ChuyêN ĐỀ : CÂu chủ ĐỘng – CÂu bị ĐỘng phần I : Lý do : +



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CHUYÊN ĐỀ : CÂU CHỦ ĐỘNG – CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG

PHẦN I :

1 . Lý do : + Trong tiếng Anh, người ta rất hay dùng câu bị động để diễn đạt ý .

+ câu bị động cũng là một phần ngữ pháp quan trọng yêu cầu học sinh phải nắm chắc .

2. Mục đích : + Tổng hợp giúp học sinh và giáo viên tham khảo có một cách nhìn tổng quát về mảng câu bị động với các dạng

+ Hướng dẫn học sinh cách nhận biết , cách chuyển câu chủ động sang câu bị động dựa vào chi tiết khác nhau giữa các mẫu .

3. Đối tượng : HỌC SINH ( Thích hợp với học sinh khó tư duy – học sinh đòi hỏi cụ thể )

4. Thời gian thực hiện : tháng 2 năm 2012 - sinh hoạt chuyên đề chuyên môn của tổ ngoại ngữ

5. Ý nghĩa đóng góp của chuyên đề :

PHẦN II : NỘI DUNG – LÍ THUYẾT

CHUYÊN ĐỀ : CÂU CHỦ ĐỘNG – CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG


  1. Khái niệm :

  1. Câu chủ động ( active sentence ) :.

Câu chủ động là câu trong đó chủ ngữ thực hiện hành động,

  1. Câu bị động ( Passive sentence ) :

Câu bị động là câu chủ ngữ nhận tác động của hành động. Câu bị động được dùng khi muốn nhấn mạnh đến đối tượng chịu tác động của hành động hơn là bản thân hành động đó.

  1. Các bước chuyển từ một câu chủ động sang câu bị động :

Active : S + V + O .......

Passive : => S + BE + V ( past participle ) + ……. by + O

1) Chuyển Tân ngữ chủ động = > Chủ ngữ bị động

*** Thông thường Tân ngữ có thể là 1 đại từ tân ngữ , 1 danh từ , 1 cụm danh từ ngay sau động từ

2. Đổi động từ ( V ) chính chủ động = > Thêm Be + V (past participle )

3 ) Các yếu tố còn lại khác thì chuyển xuống không thay đổi

4 ) Chuyển Chủ ngữ chủ động = > by + Tân ngữ bị động

*** …- by + tác nhân (agent) chỉ dùng khi cần thiết phải nói rõ ai hoặc cái gì phải chịu trách nhiệm về hành động.

+ Nếu chủ từ là : people, something, someone, they , me , him , you ….. thì có thể bỏ đi  .

+ Các tác nhân ( by +...) đứng sau trạng từ chỉ địa điểm và đứng trước trạng từ chỉ thời gian, riêng thời HTHT thì since và for phải đứng trước tác nhân.

3. Các dạng :

A . Dạng cơ bản : ( Tenses – thì )

Bảng cấu trúc câu chuyển từ chủ động sang bị động theo thì :

*** câu chủ động và câu bị động phải cùng 1 thì + cùng 1 thể .



a. A. 1 : Hiện tại đơn (Simple Present)

( + ) Active : S + V ( s / es ) + O ............

Passive : => S + am / is / are + V ( past participle ) + ……. by + O

EX: People spend a lot of money on advertising everyday .

=> A lot of money is spent on advertising everyday

b. A .2 : Hiện tại tiếp diễn (Present Continuous)

( + ) Active : S + am / is /are + V ( ing ) + O ............



Passive : =>

S + am / is / are + being + V ( past participle ) + .. …by + O

EX: Mary is cutting the cake with a sharp knife .

=> The cake is being cut with a sharp knife by Mary .



C. A. 3 : Hiện tại hoàn thành (Present Perfect)

( + ) Active : S + have / has + V ( P.P ) + O .......



Passive : =>

S + have / has + been + V ( past participle ) + …. by + O

EX: Somebody has taken some of my books away .

