It is a myth that creative people are born with their talents: gifts from God or nature. Creative genius is, in fact, latent within many of us, without our realizing. But how far do we need to travel to find the path to creativity? For many people, a long way. In our everyday lives, we have to perform many acts out of habit to survive, like opening the door, shaving, getting dressed, walking to work, and so on. If this were not the case, we would, in all probability, become mentally unhinged. So strongly ingrained are our habits, though this varies from person to person, that sometimes, when a conscious effort is made to be creative, automatic response takes over. We may try, for example, to walk to work following a different route, but end up on our usual path. By then it is too late to go back and change our minds. Another day, perhaps. The same applies to all other areas of our lives. When we are solving problems, for example, we may seek different answers, but, often as not, find ourselves walking along the same well-trodden paths.
So, for many people, their actions and behaviour are set in immovable blocks, their minds clogged with the cholesterol of habitual actions, preventing them from operating freely, and thereby stifling creation. Unfortunately, mankind’s very struggle for survival has become a tyranny- the obsessive desire to give order to the world is a case in point. Witness people’s attitude to time, social customs and the panoply of rules and regulations by which the human mind is now circumscribed.
The groundwork for keeping creative ability in check begins at school. School, later university and then work teach us to regulate our lives, imposing a continuous process of restrictions, which is increasing exponentially with the advancement of technology. Is it surprising then that creative ability appears to be so rare? It is trapped in the prison that we have erected. Yet, even here in this hostile environment, the foundations for creativity are being laid, because setting off on the creative path is also partly about using rules and regulations. Such limitations are needed so that once they are learnt, they can be broken.
The truly creative mind is often seen as totally free and unfettered. But a better image is of a mind, which can be free when it wants, and one that recognises that rules and regulations are parameters, or barriers, to be raised and dropped again at will. An example of how the human mind can be trained to be creative might help here. People’s minds are just like tense muscles that need to be freed up and the potential unlocked. One strategy is to erect artificial barriers or hurdles in solving a problem. In this way, they are obliged to explore unfamiliar territory, which may lead to some startling discoveries. Unfortunately, the difficulty in this exercise, and with creation itself, is convincing people that creation is possible, shrouded subliminal, as deviating from the safety of one’s own thought patterns is very much akin to madness. But, open Pandora’s box, and a whole new world unfolds before your eyes.
Lifting barries into place also plays a major part in helping the mind to control ideas rather than letting them collide at random. Parameters act as containers for ideas, and thus help the mind to fix on them. When the mind is thinking laterally, and two ideas from different areas of the brain come or are brought together, they form a new idea, just like atoms floating around and then forming a molecule. Once the idea has been formed, it needs to be contained or it will fly away, so fleeting is its passage. The mind needs to hold it in place for a time so that it can recognise it or call it again. And then the parameters can act as channels along which the ideas can flow, developing and expanding. When the mind has brought the idea to fruition by thinking it through to its final conclusion, the parameters can be brought down and the idea allowed to float off and come in contact with other ideas.
Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write then in Boxes 6-10 on your answer sheet.
6. According to the writer, creative people..
are usually born with their talents
are born with their talents
are not born with their talents
7. According to the writer, creativity is….
a gift from God and nature
an automatic response
difficult for many people to achieve
a well-trodden path
8. According to the writer,….
The human race’s fight to live is becoming a tyranny
The human brain is blocked with cholesterol
The human race is now circumscribed by talents
The human race’s fight to service stifles creative ability
Do the statements below agree with the information in Reading Passage?
In Boxes 11-15, write:
Yes if the statement agrees with the information in the passage.
No if the statement contradicts the information in the passage.
Not given if there is no information about the statement in the passage.
11. Rules and regulations are examples of parameters.
12. The truly creative mind is associated with the need for free speech and a totally free society.
13. One problem with creativity is that people think it is impossible.
14. The act of creation is linked to madness.
15. Parameters help the mind by holding ideas and helping them to develop.
Reading Passage 2:
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 16-30, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below:
LOCKED DOORS, OPEN ACCESS
The word, “security”, has both positive and negative connotations. Most of us would say that we crave security for all its positive virtues, both physical and psychological- its evocation of the safety of home, of undying love, or of freedom from need. More negatively, the word nowadays conjures up images of that huge industry which has developed to protect individuals and property from invasion by “ outsiders”, ostensibly malicious and intent on theft or willful damage.
