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Exercise 6

1.

A. adorable

B. ability

C. impossible

D. entertainment

2.

A. engineer

B. corporate

C. difficult

D. different

3.

A. popular

B. position

C. horrible

D. positive

4.

A. selfish

B. correct

C. purpose

D. surface

5.

A. permission

B. computer

C. million

D. perfection

6.

A. scholarship

B. negative

C. develop

D. purposeful

7.

A. ability

B. acceptable

C. education

D. hilarious

8.

A. document

B. comedian

C. perspective

D. location

9.

A. provide

B. product

C. promote

D. profess

10.

A. different

B. regular

C. achieving

D. property

11.

A. education

B. community

C. development

D. unbreakable

12.

A. politics

B. deposit

C. conception

D. occasion

13.

A. prepare

B. repeat

C. purpose

D. police

14.

A. preface

B. famous

C. forget

D. childish

15.

A. cartoon

B. western

C. teacher

D. theater

16.

A. Brazil

B. Iraq

C. Norway

D. Japan

17.

A. scientific

B. ability

C. experience

D. material

18.

A. complain

B. luggage

C. improve

D. forgive

19.

A. offensive

B. delicious

C. dangerous

D. religious

20.

A. develop

B. adjective

C. generous

D. popular

21.

A. beautiful

B. important

C. delicious

D. exciting

22.

A. element

B. regular

C. believing

D. policy

23.

A. punctual

B. tolerant

C. utterance

D. occurrence

24.

A. expensive

B. sensitive

C. negative

D. sociable

25.

A. education

B. development

C. economic

D. preparation

26.

A. attend

B. option

C. percent

D. become

27.

A. literature

B. entertainment

C. recreation

D. information

28.

A. attractive

B. perception

C. cultural

D. expensive

29.

A. chocolate

B. structural

C. important

D. national

30.

A. cinema

B. position

C. family

D. popular

31.

A. natural

B. department

C. exception

D. attentive

32.

A. economy

B. diplomacy

C. informative

D. information

33.

A. arrest

B. purchase

C. accept

D. forget

34.

A. expertise

B. cinema

C. recipe

D. similar

35.

A. government

B. musician

C. disgusting

D. exhausting

36.

A. successful

B. interest

C. arrangement

D. disaster

37.

A. competition

B. repetition

C. equivalent

D. disappointment

38.

A. private

B. provide

C. arrange

D. advise

39.

A. academic

B. education

C. impossible

D. optimistic

40.

A. study

B. knowledge

C. precise

D. message

41.

A. industry

B. performance

C. importance

D. provision

42.

A. contain

B. express

C. carbon

D. obey

43.

A. impress

B. favor

C. occur

D. police

44.

A. regret

B. selfish

C. purpose

D. preface

45.

A. govern

B. cover

C. perform

D. father

46.

A. writer

B. teacher

C. builder

D. career

47.

A. morning

B. college

C. arrive

D. famous

48.

A. ambitious

B. chocolate

C. position

D. occurrence

49.

A. furniture

B. abandon

C. practical

D. scientist

50.

A. devote

B. compose

C. purchase

D. advise


TENSES

I. PRESENT TENSES

1. Present simple

a. “TO BE”

Form.

Eg. I am a student.

She isn’t a teacher.

Are they workers? – Yes, they are.

Where is Lan? – She is in the kitchen.


(+) S + am/is/are .............

(-) S + am/is/are + not .............

(?) – Yes/No question: Am/Is/Are+ S ..................?

- Wh- question: Wh- + am/is/are + S?



b. ORDINARY VERBS

Eg. (+) They live in Tuyen Quang.

(-) They don’t live in Ha Giang.

(?) Do they live in Tuyen Quang? – Yes, they do.

(+) He works in Hanoi.

(-) He doesn’t work in Tuyen Quang.

(?) Does he work in Hanoi? – Yes, he does.

* Wh-questions:

(?) Where do they live? – They live in Tuyen Quang.



(+) S (I, We, You, They) + V (infinitive without “to”)

S (He, She, It) + V (s/es)

(-) S (I, We, You, They) + do not (don’t ) + V(infinitive without “to”)

S (He, She, It) + does not (doesn’t) + V(infinitive without “to”)

(?) Do + I/we/you/they + V(infinitive without “to”) ?

Does + he/she/it + V(infinitive without “to”) ?

* Wh- + do/does + S + V(infinitive without “to”) ? (Chú ý: Khi từ để hỏi là chủ ngữ thì không áp dụng cấu trúc này mà trật tự từ trong câu ở dạng khẳng định)

Eg. Who does it?

What makes you sad?


* Đối với các chủ ngữ là các đại từ nhân xưng I, We, You, They và các danh từ số nhiều thì động từ chia ở dạng nguyên thể không “to”:

Eg. They often play volleyball in the afternoon.

* Nếu chủ ngữ ở dạng số ít (He, she, it) thì thêm “s” hoặc “es” vào sau động từ:

- Cách thêm ‘s, es’ :

+ Thông thường ta thêm "s" vào sau động từ: works, likes, loves, wants, ...