=> Some of my books have been taken away .

d. A. 4 : Quá khứ đơn ( Simple Past)

( + ) Active : S + V ( ed/ past ) + O .......

Passive : => S + were / was + V ( past participle ) + ……. by + O
e. A. 5 : Quá khứ tiếp diễn

( + ) Active : S + were / was + V ( ing ) + O ............



Passive : =>

S + were / was + being + V ( past participle ) + .. …by + O



f. A. 5 : Quá khứ hoàn thành (Past Perfect)

Active : S + had + V ( P.P ) + O .......

Passive : => S + had been + V ( past participle ) + ……. by + O

g. A. 6 : Tương lai đơn (Simple Future)

Active : S + will / shall + V + O .......

Passive : => S + will/ shall + be + V ( past participle ) + ……. by + O
h. A. 7 : Tương lai hoàn thành (Future Perfect)

Active : S + will have + V ( P.P ) + O .......

Passive : => S + will have been + V ( past participle ) + ……. by + O

i. A. 8 : Tương lai gần

( + ) Active : S + am / is /are + going to + V + O ............



Passive : =>

S + am / is / are + going to be + V ( past participle ) + .. …by + O

*** NOTES :

- Điều kiện để có thể chuyển câu chủ động sang bị động:

+ Câu chủ động phải xác lập có được tân ngữ. (object)

+ Có 1 số động từ không bao giờ đổi sang bị động: (seem, appear, …) .

+ Nếu động từ chủ động có hai tân ngữ thì một trong hai tân ngữ có thể dùng làm chủ ngữ trong câu bị động . tuy nhiên tân ngữ về người được sử dụng nhiều hơn .

B. CÁC DẠNG KHÁC :

1. Modal verbs .

Active : S + can / must / may ….. + V + O .......



Passive : => S + can / must / may ….. BE + V ( P.P ) + ……. by + O
2 . CÁC ĐỘNG TỪ TƯỜNG THUẬT , chỉ về ý kiến : say , think , believe , report , rumour ,….

Active : Subject 1 + verb 1 + that + clause ( S2 + V2 + O2 …)

Passive : * It + be + verb1 ( Past participle ) + that + clause …….

* S2 + be + verb1 ( P.P ) + Verb 2 ( to infinitive ) …..

+ Verb 2 ( to have + p.p ) ……
3. Dạng nhờ bảo ( causative forms ) : HAVE / GET

a.

Active : S + HAVE + O ( person ) + V ( bare infinitive ) + O ( thing ).......

Passive : => S + HAVE + O ( thing ) + V ( p.p ) + ……. by + O

b. Active : S + GET + O ( person ) + V ( to infinitive ) + O ( thing ).......



Passive : => S + GET + O ( thing ) + V ( p.p ) + ……. by + O .
4. Động từ chỉ giác quan .: see , watch , hear …..

( + ) Active : S + Verbs ( see , .. ) + O + V ( bare infinitive / - ing ) + ....



Passive : =>

S + BE + V ( past participle ) + V ( infinitive ) .. …by + O



5. Passive Infinitive : chỉ ước muốn , thích …. ( want , would like . ...)

*** notes : Nếu Subject = Object 2 ( cùng chỉ 1 người ) thì bỏ O2

Active : S + VERBS + O1 ( person ) + V ( to infinitive ) + O2 ......

Passive : => S + VERBS + ( O2 ) + To be V ( p.p ) + ……. by + O1 .

6. Passive Gerund : ( bị động danh động từ ) -

Active : S + VERBS + O1 ( person ) + V ( ING ) + O2 ......

Passive : => S + VERBS + ( O2 ) + BEING V ( p.p ) +…. by + O1 .
7. HAVE TO ( phải ) … / ought to ( nên ) .
Active : S + HAVE TO/ + + V ( to infinitive ) + O1 ......

Passive : => S + HAVE TO/ + Be V ( p.p ) + ……. by + O .

8. Câu mệnh lệnh :

Active : VERB / Don’t VERB + O1 ......