Increasingly, because they are situated in urban areas of escalating crime, those buildings which used to allow free access to employees and other users (buildings such as offices, schools, colleges or hospitals) now do not. Entry areas which in another age were called “Reception” are now manned by security staff. Receptionists, whose task it was to receive visitors and to make them welcome before passing them on to the person that had come to see, have been replaced by those whose task it is to bar entry to the unauthorized, the unwanted or the plain unappealing.
Inside, these buildings are divided into “secure zones” which often have all the trappings of combination locks and burglar alarm. These devices bar entry to the uninitiated, hinder circulation, and create parameters of time and space for user access. Within the spaces created by these zones, individual rooms are themselves under lock and key, which is a particular problem when it means that working space becomes compartmentalized.
To combat the consequent difficulty of access to people at a physical level, we have now developed technological access. Computers sit on every desk and are linked to one another, and in many cases to an external universe of other computer, so that messages can be passed to and fro. Here too, security plays a part, since we must not be allowed access to messages destined for others. And so the password was invented. Now correspondence between individuals goes from desk and cannot be accessed by colleagues. Library catalogues can be searched from one’s desk. Papers can be delivered to, and received from, other people at the press of a button.
And yet it seems that, just as work is isolating individuals more and more, organizations are recogning the advantages of “team-work”, perhaps in order to encourage employees to talk to one another again. Yet, how can groups work in teams if the possibilities for communication are reduced? How can they work together if e-mail provides a convenient electronic shield behind which the blurring of public and private can be exploited by the less scrupulous? If voice-mail walls up messages behind a password? If I can’t leave a message on my colleague’s desk because hiss office is locked?
Team-work conceals the fact that another kind of security, “job security”, is almost always not on offer. Just as organizations now recognize three kinds of physical resources: those they buy, those they lease long-term and those they rent short-term-so it is with their human resources, Some employees have permanent contracts, some have short-term contacts, and some are regarded simply as casual labour.
Telecommunication systems offer us the direct line, which means that individuals can be contacted without the caller having to talk to anyone else. Voice-mail and the answer phone mean that individuals can communicate without ever actually talking to one an other. If we are unfortunate enough to contact an organization with a sophisticated touch-tone dialing system, we can buy things and pay for them without ever speaking to a human being.
To combat this closing in on ourselves we have the Internet, which opens out communication channels more widely than anyone could possibly want or need. An individual’s electronic presence on the Internet is known as the “Home page”- suggesting the safety and security of an electronic hearth. An elaborate system of 3-dimensional graphics distinguishes this very 2-dimensional medium of “web sites”. The nomenclature itself creates the illusion of a geographical entity, that the person sitting before the computer is traveling, when in fact the “site” is coming to him. “Address” of one kind or another move to the individual, rather than the individual moving between them, now that location is no longer geographical.
An example of this is the mobile phone. I’m now not available either at home or at work, but wherever I take my mobile phone. Yet, even now, we cannot escape the security of wanting to “locate” the person at the other end. It is no coincidence that almost everyone we see answering or initiating a mobile phone call in public begins by saying where he or she is.
Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in Boxes 16-19 on your answer sheet.
16. According to the author, one thing we long for is..
The safety of the home
17. Access to many building…
Is becoming more difficult
Is a cause of crime in many urban areas
Used to be called “Reception”
18. Building used to permit access to any users, …
But now they do not
And still do not
Especially offices and schools
Especially in urban areas
19. Secure zones…
Don’t allow access to the user
Compartmentalize the user
Are often like traps
Are not accessible to everybody
Complete the text below, which is a summary of paragraph 4-6. Choose your answer from the Word list below and write them in Boxes 20-27 on your answer sheet.
There are more words and phrases than spaces, so you will not be able to use them all. You may use any word or phrase more than once.
Example: The problem of ____ access to building.
The problem of physical access to buildings has now been __20__ by technology.
Messages are sent between __21__, with passwords not allowing __22__ to read someone else’s messages. But, while individuals are becoming increasingly __23__ socially by the way they do their job, at the same more time more value is being put on __24__. However, e-mail and voice-mail have led to a __25__ opportunities for person to person communication. And the fact that job security is generally not available nowadays is hidden by the very concept of __26__. Human resources are now regarded in __27__ physical ones.