+ Thêm “es” vào sau động từ tận cùng là "ss, x, z, ch, sh, o": misses, kisses, passes, relaxes, boxes, buzzes, teaches, approaches, finishes, washes, goes, does ...

+ Động từ tận cùng là phụ âm + "y", chuyển thành ‘i+es’: cry àcries, fly à flies, study à studies, ...

+ Động từ tận cùng là nguyên âm + "y" thì vẫn tuân theo quy tắc thêm “s” thông thường: play à plays, say à says, pray à prays ...

+ Số ít của “have” là “has”.

Cách dùng:

a. Diễn tả một chân lí, một sự kiện khoa học hay một hiện tượng tự nhiên.

Ex : Water boils at 100oC.

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

b. Diễn tả một phong tục, thói quen ở hiện tại, thường có các trạng từ: always, often, usually, sometimes, occasionally, never, generally, forever, rarely, every day/ year/ once/ three times a week/a month, . ..

Ex: We always go to school at 6 a.m.

He often gets up at 5.30.

c. Một tình huống, công việc lâu dài, hoặc một chương trình, thời khóa biểu, lịch tàu xe...

Ex: I’m a teacher.

He works in a bank.

The train to Ho Chi Minh City leaves at 5.30 am.

There is a football match at 9 p.m on TV tonight.



*The adverbs: often, sometimes, always, usually, every....

- Một tình huống, công việc lâu dài, , hoặc một chương trình, thời khóa biểu, lịch tàu xe...

*Note:

Cách thêm ‘s, es’ : Thông thường ta thêm "s", tuy nhiên :

+ Động từ tận cùng là "s, x, z, ch, sh, p.âm+o" ta thêm "es "

+ Động từ tận cùng là "p.âm+y", chuyển thành ‘p.âm+ies’

+ Số ít của “have” là “has”.



2. Present contimuous

a. FORM

Eg. (+) I am reading an English book.

(-) She is not cooking in the kitchen at the moment.

(?) Are they playing handball with their friends now?



* Wh-questions: Why is she crying?

(+) S + am/is/are + V-ing.

(-) S + am/is/are + not + V-ing

(?) Am/Is/Are+ S + V-ing?

Wh-questions: Wh- + am/is/are + S + V-ing?

(Chú ý: Khi từ để hỏi là chủ ngữ thì không áp dụng cấu trúc này mà trật tự từ trong câu ở dạng khẳng định. Eg. Who is talking in the room?)

a) Cách thêm đuôi "-ing": Thông thường, ta thêm "-ing" vào sau động từ, tuy nhiên :

+ Động từ tận cùng là  "e", bỏ ‘‘e’’ rồi thêm ‘‘­-ing’’: live à living, drive à driving, ...

+ Động từ tận cùng là "ie", chuyển thành ‘‘y + ing’’: die à dying, lie à lying, ...

+ Động từ 1 âm tiết hoặc 2 âm tiết mà trọng âm rơi vào âm tiết thứ 2 kết thúc bằng MỘT nguyên âm và MỘT phụ âm thì nhân đôi phụ âm cuối trước khi thêm "-ing" (ngoại trừ động từ kết thúc bằng "w", "x")

Stop à stopping, cut à cutting, sit à sitting, swim à swimming, ...

Begin à beginning, ...



But cook à cooking, teach à teaching, grow à growing, fix à fixing ...

b. USE

- Diễn tả một hành động đang xảy ra tại thời điểm nói hoặc xung quanh thời điểm nói, thường dùng với : now, right now, at the moment, at present, ...

Ex: Tom is having dinner at the moment.

What are you doing now?

Be quiet! The baby is sleeping.

Listen! Someone is crying somewhere.

- Diễn tả hành động sẽ xảy ra ở tương lai có kế hoạch trước:

Ex: George is leaving for New York tomorrow.

What are you doing tonight?

*The adverbs: now , at the moment..

*The following verbs are never used in continuous forms:

+Verbs of perception(Các động từ về nhận thức):

see, hear, notice, recognize, smell, feel..

+Verbs of emotion(Các động từ về cảm xúc ): want, desire, refuse, forget, wish, care, love, hate, like, dislike..

+Verbs of thinking(Các động từ về suy nghĩ ): think, feel, relize, understand, know, mean, suppose, believe, remember, mind, recollect, recall, trust..



3. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

a. Formation:

Examples: (+) Nam has lived in Hanoi for 10 years.

(-) I have not found my door keys yet.

(?) Have you ever met him before? Yes, I have./No, I haven’t.

(?) What have you just done?



(+) S + have/has + V(past participle)

(-) S + have not (haven’t)/has not (hasn’t)+ V(past participle).

(?) Have/Has + S + V(past participle)?

* Wh- + have/has + S + V(past participle)?

(I/We/You/They + have … ; He/She/It + has …)

b. Usage:

- The Present Perfect Tense is used to express an action happening in the past and still continuing at the present time (often used with since and for).

Eg: We have lived in this city for 10 years.

She has worked in that company since 2000.