Passive : => LET / Don’t LET + O + Be V ( p.p ) + ……. by + O .
PHẦN III : BÀI TẬP ỨNG DỤNG

CHUYỂN CÁC CÂU SAU SANG BỊ ĐỘNG

EXERCISE 1:. ( THÌ CƠ BẢN )

1.My father waters this flower every morning.

2.John invited Fiona to his birthday party last night.

3.Her mother is preparing the dinner in the kitchen.

4.We should clean our teeth twice a day.

5.Our teachers have explained the English grammar.

6.Some drunk drivers caused the accident in this city.

7.Tom will visit his parents next month.

8.The manager didn’t phone the secretary this morning.

9. Did Mary this beautiful dress?

10.I won’t hang these old pictures in the living room.

11.The German didn’t build this factory during the Second World War.

12.The Greens are going to paint this house and these cars for Christmas Day.

13.Ann had fed the cats before she went to the cinema.

14.The students have discussed the pollution problems since last week.

15.Have the thieves stolen the most valuable painting in the national museum?

16.Some people will interview the new president on TV.

17.How many languages do they speak in Canada?

18.Are you going to repair those shoes?

19.He has broken his nose in a football match.

20.Have you finished the above sentences?

EXERCISE 2 ( THÌ CƠ BẢN )

1.The waiter brings me this dish.

2.Our friends send these postcards to us.

3.Their grandmother told them this story when they visited her last week.

4.Tim ordered this train ticket for his mother.

5.You didn’t show me the special camaras.

6.She showed her ticket to the airline agent.

7.He lends his friend his new shoes.

8.She left her relatives five million pounds.

9.The shop assistant handed these boxes to the customer.

10.The board awarded the first prize to the reporter.

11.Have you sent the christmas cards to your family?

12.The committee appointed Alice secretary for the meeting.

13.He hides the broken cup in the drawer.

14.They keep this room tidy all the time.

15.They all voted the party a great success.

16.We gave Ann some bananas and some flowers.

17.They moved the fridge into the living room.

18.She bought some cups of tea to the visitors in the next room.

19.They find the new project worthless.

20.The secretary didn’t take the note to the manager.

21. They are going to clear those slums.

22. They are going to mend the roof tomorrow morning.

23. The farmer is going to enlarge the farm.

24. She is going to buy a cookery book next month.

25. Someone is going to serve Jack breakfast in bed on his birthday

EXERCISE 3 : BỊ ĐỘNG VỚI NHỮNG ĐỘNG TỪ KHUYẾT THIẾU .

1. You should open the wine about three hours before you use it.

2. You must not hammer nails into the walls without permission.

3. People must not leave bicycles in the hall.

4. Members can keep books for three weeks.

5. People should send their complaints to the main office.

6. You must turn off all the switches before leaving the room.

7. You must make an appointment in advance .

8. Someone might steal the car .

9. you must keep the room tidy .

10. They can’t solve the problem .

11. We can’t restore the picture.



EXERCISE 4 : THỂ BỊ ĐỘNG CÁC ĐỘNG TỪ TƯỜNG THUẬT

1.They told me that you were the best architect in this city.

2.She reported that the flowers were killed by frost.

3.Some people inform me that the director is going to take a business trip to England.

4.That officer announced that the meeting was delayed until next week.

5.He discovered that this cotton was grown in Egypt.

6.They promise that the performance will start on time.

7.He recommends that we should stay at the city center.

8.We believed that Alice would pass the driving test.

9.The director notifies all the workers that they will have to work extra hard this month.

10.They have persuaded me that they will go with me to the stadium.

11.They have decided that the company will go to the beach together at the weekend.

12.People think that Maradona is the best football player in the 20th century.

13.They find that the job is not suitable for a girl like her.

14.The teacher explained that this powerful engine pulled the train.

15.He told me that his football team had played well last season.