Just the same way as computer cut-off
Reducing of computers overcame
Decrease in Combat isolating
Team-work developed physical
Similar other people
No different from solved
Complete the sentences below. Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in Boxes 28-30 on your answer sheet.
28. The writer does not like _______.
29. An individual’s Home Page indicates their _____ on the Internet.
30. Devices like mobile phones mean that location is _____.
Reading passage 3:
You should spend about 20 minutes on Question 31-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below:
National cuisine and Tourism
To an extent, agriculture dictates that every country should have a set of specific foods which are native to that country. They may even be unique. However, even allowing for the power of agricultural science, advances in food distribution and changes in food economics to alter the ethnocentric properties of food, it is still possible for a country “to be famous for” a particular food even if it is widely available elsewhere.
The degree to which cuisine is embedded in national culture
With the sociology of food literature two themes suggest that food is linked to social culture. The first relates food and eating to social relationships, (Finkelstein, Vissor, Wood), and the second establishes food as a reflection of the distribution of power within social structures, (Mennell). However, establishing a role for food in personal relationships and social structures is not a sufficient argument to place food at the centre of national culture. To do that it is necessary to prove a degree of embeddings. It would be appropriate at this point to consider the nature of culture.
The distinction made by Pierce between a behavioral contingency and a cultural contingency is crucial to our understanding of culture. Whilst a piece of behavior may take place very often, involve a network of people and be reproducible by other networks who do not know each other, the meaning of behavior does not go beyond the activity itself. A cultural practice, however, contains and represents “meta-contingencies” that is, behavioral practices that have a social meaning greater than the activity itself and which, by their nature reinforce the culture which houses them. Celebrating birthdays is a cultural practice not because everybody does it but because it has a religious meaning. Contrast this with the practice in Britain of celebrating “Guy Fawkes Night”. It’s essentially away altogether or end up cult to California. A smaller scale example might be more useful. In the British context, compare drinking in pubs with eating “fish and chips”. Both are common practices, yet the former reflects something of the social fabric of the country, particularly, family, gender, class and age relationships whilst the latter is just a national habit. In other words, a constant, well-populated pattern of behavior is not necessarily cultural. However, it is also clear that a cultural practice needs behavioral reinforcement. Social culture is not immortal.
Finkelstein argues that “dining out” is simply “action which supports a surface life”. For him it is the word “out” that disconnects food from culture. This view of culture and food places the “home” as the cultural centre. Continental European eating habits may contradict this notion by their general acceptance of eating out as part of family life. Following the principle that culture needs behavioral reinforcement, if everyone “eats out” on a regular bass, irrespective of social and economic diffentiation, then this might constitute behavioural support for cuisine being part of social culture. That aside, the significance of a behavioural practice being embedded in culture is that naturally maintains an approved and accepted way of life and there for has a tendency to resist change.
The thrust of the argument is that countries differ in the degree to which their food and eating habits have a social and cultural meaning beyond the behaviour itseft. This argument, however, could be interpreted to imply that the country with the greatest proportion of meals taken outside the home would be the one in which the national cuisine is more embedded in social culture. This is a difficult position to maintain because it would bring America, with its fast-food culture to the fore. The fast-food culture of America raises the issue of whether there are qualitative criteria for the concept of cuisine. The key issue is not the extent of the common behaviuor but whether or not it has a function in maintaining social cohesion and is appreciated and valued through social norms. French cuisine and “going down the pub” are strange bedfellows but bedfellow nevertheless.
How homogenous is national cuisine?
Like language, cuisine is not a static entity and whilst its fundamental character is unlikely to change in the short run it may involve in different directions. Just as in a language there are dialects so in a cuisine there are variations. The two principal sources of diversity are the physical geography of the country and its social diversity.
The geographical dimensions work through agriculture to particularize and to limit locally produced ingredients. Ethnic diversity in the population works through the role of cuisine in social identity to create ethnically distinct cuisines which may not converge into a national cuisine. To an ethnic group their cuisine is national. The greater the division of a society into classes, castes and status groups with their attendant ethnocentric properties, of which cuisine is a part, the greater will be the diversity of the cuisines.