- The Present Perfect Tense is used to express past actions whose time is not definite.

Eg: I have read the instructions but I don’t understand them.

He has gone away.

- The Present Perfect Tense is used to express an action happening in an incomplete period.

Eg: It has been cold this winter.

Have you seen him today?

- The Present Perfect Tense is used to express a past experience.

Eg: I have been to Ho Chi Minh City several times.

He has done this job before.

- The Present Perfect Tense is used to express an action which will be completed in the future.

Eg: I will go when I have finished my homework.

He will phone you as soon as he has finished his work.

- The Present Perfect Tense is used with just for a recently completed action.

Eg: I have just bought a dictionary.

- The Present Perfect Tense is used with “not ……. yet

Eg: I have not written to him yet

- The Present Perfect Tense is used with “It is the first time/the second time….”

Eg: It is the first time that he has been to Tuyen Quang.

- The Present Perfect Tense is used with the following adverbs: never, ever, recently, lately, already, up to now, so far, for a long time, for ages…



4. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

a. Formation:

Examples: (+) Nam has been living in Hanoi for 10 years.

(-) I have not been finding my door keys yet.

(?) Have you been cooking? Yes, I have./No, I haven’t.

(?) What have you been doing ?



(+) S + have/has + been + V-ing...

(-) S + have not (haven’t)/has not (hasn’t)+ been + V-ing.

(?) Have/Has + S + been + V-ing?

* Wh- + have/has + S + been+ V-ing?

(I/We/You/They + have … ; He/She/It + has …)

b. Usage

Thì này diễn tả một hành động bắt đầu trong quá khứ và kéo dài liên tục đến hiện tại.



Notes:

Không dùng thì hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn để nói những tình huống tồn tại 1 thời gian dài nhất là khi có always.

Eg: Alice has always worked hard.

(Không dùng has always been working hard)

Không dùng thì hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn với các động từ được liệt kê ở thì hiện tại tiếp diễn(các động từ chỉ nhận thức, tri giác).

Eg: How long have Bob and Alice been married?

(Không dùng have Bob and Alice been being married)

Các từ hay đi kèm là:

* Since: + Mốc thời gian

* For: + khoảng thời gian

Eg: I have been studying French for five years.



II. PAST TENSES

1. Past simple

Form:

a) Đối với động từ “to be”:

Examples: (+) It was hot yesterday.

(-) I wasn’t at home last Sunday.

(?) Were they worried about the result of the exam?

Yes, they were./No, they weren’t.

Where were you last night? – I was at the theatre with my girlfriend.


S + was/ were (not) + ….

Was/Were + S + .............?

Wh- + was/were + S + ......... ?

(I, he, she, it + was; you, we, they + were)

b) Đối với động từ thường:

Examples: (+) She prepared the lessons carefully last night.

(-) I did not go to the beach last summer.

(?) Did they live here ? No, they didn’t.

* What did you do last night? I watched the film on T.V.


S + Ved

S + did not + V(infinitive without “to”)

Did + S + V(infinitive without “to”)?

Wh- + did/ didn’t + S + V(infinitive without “to”)?

Cách thêm “ed”:

- Thông thường ta thêm “-ed” để thành lập quá khứ đơn và quá khứ phân từ:

Eg. Worked, played, ...

+ Những động từ tận cùng là “e”, chỉ thêm “d”. Eg: live à lived, like à liked ....

+ Động từ tận cùng là phụ âm + "y", chuyển thành ‘i+ed’: cry àcried, fly à flied, study à studied, ...

+ Động từ tận cùng là nguyên âm + "y" thì vẫn tuân theo quy tắc thêm “ed” thông thường: play à played, pray à prayed, obey à obeyed ...

- Đối với động từ một âm tiết tận cùng là một phụ âm, trước phụ âm đó là một nguyên âm ta gấp đôi phụ âm cuối rồi thêm “ed”: stop àstopped ,drop àdropped.

- Đối với động từ 2 âm tiết mà trọng âm rơi vào âm tiết thứ 2 mà tận cùng là một phụ âm, trước phụ âm đó là một nguyên âm ta gấp đôi phụ âm cuối rồi thêm “ed”: permit àpermitted, prefer à preferred, ....

b. Động từ bất quy tắc (Irregular verbs): (Xem Bảng động từ bất quy tắc).

Eg : come à came do à did go à went

cut à cut write à wrote see à saw

Use:

- Diễn tả một hành động xảy ra và kết thúc trong quá khứ với thời gian xác định

Eg: She went shopping with me yesterday afternoon.

Lan wrote a long letter to her sister last night.

- Diễn tả một thói quen hay một công việc lâu dài trong quá khứ: used to + V-infinitive

Eg: They used to play on the swings when they were children.

When I was a student, I always went to the library to borrow books.

- Các trạng từ thường dùng: ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week/month/year/Christmas, in 1995, ...



2. The Past Continuous Tense

a. Form.

Eg: He was writing a short story at 9 p.m last night

They were not visiting Ho Chi Minh Museum at 8a.m last Sunday.



Was Jack swimming at this time yesterday?

