Current situation of cassava in Vietnam and the breeding of improved cultivars



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Current situation of cassava in Vietnam
and the
breeding of improved cultivars
Hoang Kim1, Nguyen Van Bo2, Nguyen Phuong1, Hoang Long 3,

Tran Cong Khanh 3, Nguyen Trong Hien 2, Hernan Ceballos4,
Rod Lefroy 4, Keith Fahrney 4, Reinhardt Howeler4 and Tin Maung Aye4

ABSTRACT
In 2009 cassava production in Vietnam was about 9.45 million tonnes, up from only 1.99 million tonnes in 2000. This was the result of both area expansion, from 237.600 ha to 560.400 ha, and marked increases in yield, from 8.36 t/ha in 2000 to 16.90 t/ha in 2009. Vietnam has made the fastest progress in application of new technologies in breeding and new varieties propagation in Asia. Such progress has been considered as a result of many factors, of which the success in breeding and application of new technologies were the main contributing factors. Cassava yields and production in several provinces have more than doubled due to the planting of new high-yielding cassava varieties in about 500.000 ha, mainly KM94, KM140, KM98-5, KM98-1, SM937-26. KM98-7 varieties. and the adoption of more sustainable production practices. Cassava chips and starch is now being produced competitively, and cassava markets are promising. The combination of wide spread production of fresh cassava roots and the processing of cassava into chips starch and ethanol has created many jobs, has increased exports, attracted foreign investment, and contributed to industrialization and modernization of several rural areas. The largest array of field trials to evaluate cassava varieties for improved ethanol production from the CIAT core collection that is held in Vietnam and from the breeding programmes of VNCP research partners. A total of 24.073 cassava sexual seeds from CIAT and 37,210 seeds from 9- 15 cross combinations made in Vietnam 38 breeding lines (mainly from Thailand), and 31 local farmer's varieties. have been planted. Of these, 98 of the best lines are now in the final stages of the selection process. and three of the most promising, KM140, KM98-5 and KM98-7 has recently been released in the period 2007 - 2009. The new advanced cassava varieties KM297, KM228, KM318, KM325, KM397, KM21-12, SC5, HB60 are being undertaken in the Regional Yield Trials (RYT) of Tay Ninh, Ninh Thuan. and Yen Bai provinces.
Key words: Current situation of cassava in Vietnam, the selection of cassava materials derived from CIAT

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1 Nong Lam University (NLU). Linh Trung. Thu Duc. Ho Chi Minh City. Viet Nam. hoangkim_vietnam@yahoo.com; phuongdtg@yahoo.com ; http://cropsforbiofuel.blogspot.com,
http://biofuelexperts.ning.com/profile/HoangKimVietnam

2 Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VAAS). Van Dien. Thanh Tri. Ha Noi nvbo@hn.vnn.vnn; trong_hienccc@yahoo.com
3 Institute of Agriculture Science for Southern Vietnam (IAS); 121 Nguyen Binh Khiem dist. 1. Ho Chi Minh city. trancongkhanh_vietnam@yahoo.com.vn ; luckydragon1985@yahoo.com

4 International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT). Cali. Colombia; h.ceballos@cgiar.org ; r.lefroy@CGIAR.ORG; k.fahrney@cgiar.org ; r.howeler@cgiar.org; t.aye@cgiar.org



INTRODUCTION

Cassava in Vietnam was about 9.39 million tonnes in 2008. up from only 1.99 million tonnes in 2000. This was the result of both area expansion. from 237.600 ha to 556.000 ha. and marked increases in yield. from 8.36 t/ha in 2000 to 16.90 t/ha in 2008. Cassava now an important source of cash income to small farmers. The situation has changed because of the development of sustainable cultivation techniques and new high-yielding varieties with the availability of a large and growing market demand. Cassava has become a cash crop in many provinces of Vietnam and cassava markets are promising for export of cassava chips to China. Vietnam has developed an E10 policy requiring the production of 100 to 150 million liters per year. Petrovietnam plans to build three tapioca-based ethanol plants in the northern (Phu Tho). central (Quang Ngai) and southern Vietnam (Binh Phuoc). Each costing $80 million which will use cassava as feedstock. is expected to open in 18 months with total annual capacity of 300 million liters per year..

Vietnam has made the fastest progress in application of new technologies in breeding and new cultivar propagation in Asia. Such progress has been considered as a result of many factors. of which the success in breeding and application of new technologies were the main contributing factors. The combination of wide spread production of fresh cassava roots and the processing of cassava into chips starch and ethanol has created many jobs. has increased exports. attracted foreign investment. and contributed to industrialization and modernization of several rural areas The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) has planned to remain cassava area around 450.000 hectares from 2011 -2015 and efforts to increase fresh root yield from from 16.90 to 20.00 ton/ha in 2011 and 23.00 - 24.00 ton/ha in 2015 by using new technologies. especially in breeding (MARD 7256/TB-BNN-VP 25 12 2009).
To meet the demands raising cassava cultivation. we have caried out the study on the development of cassava cultivar good yield and qualities for different ecological zones in whole country in collaboration by Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VAAS) and Nong Lam University (NLU) with International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) linking the poor to global markets of IFAD/ICRISAT Project “Harnessing water –use efficiencet bio-energy crops for enhancing livehood opportunities of smallhooder farmers in Asia. Africa and Latin America”. This paper cover in: 1) Current situation of cassava in Vietnam and its potential as a bio-fuel; 2) The selection of cassava matterials derived from CIAT. 3) Recent progress in cassava breeding and varietal adoption in Vietnam
1. Current situation of cassava in Vietnam and its potential as a bio-fuel

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