t as/so old as he looks.

2. This machine isn’t as/so modern as that one.

3. He doesn’t work as/so hard as he used to.

***Lưu ý:

a) Less...than: cũng tương tự như not as/so...as



Ví dụ:

1. This film is less interesting than the one we saw last week.

2. The centre was less crowded than usual.

b) Khi nói gấp bao nhiêu lần, ta dùng cấu trúc twice/three times as...as...



Ví dụ:

1. Petrol is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago.

2. Their house is about three times as big as ours.

c) Khi muốn nói tương tự như, ta dùng cấu trúc the same as.



Ví dụ:

1. Ann’s salary is the same as Jane’s.

2. Tom is the same age as Dick.

II. SO SÁNH HƠN, KÉM

1. Short adjectives/adverbs: những từ có 1 âm tiết và 2 âm tiết tận cùng bằng –y.

Adjective/adverb + ER + than

Ví dụ:

Cheap  cheaper

Safe  safer

Big  bigger

Cold  colder

Hot  hotter

Lucky  luckier

Fine  finer

Pretty  prettier

Heavy  heavier


Ví dụ:

1. The exam paper is easier than we expected.

2. This house is bigger than hers.

3. London is older than New York.

4. The cassette is cheaper than the record.

2. Long adjectives/adverbs: những từ có 2 âm tiết trở lên.

More + adjective/adverb + than

Ví dụ:

Modern  more modern



Patient  more patient

Comfortable  more comfortable

Difficult  more difficult

Ví dụ:


1. You’re more patient than me.

2. The exam was more difficult than we expected.

*** Lưu ý:

a) Đối với một số từ sau đây có thể xem như là tính từ ngắn hoặc dài, nhưng thường được dùng như tính từ dài: quiet, clever, narrow, shallow, simple, gentle, common, hollow, polite, handsome, wicked, pleasant, cruel, stupid, tired.

b) Trước các tính từ so sánh hơn, có thể dùng các (cụm) từ sau đây để chỉ mức độ so sánh: much, a lot, far, a bit, slightly.

Ví dụ:


1. Let’s go by bus. It’s much/a lot/far cheaper.

2. Don’t go by train. It’s a lot/much/more expensive.

3. This bag is slightly heavier than the other one.

c) Sau than hoặc as có thể dùng đại từ nhân xưng tân ngữ hoặc chủ ngữ.

Ví dụ:

1. You are taller than me/I am.



2. Her husband isn’t as clever as her/she is.

d) Có thể dùng hình thức so sánh hơn trong một trường hợp đặc biệt để diễn tả hai thay đổi cùng xảy ra, thường được gọi là so sánh kép. Chú ý không tách more khỏi tính từ, trạng từ hoặc danh từ.

Ví dụ:

1. The older I get, the happier I am.



2. The sooner you start, the more quickly your work will be finished.

3. The more money we earn, the better we live.

4. The more people you know, the less time you have to see them.

e) Để diễn tả sự thay đổi tiếp tục, có thể dùng hình thức so sánh kép. Trong trường hợp này, không dùng cụm từ than vì chỉ so sánh trong câu có một cụm chủ vị mà thôi.

Ví dụ:

1. I am getting fatter and fatter.



2. We’re more and more concerned about the protection of our environment.

f) Trong câu hỏi và câu phủ định, any có thể được dùng với hình thức so sánh hơn.

Ví dụ:

1. Is she getting any better?



2. I can’t go any further.

3. If I were any younger, I’d fall in love with her.

g) Có thể dùng ever sau hình thức so sánh hơn.

Ví dụ: You’re looking lovelier than ever.

h) Có thể dùng even để nhấn mạnh hình thức so sánh hơn.

Ví dụ:


1. You are even more beautiful than before.

2. Harry’s nice, but his brother is even nicer.

i) Có thể dùng no với nghĩa not at all trước hình thức so sánh hơn.

Ví dụ:


1. Are you really getting 45? You look no older than 38.

2. Some people can eat what they like and get no fatter.

j) Cụm từ of được đặt ở đầu câu để nhấn mạnh hình thức so sánh bậc hơn và nhất.