What were you doing when the light went out?



S + was/were + V- ing

S+ was/ were + not + V-ing

Was/Were + S + V-ing?

Wh- + was/were + S + V-ing?

* Chú ý: Khi từ để hỏi là chủ ngữ thì không áp dụng cấu trúc này mà trật tự từ trong câu ở dạng khẳng định. Eg. What was happening at your house when I phoned you last night?

b. Use.

- Diễn tả một hành động đang xảy ra ở một thời điểm hay cả một khoảng thời gian trong quá khứ, thường dùng với at 7.00 pm yesterday, at this time last night, ...

Eg: I was watching a football match on T.V at 8 o'clock last night.

- Diễn tả một hành động đang xảy ra trong quá khứ (QKTD) thì một hành động khác xảy ra (quá khứ đơn)

Eg: I was having dinner when he came.

- Diễn tả hai hoặc nhiều hành động xảy ra đồng thời tại cùng một thời điểm xác định trong quá khứ.



Eg: At 8p.m yesterday, Mary was watching TV while Tom was reading a newspaper.

3. The Past Perfect Tense

a. Formation:

Examples:

(+) By the end of 1999, Tom had lived in Hanoi for 5 years.

(-) We had not done anything about it before the problem was solved.

(?) Had you finished all the work before you left the office? Yes, I had./ No, I hadn’t.

* Why hadn’t you finished your homework before you went to bed?



(+) S + had + V(past participle)

(-) S + had not (hadn’t)+ V(past participle).

(?) Had + S + V(past participle)?

* Wh- + had + S + V(past participle)?

b. Usage:

2.1. The Past Perfect Tense is used to express an action happening before a specific point of time in the past.

Eg: He had worked in that company for 5 years before 1995.

They had left before 5 o’clock.

2.2. The Past Perfect Tense is used to express an action happening before a past action.

Eg: She had known the news before I told her about it.

The train had gone when we arrived the station.

2.3. The Past Perfect Tense is used in conditional sentences type 3 in if clauses.

Eg: If I had known that she was in hospital, I would have come to visit her.

If you had worked hard, you would have passed the examination.



4. The past perfect continuous tense

a. Formation:

Examples: (+) Nam had been living in Hanoi for 10 years before he moved to Hai Phong.

(-) I had not been finding my door keys until you told me.

(?) Had you been cooking for 30 minutes before you had a bath? Yes, I had./No, I hadn’t.

(?) What had you been doing before you met her?



(+) S + had + been + V-ing...

(-) S + had not + been + V-ing.

(?) Had + S + been + V-ing?

* Wh- + had + S + been+ V-ing?


b. Usage

Thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn diễn tả một hành động quá khứ đã xảy ra và kéo dài cho đến khi hành động quá khứ thứ 2 xảy ra(hành động thứ 2 dùng Past Simple) thường khoảng thời gian kéo dài được êu rõ trong câu.

Eg. The man had been playing cards for 3 hours before I came

They had been living in London for ten years when I met them



III. FUTURE TENSES

1. Future simple tense

a. Form:

Examples: (+) I think it will rain this Sunday.

(-) He won’t win the race.

(?) Will youc go to Hanoi tomorrow? Yes, I will/ No, I won’t.

(?) What will you do tomorrow?



(+) S + will + V-(without “to”)

(-) S + will not (won’t) + V(without “to”)

(?) Will + S + will + V(without “to”)

(I và We có thể dùng với “shall”; will not = won’t, shall not = shan’t)

b. Use:

- Diễn tả:

+ Hành động sẽ xảy ra ở tương lai.

Eg: He will be 20 next week.

I won’t go there tomorrow.

+ Đề nghị: Will you open the door?

+ Một hành động tương lai được quyết định ngay lúc nói.

Eg : - Nam is in hospital.

- Really? I will visit him.

+ Dùng để yêu cầu ai đó làm việc gì

Eg: Will you please be quiet?

+ Dùng để hứa hẹn làm điều gì đó

Eg: I promise I will call you as soon as I arrive

I won’t tell John what you said, I promise

+ Dùng Shall IShall we để đề nghị hoặc gợi ý

Eg: Where shall we go this evening?



Shall I open the window?

+ Dùng I think I will... hoặc I don’t think I will…khi ta quyết định làm điều gì

Eg: I think I will stay at home this evening

I don’t think I will go out tonight. I am too tired.

* Các trạng từ thường dùng: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next month, next week, next year, next Christmas, next Sunday, soon, sooner or later,...

2. TO BE GOING TO

Be going to.

a. Form.

Examples: (+) I am going to spend my summer holiday with my family in Paris.

(-) She is not going to be a doctor.

(?) Are you going to apply for the job? Yes, I am./ No, I’m not.


(+) S + is/am/are + going to + V(without “to”)

(-) S + is/am/are + not + going to + V(without “to”)

(?) Is/Am/Are + S + going to + V(without “to”)?

b. Use:

Diễn tả:


- Hành động sắp và sẽ xảy ra trong tương lai gần dựa vào dấu hiệu của hiện tại.