However, there is a case for convergence. Both these principal sources of diversity are, to an extent, influenced by the strength of their boundaries and the willingness of society to erode them. It is a question of isolation and integration. Efficient transport and the application of chemistry can alter agricultural boundaries to make a wider range of foods available to a cuisine. Similarly, political and social integration can erode ethnic boundaries. However, all these arguments mean nothing if the cuisine is not embedded in social culture. Riley argues that when a cuisine is not embedded in social culture it is susceptible to novelty and invasion by other cuisine.
Choose the phrase (A-K) from the List of phrase to complete each Key point below. Write the appropriate letters (A-K) in Boxes 31-36 on your and your answer sheet.
The information in the completed sentences should be an accurate summary of the points made by the writer.
NB. There are more phrases (A-K) than sentences, so you will not need to use them all. You may use each phrase once only.
31. The native foods of a country, ………..
32. The ethnocentric properties of food ……..
33. Celebrating birthdays …..
34. Cultural practice……..
35. Drinking in pubs in Britain ….
36. The link between language and cuisine ….
List of phrases
A. is a behavioural practice, not a cultural practice
B. are unique.
D. is that both are diverse
E. is a reflection of the social fabric
F. is a cultural practice
G. can be changed by economic and distribution factors
H. is fundamental
I. are not as common as behaviour
J. needs to be reinforced by behaviour
K. are, to a certain extent, dictated by agriculture
Use the information in the text to match the Authors (A-D) with the Findings (37-40) below. Write the appropriate letters (A-D) in Boxes 37-49 on your answer sheet.
37. There is a difference between behaviour and cultural practice.
38. The connection between social culture and food must be strong if national cuisine is to survive intact.
39. Distribution of power in society is reflected in food.
40. The link between culture and eating outside the home is not strong.
TEST 2: Reading passage 1:
You should spend about 20 minites on Question 1-15, which are base on Reading passage 1 below:
The chances are that you have already drunk a cup or glass of tea today. Perhaps, you are sipping one as you read this. Tea, now an everyday beverage in many parts of the world, has over the centuries been an important part of rituals of hospitality both in the home and in wider society.
Tea originated in China, and in Eastern Asia tea making and drinking ceremonies have been popular of centuries. Tea was first shipped to North Western Europe by English and Dutch maritime traders in the sixteenth century. At about the same time, and land route from the Far East, via Moscow, to Europe was opened up. Tea also figured in America’s bid for independence from British rule- the Boston Tea Party.
As, over the last four hundred years, tea-leaves became available throughout much of Asia and Europe, the ways in which tea was drunk changed. The Chinese considered the quality of the leaves and the ways in which they were cured all important. People in other cultures added new ingredients besides tea-leaves and hot water. They drank tea with milk, sugar, spices like cinnamon and cardamom, and herbs such as mint or sage. The variations are endless. For example, in Western Sudan on the edge of the Sahara Desert, sesame oil is added to milky tea on cold mornings. In England tea, unlike coffee, acquired a reputation as a therapeutic drink that promoted health. Indeed, in European and Arab countries as well as in Persia and Russia, tea was praised for its restorative and health giving properties. One Dutch physician, Cornelius Blankart, advised that to maintain health a minimum of eight to ten cups a day should be drunk, and that up to 50 to 100 daily cups could be consumed with safety.
While European coffee houses were frequented by men discussing politics and closing business deals, respectable middles-class women stayed at home and held tea parties. When the price of tea fell in the nineteenth century poor people took up the drink with enthusiasm. Different grades and blends of tea were sold to suit every pocket.
Throughout the world today, few religious groups object to tea drinking. In Islamic cultures, where drinking of alcohol is forbidden, tea and coffee consumption is an important part of social life. However, Seventh-Day Adventists, recognising the beverage as a drug containing the stimulant caffeine, from upon the drinking of tea.
Nomadic Bedouin are well-know for traditions of hospitality in the desert. According to Middle Eastern tradition, guest are served both tea and coffee from pots kept ready on the fires of guest tents where men of the family and male visitors gather. Cups of “bitter” cardamom coffee and glasses of sugared tea should be constantly refilled by the host.
For over a thousand years, Arab traders have been bringing Isalamic culture, including tea drinking, to northern and western Africa. Techniques of tea preparation and the ceremonial involved have been adapted. In West African countries, such as Senegal and The Gambia, it is fashionable for young men to gather in small groups to brew Chinese “gunpowder” tea. The tea is boiled with large amounts of sugar for a long time.