Ví dụ:


1. Of the two boys, John behaves the more politely.

2. Of all the capitals in the world, Bangkok is the one I would most like to visit.

k) Cụm từ other than (khác với) và rather than (hơn là) dùng để so sánh hơn.

Ví dụ:


1. Here is a book other than yours.

2. I have no other lesson than this one to learn.

3. I will go to meet him rather than wait for him.

4. She left rather than stay as an unwelcome guest.

l) Cụm từ no other...than (không có gì/ai khác trừ) và none other than (không phải cái gì/ai khác trừ) và none other than (không phải cái gì/ai khác trừ mà chính là)

Ví dụ:


1. I have no other friend other than you.

2. We can think of no other example than this.

3. It was no one other than Peter.

4. The tall man that I saw was no one other than Mr Brown.

m) Có thể dùng các cấu trúc sau đây với danh từ để so sánh: more of a, as much of a, less of a và enough of a.

Ví dụ:

1. He’s more of a sportsman than his brother.

2. It was as much of a success as I expected.

3. He is less of a fool than I thought.

4. He’s enough of a man to tell the truth.

5. He is too much of a coward to tell the truth.



BÀI TẬP CÂU SO SÁNH

I .Complete the sentences using Double Comparatives

  1. It’s becoming ……………………………..…….. to find a job (difficult)

  2. The hole in your pullover is getting ……………………….. (big)

  3. My bags seemed to get …………………..………. as I carried them (heavy)

  4. As I waited for my interview, I became ……………………………….. (nervous)

  5. As the day went on the weather got ……………………….……. (bad)

  6. Travelling is becoming …………………………….……….. (expensive)

II. Match the two halves containing the structure

1. the earlier we leave

2. the longer he waited

3. the more I got to know him

4. the more you practise your English

5. the longer the phone call

6. the more goods you sell




a. the faster you’ll learn

b. the more you have to pay

c. the sooner we’ll arrive

d. the more profit you’ll make

e. the more impatient he became

f. the more I liked him



III. Rewrite the following sentences, using double comparatives

1. Nam is old. He is thin. …………………………………………………………………

2. She says much. People hate her lot……………………………………

3. She wears many fashionable clothes. She looks beautiful……………………………….

4. He waited long. He became tired………………………………………………..

5. I learn much. I understand little…………………………………………

6. People make a lot of clothes. They need a lot of cotton………………………..

7. Tom reads many books. He gets little knowledge………………………………

8. They live long. They have few friends……………………………………………

9. We work hard. We earn a lot of money………………………………………….

10. You smoke a lot. You’ll find it easy to get lung cancer………………………

11. She is beautiful. Her husband gets jealous. …………………………………………….

12. The bus has many wheels. It carries a lot of people…………………………

13. It gets dark. It becomes cold…………………………………………..

14. He runs quickly. He feels tired………………………………………………….

15. The class has many students. The teacher becomes impatient……………….

16. Peter earns a lot of money. He has little time to relax………………………..

17. I learn a lot of new things. It is easy for me to forget the old ones…………

18. Books are expensive. We love them a lot………………………………………

IV. Choose the right words to fill in the gaps:

My new job is great. I like it much better than my old one. The people here are (1) (more nice/ most nice/ nicer/ nicest)__________ than I expected. Luckily my new boss isn’t as rude (2) (as/ so/ than/ that)__________ my old boss, Mrs. Crossley, was. I hated her. She was the (3) (least/ less/ less and less/ so)__________ friendly person I’ve ever met. Everyone here is older (4) (as I/ as me/ than I/ than me)__________ In fact I’m the youngest person (5) (from/ in/ of/ out of)__________ the office. But I don't mind.

The good thing about the job is that I get a (6) (bit/ less/ lot/ much)__________ more money, although not much more than I did before. The bad thing is that the journey isn’t (7) (as/ less/ more/ same) __________ simple as it was in my old job, where the bus took me straight there. Now I have to change buses. But I’m allowed to start work early. The earlier I leave home, (8) (more easier/ more easy/ the easier/ the easy)__________ the journey is because the buses aren't so crowded.