Eg: Look at the black clouds in the sky. It's going to rain.

- Hành động tương lai có dự định trước:

Eg. I am going to sell my house next week.



3. THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

a Form:

(+) S + will + be + V-ing

(-) S + will not (won’t) + be +V-ing

(?) Will + S + be + V-ing?

(I và We có thể dùng với “shall”; will not = won’t, shall not = shan’t)

b. Usage:

+ Diễn tả hành động đang tiến hành tại một thời điểm ở tương lai.

Eg: At 10 o’clock tomorrow morning he will be working at his office

I will be watching TV at 9 o’clock tonight

+ Diễn tả hành động đang xảy ra ở tương lai thì có hành động khác xen vào( hành động đang xảy ra dùng Future continuous, hành động xen vào dùng ở Present Simple)

Eg: I will be studying when you return this evening

They will be travelling in Italy by the time you arrive here.

+ Dùng Will you be + V-ing? để hỏi về dự định của một người khi ta cần điều gì hoặc cần người đó làm điều gì.

Eg: A: Will you be using your motorbike this evening?

B: No, you can take it.

A: Will you be passing the post office when you go out?

B: Yes, why?



4. THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

a. Form:

(+) S + will + have + PP +(O+A)

(-) S + will not (won’t) + have +PP + (O+A)

(?) Will + S + have + PP + (O+A)?

(I và We có thể dùng với “shall”; will not = won’t, shall not = shan’t)

b. Usage:

- Thì tương lai hoàn thành diễn tả một hành động sẽ hoàn tất vào một thời điểm cho trước ở tương lai.



- Thì này dùng trong câu có các cụm từ chỉ thời gian như: “By + mốc thời gian”; “BY THE TIME”; “BY THEN”

Eg. I will have finished my work by noon.

They have built that house by July next year.

When you come back, I’ll have written this letter.



5. THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

a. Form:

(+) S + will + have + been + V-ing +(O+A)

(-) S + will not (won’t) + have + been + V-ing + (O+A)

(?) Will + S + have + been + V-ing + (O+A) ?

(I và We có thể dùng với “shall”; will not = won’t, shall not = shan’t)

b. Usage:

Thì tương lai hoàn thành tiếp diễn diễn tả một hành động bắt đầu từ quá khứ và kéo dài đến 1 thời điểm cho trước ở tương lai

- Các cụm từ chỉ thời gian thường đi kèm là:

+ By.....for + ( khoảng thời gian)

+ By then

+ By the time



Eg. By November, we will been living in this house for 10 years.

By March 15th, I wil have been working for this company for 6 years

Note


1. Không dùng các thì tiếp diễn (continuous tenses) với các động từ chỉ nhận thức tri giác ( see, be, hear...)

Không dùng các thì tương lai (Future tenses) trong các mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian, thì Simple Future đựoc thay bằng Simple Present, thì Future Perfect (hoặc Future Perfect Continuous) đựoc thay bằng thì Present Perfect ( hoặc Present Perfect continuous)



MIXED EXERCISES ON TENSES

Exercise 1 . Choose the best answer among A, B, C, or D.