Tea drinking in India remains an important part of daily life. There, tea made entirely with milk and adding tea, sugar and some spices. This form of tea making has crossed the Indian Ocean and is also popular in East Africa, where tea is considered best when it’s either very milky or made with wather only. Curiously, this “milk or water” formula has been carried over to the preparation of instant coffee, which is served in cafes as either black, or sprinkled on a cup of hot milk.
In Britain, coffee drinking, particularly in the informal atmostphere of coffee shops, is curently in vogue. Yet, the convention of afternoon tea linger. At conferences, it remains common practice to serve coffee in the morning and tea in the afternoon. Contemporary China, too, remains true to its long tradition. Delegates at conferences and seminars are served tea in cups with lids to keep the infusion hot. The cups are topped up throughout the proceedings. There are as yet no signs of coffee at such occasions.
Reading Passage 1 has 9 paragraph (A- I). Choose the most suitable heading for each paragraph from the List of heading below. Write the appropriate numbers (i- xiii) in Boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.
One of the headings has been done for you as an exmaple.
Notes: There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use all of them.
List of headings:
Diverse drinking methods.
Limited objections to drinking tea.
Today’s continuing tradition- in Britain and China.
Tea- a beverage of hospitality.
An important addition- tea with milk.
Tea and alcohol.
The everyday beverage in all part of the world.
Tea on the move.
The fall in the cost of tea.
The value of tea.
Tea-drinking in Africa.
Hospitality among the Bedouin.
Complete the sentences below. Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage to complete each blank space.
For centuries, both at home and in society, tea has had an important role in _________________________
Falling tea prices in the nineteenth century meant that people could choose the _________________ of tea they could afford.
Because it _________________ Seventh- Day Adventists do not approve of the drinking of tea.
In the desert, one group that is well known for its traditions of hospitality is the ______________.
In Idia, _____________________, as well as tea, are added to boiling milk to make “chai”.
In Britain, while coffee is in fashion, afternoon tea is still a _________________.
Reading Passage 2:
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 15-29, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below:
Tyes and Greens
The are a number of settlements in this part of East Anglia with names containing the word “tye” . The word is Anglo- Saxon in origin, and the Oxford English Dictionary quotes the earliest usage of the term as dating from 832. Essentially a “tye” was a green, or a small area of open common land, usually sited away from the main village or settlement, perhaps at the junction of two or more routes. Local people and passing travellers had the right to pasture their horses, pigs and other farm animals on the tye.
In the Pebmarch area there seem to have been five or six of these tyes, all except one, at the margins of the parish. These marginal clearings are all away from the richer farming land close to the river, and, in the case of Cooks Green, Hayles Tye, and Dorking Tye, close to the edge of still existing fragments of ancient woodland. It seems likely then that, here, as elsewhere in East Anglia, medieval freemen were allowed to clear a small part of the forest and create a smallholding. Such unproductive forest land would, in any case, have been unattractive to the wealthy baronial or monastic landowners. Most of the land around Pebmarch village belonged to Earls Colne Priory, a wealthy monastrery about 10 kilometres to the south, and it may be that by the 13th and 14th centuries the tyes were maintained by tenant farmers paying rent to the Priory.
Hayles Tye seems to have got its name from a certain John Hayle who is documented in the 1380s, although there are records pointing to occupation of the site at a much earlier date. The name was still in use in 1500, and crops up again throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, usually in relation to the payment of texas or tithes. At some point during the 18th century the name is changed to File’s Green, though no trace of an owner called File has been found. Also in the 18th century the original dwellings on the site disappeared. Much of this region was economically depressed during this period and the land and its dwellings may simply have been abandoned. Several farms were abandoned in the neigh bouring village of Alphamstone, and the population dwindled so much that there was no money to support the fabric of the village church, which became very dilapidated. However, another possibility is that the buildings at File’s Green burnt down, fires being not infrequent at this time.