V. Correct the mistakes if necessary, tick if there is no mistake in the sentence.

1. Silver isn't as expensive as gold.

2. Indian food is the nicer than Chinese, I think.

3. The telephone is one of the most useful inventions ever.

4. I feel a much better now, thank you.

5. The longer you wait, so the harder it'll be.

6. The piano is heavier than the sofa.

7. This is the quickest way to the hotel.

8. You're taller than he is.

9. Who is the cleverest student in of the class?

10. The weather is getting hotter and hotter.

VI. Rewrite the sentences

1. The living-room isn't as big as the kitchen. (bigger)

The kitchen __________.

2. I'm not as fit as you. (am)

You're __________.

3. The table and the desk are the same size. (big)

The table __________the desk.

4. Prices just get higher all the time. (and)

Prices __________.

5. The dress is cheaper than the skirt. (expensive)

The skirt __________ the dress.

6. This crossword is the easiest. (difficult)

This crossword __________.

7. Their excitement was increasing all the time. (excited)

They were getting __________.

8. I've never read a more romantic story. (most)

It's the __________read.

VII. Word formation

1. That was the __________ (funny) film I've ever seen.

2. It was the ______________(horrible) feeling I've ever had.

3. Have you read her ______________(recent) book?

4. It's the _______________(large) company in the country.

5. It was the _______________(boring) speech I've ever heard.

6. You've got the _______________(far) to travel.

7. That's the _____________(helpful) idea so far.

8. The factory uses the ________________ (modern) production methods.

9. This is the __________________(early) I've ever got up.

10. It was the ________________(sad) day of my life.

VIII. Fill the gaps

1. Can't you think of anything _____________(intelligent) to say?

2. Well, the place looks _____________(clean) now.

3. Janet looks ____________(thin) than she did.

4. You need to draw it ______________(carefully) .

5. The weather is getting ___________ (bad).

6. The programme will be shown at a __________ (late) date.

7. I can't stay ________________(long) than half an hour.

8. A mobile phone would be a_______________ (useful) present.

9. I'll try to finish the job ________________ (soon).

10. It was_______________ (busy) than usual in town today.

11. I'll be even_____________ (annoyed) if you do that again.

12. Since the break-in I feel ____________ (nervous).

IX. Choose the correct answer

1. Sarah is .......................... at chemistry than Susan.

A. good B. well C. better D. best

2. I don’t work so hard ....................... my father.

A. so B. as C. than D. more

3. Sam is the .......................... student in my class.

A. tall B. most all C. taller D. tallest

4. No one in my class is .......................... beautiful .......................... her.

A. as/as B. more/as C. as/than D. the/more

5. Going by train isn’t .......................... convenient as going by car.

A. so B. as C. more D. A & B are correct

6. The test is not .......................... difficult .......................... it was last month.

A. as/as B. so/as C. more/as D. A&B are correct

7. Peter usually drives .......................... Mary

A. more fast B. fast than C. faster than D. B&C are correct

8. She cooked .......................... than you.

A. well B. more good C. better D. more well

9. This film is .......................... interesting than that film.

A. most B. less C. as D. so

10. My salary is .......................... his salary.

A. high B. more high C. higher than D. more higher than

11. He works .......................... we do.

A. harder B. as hard as C. more harder D. so hard as

12. No one in this class is .......................... Jimmy.

A. so tall as B. tall than C. the tallest D. more tall than

13. Apples are usually .......................... oranges.

A. cheap than B. more cheap C. the cheapest D. cheaper than

14. I know him .......................... than you do.

A. better B. more well C. good D. the best

15. Marie is not .......................... intelligent .......................... her sister.

A. more/as B. so/so C. so/as D. the/of

16. Janet is .......................... tennis player in the club.

A. good B. best C. well D. the best

17. I ran .......................... than Tom.

A. more fast B. faster C. fast D. the fastest

18. She can speak English .......................... I can.

A. more well B. best than C. better than D. better

19. Ann is 18 years old. Sue is 20 years old. Ann is .......................... Sue

A. older than B. younger than C. older D. younger

20. Nobody can cook as .......................... as my mother.



A. well B. best C. good D. better

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