1. When I last saw him, he _____ in London.

A. has lived B. is living C. was living D. has been living

2. We _______ Dorothy since last Saturday.

A. don’t see B. haven’t seen C. didn’t see D. hadn’t seen

3. The train ______ half an hour ago.

A. has been leaving B. left C. has left D. had left

4. Jack ______ the door.

A. has just painted B. paint C. will have painted D. painting

5. My sister ________ for you since yesterday.

A. is looking B. was looking C. has been looking D. looked

6. I ______ Texas State University now.

A. am attending B. attend C. was attending D. attended

7. He has been selling motorbikes ________.

A. ten years ago B. since ten years C. for ten years ago D. for ten years

8. Christopher Columbus _______ American more than 500 years ago.

A. discovered B. has discovered C. had discovered D. had been discovering

9. He fell down when he ______ towards the church.

A. run B. runs C. was running D. had run

10. We _______ there when our father died.

A. still lived B. lived still C. was still lived D. were still living

11. They ______ table tennis when their father comes back home.

A. will play B. will be playing C. play D. would play

12. By Christmas, I _______ for Mr. Smith for six years.

A. shall have been working B. shall work

C. have been working D. shall be working

13. I _______ in the room right now.

A. am being B. was being C. have been being D. am

14. I ______ to New York three times this year.

A. have been B. was C. were D. had been

15. I’ll come and see you before I _______ for the States.

A. leave B. will leave C. have left D. shall leave

16. The little girl asked what _______ to her friend.

A. has happened B. happened

C. had happened D. would have been happened

17. John ______ a book when I saw him.

A. is reading B. read C. was reading D. reading

18. He said he _______ return later.

A. will B. would C. can D. would be

19. Jack ________ the door.

A. has just opened B. open C. will have opened D. opening

20. I have been waiting for you ______ .

A. since early morning B. since 9a.m

C. for two hours D. All are correct

21. Almost everyone _______ for home by the time we arrived.

A. leave B. left C. leaves D. had left

22. By the age of 25, he ______ two famous novels.

A. wrote B. writes C. has written D. had written

23. While her husband was in the army, Mary ______ to him twice a week.

A. was reading B. wrote C. was written D. had written

24. I couldn’t cut the grass because the lawn mower ______ a few days previously.

A. broke down B. has been broken

C. had broken down D. breaks down

25. Since _______, I have heard nothing from him.

A. he had left B. he left C. he has left D. he was left

26. After I _______ lunch, I looked for my bag.

A. had B. had had C. have has D. have had

27. By the end of next year, George _______ English for two years.

A. will have learned B. will learn C. has learned D. would learn

28. The man got out of the car, ________ round to the back and opened the book.

A. walking B. walked C. walks D. walk

29. Henry _______ into the restaurant when the writer was having dinner.

A. was going B. went C. has gone D. did go

30. He will take the dog out for a walk as soon as he ______ dinner.

A. finish B. finishes C. will finish D. finishing

31. I shall be glad when he _______.

A. had gone B. did go C. went D. has gone

32 Ask her to come and see me when she _______ her work.

A. finish B. has finished C. finished D. finishing

33. Turn off the gas. Don’t you see the kettle ________ ?

A. boil B. boils C. is boiling D. boiled

34. Tom and Mary ______ for Vietnam tomorrow.

A. leave B. are leaving C. leaving D. are left

35. He always ________ for a walk in the evening.

A. go B. is going C. goes D. going

36. Her brother ______ in Canada at present.

A. working B. works C. is working D. work

37. I ______ to the same barber since last year.

A. am going B. have been going C. go D. had gone

38. Her father ______ when she was a small girl.

A. dies B. died C. has died D. had died

39. Last week, my professor promised that he ________ today.

A. would come B. will come C. comes D. coming

40. Pasteur ______ in the 19th century.

A. was living B. lived C. had lived D. has lived

Exercise 2. Choose the underlined part in each sentence (A, B,C, or D ) that needs correcting

1. Mr. Pike likes travelling. By the time he will be 60, he will have visited 15 countries.

A B C D

2. I sometimes wish that I will have another car.

A B C D

3. Peter does likes football. He never misses a football match.



A B C D

4. Mr. Pike stopped his car, got out and looking around.

A B C D

5. Peter wished they have not been punished by the teacher yesterday.



A B C D

6. Why are you so late? I am waiting here for more than one hour.

A B C D

7. Why didn’t Peter go to school? What did happened to him?



A B C D

8. I was listening to the radio when the door bell ring.

A B C D

9. I have learned English for I was 10 years old.



A B C D

10. She has not met her mother since she has moved to London two years ago.

A B C D

11. After Mrs. Wang had returned to her house from work, she was cooking dinner.

A B C D

12. Jimmy threw the ball high in the air, and Betty catching it when it came down.



A B C D

13. Linda has worn her new yellow dress only once since she buys it.

A B C D

14. Last week Mark told me that he got very bored with his present job and is looking for a new one.



A B C D

15. Having fed the dog, he was sat down to his own meal.

A B C D

16. His wife returned when he has left this world for half a day.



A B C D

17. They are going to have to leave soon and so do we.

A B C D

18. The boss laughed when the secretary has told him that she really needed a pay rise.



A B C D

19. The telephone rang several times and then stop before I could answer it.

A B C D

20. Debbie, who is an excellent tennis player, has been playing tennis since ten years.



A B C D

21. I have seen lots of interesting places when I went on holiday last summer.

A B C D

22. When my cat heard a noise in the bushes, she stopped moving and listen intently.



A B C D

23. I think it’s time you must change your way of living.

A B C D

24. When I’m shopping, I ran into an old friend who I hadn’t met for five years.



A B C D

25. The police arrested the man while he is having dinner in a restaurant.

A B C D

26. Peter and Wendy first met in 2006, and they are married for three years now.



A B C D

27. Some people are believing there is life on other planets.

A B C D

28. Every morning, the sun shines in my bedroom window and waking me up.



A B C D

Exercise 3. Rewrite the following sentences using the cues.

1. I have not been to an Indian restaurant for ages.



It is ages____________________________________________________

2. How long have Helen and Robert been married?



When ______________________________________________________

3. When you phoned me, it was my lunchtime.

When ______________________________________________________

4. I have not had a Chinese meal for 4 years.



The last time _________________________________________________

5. David went home before we arrived.



When _______________________________________________________

6. I have only recently started wearing glasses.



I did not­_____________________________________________________

7. Jack left the office before I arrived there.



When _______________________________________________________

8. During my dinner, the phone rang.



While _______________________________________________________

9. I have not been to the cinema for 2 months.



I last _____________________________________________________________

10. This is my first visit to Japan.



This is the first time_________________________________________________

MODAL VERBS

1. Can ( quá khứ là could ) : chỉ một khả năng hoặc cơ hội làm đều gì đó, nghĩa là “ có thể”.



Ex : - Tom can play three musical intruments.

- In the past, people could hardly travel easily.