By 1817 the land was in the ownership of Charles Townsend of Ferriers Farm, and in 1821 he built two brick cottages on the site, each cottages occupied by two families of agricultural labourers. The structure of these cottages was very simple, just a two-storey rectangle divided in the centre by a large common chimney piece. Each dwelling had its own fireplace, but the two families seem to have shared a brick bread-oven which jutted out from the rear of the cottage. The outer wall of the bread-oven is still visible on the remaining cottage. The fireplaces themselves and the chimney structure appear to be older than the 1812 cottages and may have survived from the earlier dwellings. All traces of the common land had long disappeared, and the two cottages stood on a small plot of less than an acre where the labourers would have been able to grow a few vegetables and keep a few chickens or a pig. The bulk of their time was spent working at Ferriers farm.
Both cottages are clearly marked on maps of 1874, but by the end of the century one of them had gone. Again, the last years of the 19th century were a period of agricultural depression, and a number of smaller farms in the area were abandoned. Traces of one, Mosse’s Farm, still partly encircle by a very overgrown moat, may be seen less than a kilometre from File’s Green. It seems likely that, as the need for agricultural labour declined, one of the cottages fell into disuse, decayed and was eventually pulled down. Occasional fragments of rubble and brick still surface in the garden of the remaining cottage.
In 1933, this cottage was slod to the manager of the newly-opened gravel works to the north-west of Pebmarch village. He converted these dwelling into one. This, then, is the only remaining habitation on the site, and is called File’s Green Cottage.
Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in Boxes 15-18 on your answer sheet.
15.A tye was …..
A. a green
B. a large open area
C. common land with trees
D. found at the junction of two or more routes
16.The Pebmarch area ….
A. probably had seven tyes
B. probably had six tyes
C. appears to have had five or six tyes
D. was not in East Anglia
17.The tyes in the Pebmarsh area were ….
A. near the river
B. used by medieval freemen
C. mostly at the margins of the parish
D.owned by Earls Colne Priory
18.According to the writer, wealthy landowners….
A.did not find the sight of forest land attractive
B.found the sight of forest land attractive
C.were attracted by the sight of forest land
D.considered forest land unproductive
Complete the text below, which is a summary of paragraph 3-6 in Reading Passage 2. Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage to fill each blank space.
Write your answer in Boxes 19-29 on your answer sheet.
1380s : John Hayle, who is ________19 _______, apparently gave his name to Hayles Tye.
1500s: the name of Hayles Tye was still ______ 20 _____ , _____ 21____ again in the following two centuries in relation to axes.
18th century: Hayles Tye was renamed ___22___, the original dwellings may either have disappeared, or were ___23___
1817 : the land was __24___ by Charles Townsend.
1821: Charles Townsend built ___25___ cottages on the site, ___26____ inhabited by two families, but by the end of the nineteenth century only cottage ___27____
1933: The cottage, now called File’s Green Cottage, was bought by the local ___28___ manager who converted the cottage into ___29___
Reading passage 3:
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 30-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below:
Haydn’s late quarters
By the time ha came to write the String Quartets published as Opus 76 and Opus 77, Haydn was undoubtedly the most famous living composer in the whole of Europe. He had recently returned from the highly successful second visit to England, for which he had composed his last six symphonies, culminating in the brilliant and festive Drum Roll Symphony (No. 103) and London Symphony (No. 104). This is public music, full of high spirits, ex-pansive gestures and orchestral surprises. Haydn knew how to please his audience. And in 1796, following his return to Vianna, he began work on his largest and most famous choral work, the oratorio, “The Creation”. In the succeeding years, till 1802, he was to write a series of the other large scale religious choral works, including several masses. The oratorios and masses were also public works, employing latge forces for dramatic effect, but warm and full of apparently spomtaneous religious feeling. Yet at the same time he composed these 8 quatets, in terms of technical mastery and sheer musical invention the equal of the symphonies and choral works, but in their mood and emotional impact far removed, by turns introspective and detached, or full of passionate intensity.
Once again, as in the early 1770s when he appears to have been going through some kind of spiritual crisis, Haydn returned to the String Quatet as a means to accomplish a two fold aim: firstly to innovate musically in a genre free from public performance requirements or religious convention, secondly to express personal emotions or philosophy in a musical form that is intimate yet capable of great subtlety and complexity of meaning. The result is a series of quartets of astonishing structural, melodic, rhythmic and harmonic variety, in habiting a shifting emotional world, where tension underlies surface brilliance and calm gives way to unease.