2. may / might : diễn đạt điều gì đó không chắc chắn xảy ra.

Ex : - It may / might be a bomb.

- She may / might be at home today.



3. should ( not )/ought to : chỉ lời khuyên ( nên hay không nên )

Ex : - You should not smoke so much. It is not good for you.

d. Must/have to: chỉ sự bắt buộc ( phải ), must not chỉ sự cấm đoán không được phép.



Ex : - You haven’t got much time. You must hurry.

- You can tell Tom what I said but he mustn’t tell anybody else.



4. Need ( cần ) needn’t = don’t need ( không cần )

Ex : You have got plenty of time. You don’t need to hurry ( You needn’t hurry )

Notes :

1. Câu đề nghị : Can you …. ? Could you …. ? hoặc May I …. ?

Ex : Could you please open the window ?

May I read your newspaper ?

2. Một số cách biến đổi tương đương :

- be necessary ( for O ) + to – V = need ( not )

Ex : It is unnecessary for him to study many subjects.

He needn’t study many subjects / He does not need to study many subjects.

- be possible / probable + to – V hoac maybe + perhaps = can / may + V

Ex : Maybe your answer is right = Your anwer may be right.

3. Modals + have + V3,ed :

- Could have + P.P: rất có thể đã (diễn tả 1 khả năng đã có trong quá khứ, nhưng chưa được sử dụng tới).

- May / might / can / could ( not ) + have + V3/ed : Có thể, có lẽ đã xảy ra ở quá khứ.

Needn’t have + V3/ ed : lẽ ra không cần thiết phải làm , nhưng đã làm rồi

Ex : Ann bought some eggs but when she got home she found that she already had plenty of eggs . So she needn’t have bought any eggs

- Should have + V3 / ed : lẽ ra nên làm nhưng đã không làm

Ex : I ate so much chocolate so I am feeling sick . I shouldn’t have eaten so much chocolate

- Must( not ) + have + V3/ed: Ắt hẳn đã xảy ra ( không xảy ra ) ở quá khứ.

* Exercise 1. Choose the best answer A, B, C or D to complete the sentences.

1. Since we have to be there by 8.30, we_____ take a taxi.



A. had better B. may C. ought D. are able to

2. It_____ rain this evening. Why don't you take an umbrella?



A. could be B. must C. might D. had better

3. This road is very narrow. It ___to be widened.



A. might B. needs C. mustnt D. may

4. They have plenty of time, so they neednt ___.



A. be hurry B. to hurry C. hurry D. to be hurried

5. Youre having a sore throat. Youd better___ to the doctor.



A. to go B. went C. go D. going

6. My mother permitted me to go out at night. She said, “You ___ go out tonight.”



A. may B. have to C. must D. ought to

7. He advised me to take an English course. I ___ it early.



A. should have taken B. should take C. will have taken D. may take

8. You ___ ring the bell; I have a key.



A. mustnt B. neednt C. couldnt D. shouldnt

9. _____ you help me with the homework?



A. May B. Shall C. Should D. Will

10. By the time a baby has reached his first birthday, he should ___ sit up or even stand up.



A. to be able to B. able to C. to be able D. be able to

11. Many birds will ___ more than 3,000 miles to reach their winter homes.



A. flying B. fly C. be fly D. flew

12. We _____ put the fish in the fridge before it spoils.



A. had to B. may C. can D. had better

13. Mr. Brown is very rich. He_____ work hard for a living.



A. mustn't B. shouldn't C. can't D. doesn't have to

14. You _____ throw litter on the streets.



A. mustn't B. couldn't C. needn't D. won't

15. ___ you speak any foreign languages?



A. Could B. Must C. Can D. Might

16. ___ you mind my staying here for some days?



A. Would B. Could C. Can D. Should

17. You _____ return the book now. You can keep it till next week.

A can't B. mustn't C. needn't D. may not

18. "Must we do it now?" -"No, you _____ .”



A. won't B. needn't C. can't D. don't

19. “Have you seen Kate?” “No, but she ___ be at her desk.”



A. may B. ought C. would D. can

20. We have enough food for dinner so you ­_______ go to the market.



A. needn’t B. can’t C. wont D. not going to

21. We were very worried. Someone _______ the car.

A. might have taken B. should have taken

C. needn’t have taken D. will have taken

22. It is nearly eight o’clock. They _______ by now.

A. should arrive B. will have arrived

C. need arrive D. needn’t have arrived

23. We won’t eat until they arrive. They _______ supper.

A. needn’t have had B. will have had

C. might not have had D. may be

24. It’s not necessary that you do your homework now.

A. You needn’t do your homework now

B. You don’t have to do your homework now

C. You must do your homework now.

D. You can not do no homework now.

25. He _______ go to the beach this weekend if the weather is good.



A. might B. must C. can D. needs

* Exercise 2. Rewrite each of the following sentences so that it has the same meaning as the first one.

1. It is necessary for the young to learn English. (NEED)

-> ........................................................................................................

2. It is unnecessary for children to get up early. (NEED)

-> ........................................................................................................