The six quartets of Opus 76 differ widely in character. The opening movement of No.2 is tense and dramatic, while that of No.4 begins with the soaring long-breathed melody that has earned it the nickname of “The Sunrise”. The minuet too have moved a long way from the stately court dance of the mid-eighteeth century. The so-called “Witches Minuet” of No.2 is a strident canon, that of No.6 is a fast one-in-a-bar movement anticipating the scherzos of Beethoven, while at the heart of No.5 is a contrasting trio section which, far from being the customary relaxed variant of the surrounding minuet, flings itseft into frenetic action and is gone. The finales are full of the energy and grace we associate with Haydn, but with far less conscious humor and more detachment than in earlier quartets.
But it is in the slow movements that Haydn is most innovative and most unsettling. In No.1 the cello and the first violin embrak on a series of brusque dialogues. No.4 is a subdued meditation based on the hushed opening chords. The slow movements of No.5 and No.6 are much looser in structure, the cello and viola setting off on solitary episodes of melodic and harmonic uncertainty.But there the similarity ends, for awhile No.5 is enigmatic, and predominantly dark in tone, the overlapping textures of its sister are full of light-filled intensity.
The Opus 76 quartets were published in 1799, when Haydn was well over 60 years old. Almost immediately he was commissioned to write another set by Prince Lobkowitz, a wealthy patron, who was later to become an inportant figure in Beethoven’s life. Two quartets only were completed and published as Opus 77 Nos. 1& 2 in 1802, But these are not the works of an old man whose powers are fading, or who simply consilidates ground already covered. Once again Haydn innovates. The opening movement of Opus 77 No.2 is a structurally complex and emotionally unsettling as anything he ever wrote, alternating between a laconic opening theme and a tense and threatening counter theme which comes to dominate the whole movement. Both quartets have fast scherzo-like “minuets”. The slow movement of No.1 is in traditional variation form, but stretches the from to the limit in order to accommodate widely contrasting textures and moods. The finals of No.2 is swept along by a seemingly inexhaustible stream of energy and inventiveness.
In fact, Hayde began a third quartet in this set, but never finished it, and the two completed movements were published in 1806 as Opus 103, his last published work. He was over 70, and clearly lacked the strength to continue composition. The two existing movements are a slow movement followed by a minuet. The slow movement has a quite warmth, but it is the minuet that is remarkable. It is true dance time, unlike the fast quasi-scherzos of the earlier quartets. But what a dance! In a sombre D minor Haydn infolds an angular, ruth-less little dance of death. The central trio section holds out a moment of consolation, and then the dance returns, sweeping on relentlessly to the final sudden uprush of sound. And then, after more than 40 years of composition the master fall silent.
Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in Boxes 30-32 on your answer sheet.
Which one of the following statements is true?
Haydn wrote the London Symphony in England.
We do not know where Haydn wrote the London Symphony.
Haydn wrote the London Symphony in Vienna.
Haydn wrote the Drum Roll Symphony in England.
Like symphonies 103 and 104, the oratorios and masses were….
written in the eighteenth century
for the public
as emotional as the quartets
full of religious feeling
The string quartets in Opus 76 and 77 were…
the cause of a spiritual crisis
intimate yet capable
Complete the text below, which is a summary of paragraphs 3 and 4 in Reading Passage 3. Choose your answers from the Word List below and write them in Boxes 33-37 on your answer sheet.
There are more words and phrases than spaces, so you will not be able to use them all. You may use each word or phrase only once.
Example: The six quartets of Opus 76 are very____
For example, the opening of “The Sunrise” is not nearly as __33__ as that of No.2 . ___34___ those of the mid-eighteeth century, the minuets are more frenetic and less relaxed. It is in the slow movements, however, that Haydn tried something very different. In contrast to No.4, No.1 is much __35__ brusque, the former being much __36___. ___37___, Nos.5 and 6 are alike in some respects.
Wide less different
More long-breathed unlike
Similarly subdued tense
Like conversely quieter
Do the statements below agree with the information in Reading Passage 3?
In Boxes 38-40, write:
Yes If the statement agrees with the information in the passage.
No If the statement contradicts the information in the passage.
Not Given If there is no information about the statement in the passage.
Example: Haydn was well-known when he wrote Opus 76.
Before the Opus 76 quartets were published, Haydn had been commissioned to write more.
The writer says that Opus 103 was Haydn’s last published work.
The writer admires Haydn for the diversity of the music he composed.