3. Maybe she will come here tomorrow. (POSSIBLE)

-> ........................................................................................................

4. Lily cleaned the house, but her mother had cleaned it before. (NEEDN’T)

-> ........................................................................................................

5. He had a lot of homework to do but he did not do them. (SHOULD)

-> ........................................................................................................

6. I would have been able to finish the report if I had had more time. ( COULD)

-> ........................................................................................................

7. I’m sure they haven’t called yet. ( CAN’T)

-> ........................................................................................................

8. It’s not necessary for you to come early (NEED)

-> ........................................................................................................

9. Perhaps it will be sunny this afternoon.(MAY)

-> ........................................................................................................



10. I’d prefer not to go with her friends. (RATHER)

-> ........................................................................................................



SUBJECT - VERB AGREEMENT

  1. RULES

I. Singular verb (Động từ số ít):

  1. Hai danh từ cùng chỉ một người, một vật, một thứ:

Example: The writer and poet is coming tonight. ( Nhà văn kiêm nhà thơ sẽ đến tối nay.)

  1. Each / Every / either/ neither +{ danh từ số ít} / { of + danh từ số nhi ều } Động từ số ít

Example: Each of children has a toy. ( Mỗi trẻ đều có một đồ chơi.)

  1. Someone, somebody, no one, nobody, anyone, anybody, everyone something, nothing, anything, everything

Example: Everything looks bright and clean. (Mọi thứ có vẻ sáng sủa và sạch sẽ.)

  1. Các danh từ chỉ môn học, tên bệnh và tên quốc gia kết thúc là ‘s’:

NEWS (bản tin), PHYSICS (môn lý), ECNOMICS (kinh tế học), MATHEMATICS (toán), POLITICS (chính trị học), ATHLETES (môn điền kinh), MEALES (bệnh sởi), MUMPS (bệnh quai bị), the PHILIPINES (nước Phi), the United States (nước Mỹ)....

Example: Physics is more difficult than chemistry. (Môn lý thì khó hơn môn hoá)



  1. Các danh từ không đếm được: FURNITURE (đồ đạc), TRAFFIC( giao thông), KNOWLEDGE (kiến thức), HOMEWORK... (bài tập)

Example: The furniture is m ore expensive than we think. ( Món đồ thì đắt hơn chúng ta nghĩ)

  1. Các từ chỉ số lượng thời gian, khoảng cách và tiền:

Example:

For weeks is a longer time to wait him. ( 4 tuần là m ột khoảng thời gian dài để chờ cậu ấy)

Three thousand dollars is a big sum of money. (3000 US$ là một khoản tiền lớn.)

II. Plural verb (Động từ số nhiều):


  1. Hai danh từ chỉ hai người, hai vật, hai thứ khác nhau:

Example:Water and oil do not mix. ( Nước thì không hoà tan với dầu ăn)

  1. Tính từ được dùng như danh từ : The + ADJ: the poor (người nghèo), the sick(người bệnh), the rich,

  2. Example:The rich are not always happy. ( Người giàu không phải lúc nào cũng hạnh phúc.)

  3. Các danh từ PEOPLE (người ta), POLICE (cảnh sát), CATTLE (súc vật)

Example:The police h as arrested the thieves ( Cảnh sát vừa bắt bọn ăn trộm)

  1. Các từ A FEW, BOTH....

Example: A few books I read are famous. ( m ột số sách tôi đã đọc thì nỗi tiếng)

III. Singular or plual verbs (Số nhiều hoặc số ít):

  1. The number of + DT số nhiều Động từ số ít

A number of + DT số nhiều Động từ số nhiều

Example: The number of students in this class is small. A number of children like cakes.



  1. NO + DT số ít Động từ số ít

NO + DT số nhiều Động từ số nhiều

Example: No student is in the hall. No students are on the schoolyard.



  1. All / some/ none /plenty/ half/ most/ a lot / lots + OF+ DT số ít Động từ số ít

All / some/ none /plenty/ half/ most/ a lot / lots + OF+ DT số nhiều Động từ số nhiều

Example: None of the boys is good at English.



  1. There ( be) + N: There is a fire in this room

  2. The committee (uỷ ban), group (nhóm), team (đội), class (lớp), family (gia đình)

IV. Hợp với chủ ngữ gần: (Danh từ liên kết bởi cặp từ nối song song)

  1. EITHER OR

  2. NEITHER + N1 + NOR + N2 + verb

  3. NOT ONLY BUT ALSO

Example: Not only my brother but also my sister is here.

V. Hợp với chủ ngữ xa: (Danh từ đựơc bổ nghĩa bởi cụm giới từ)



WITH / ON THE/ OF THE/ IN...

TOGETHER WITH

N1+ INCLUDING + N2 + VERB ACCOMPANIED BY boring. IN ADDITION TO The woman with all the dogs walks down my street.

AS WELL AS

One of the boxes is open.

The book, including all the chapters in section, is anxious.

The team captain, as well as his players, is boring.

The woman with all the dogs walks down my street.

The people who listen to that music are few.
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