16. People say that the company is losing money.

17. People believe that he worked very hard.

18. It is said that they work 14 hours a day.

19. Someone thinks that Lan will return tomorrow

20. People think that Lan is living near here
21. they think that she is hiding in the forest
22. They said that she died of cancer
23. People believed that he can speak English
EXERCISE 5 : BỊ ĐỘNG VỚI NHỮNG ĐỘNG TỪ SAI BẢO.

1.I had my nephew paint the gate last week.

2.She will have Peter wash her car tomorrow.

3.They have her tell the story again.

4.John gets his sister to clean his shirt.

5.Anne had had a friend type her composition.

6.Rick will have a barber cut his hair.

7.I will get the dressmaker to make a new dress.

8.He had a mechanic repair his car.

9.She often gets the technician to maintain the heater.

10.They had the police arrest the shoplifter.

11.Are you going to have the shoemaker repair your shoes?

12.I must have the dentist check my teeth.

13.She will have a veterinary surgeon examine her dog.

14.We had a man take this photograph when we were on holiday last summer.

15.The Greens had a carpet cleaner clean their carpet.

16. We had them repair our car.

17. Lan got his brother to clean the windows last week.

18. I have the hairdresser cut my hair.

19. Jill got the tailor to make her new dress.



EXERCISE 6. Động từ chỉ giác quan .: see , watch , hear …..

1. People saw him steal your car .

2. The teacher is watching them work .

3. people don’t make the children work hard .

4. I have heard her sing this song several times .

5. He won’t let you do that silly thing again .



EXERCISE 8 : Passive Infinitive + Have to

1. He wants everybody to serve him .

2. I don’t want anyone to disturb me .

3. She would like someone to post this letter .

4. Someone has to look after the garden .

5. They had to cut down that tree.

6. He doesn’t want people to make him a fool .

EXERCISE 9 : Passive Gerund

1. I don’t like people shouting at me .

2. I hate people staring at me .

3. can’t stand people telling me what to do .

4. I don’t like people interrupting me .

5. I dislike people making jokes about me .

6. He enjoys people praising him .

7. He can’t stand her parents watching her all day .

8. He doesn’t mind people criticizing him .

9. She hates people asking her about her past .

10. We dislike people cheating us .

EXERCISE 10 : Câu mệnh lệnh

1. Open your book .

2. Take off your hat .

3. Don’t do that silly thing again .

4. Let’s tell them about it .

TỔNG HỢP CÁC DẠNG

EXERCISE 11 .

1. Someone cleans the floor every morning.

2. They cancelled all the flights because of the fog.

3. People don’t use this road very often.

4. Somebody is using the computer at the moment.

5. 6. The police have just released John.

7. A short circuit could have caused the fire.

8. Somebody has robbed the bank near our house.

9. The old man treated the little boys badly.

10. My brother bought that book yesterday.

11. The boys carried the heavy box into the room last week.

12. Our parents warned us not to go out alone.

13. They are building a new highway around the city next year.

14. They had to postpone the meeting because of illness.

15. We will send you the results as soon as they are ready.

16. His colleagues gave him a present when he retired.

17. They installed a new pump to supply water for the town.

18. The secretary told me to wait outside.

19. The computer is used to solve the complex problems.

20. They didn’t offer Ann the job.

21. They have sold that old house at the end of the road.

22. They had cancelled the soccer match.

23. No one has collected the rubbish this week.

24. You should peel and chop the onion and then fry it.

25. People are killing wild animals for food


26. The author has written a special edition for children
27. I have received 20 cards so far
28. My farther has just cleaned this motorbike
29. I have never eaten that cake before
30. We have just finished the report

31. She hasn't answered my letter yet


32. Someone has wound the clock
33. A dog has just bitten me
34. Have you ever watched that fỉlm
35. She hasn't seen that man yet
36. One of the parents is taping the children's song
37. Is a student pilot flying that airplane?
38. Noone has talked for me that work
39. They can think that it will rain tomorrow
40. Someone has already told him to report to the hedmaster tomorrow

EXERCISE 12 . Choose the best answer A, B, C, or D

1. The room ………every day by Tommy.

A. cleans B. is cleaned C. is being cleaned D. cleaned

2. They ……….English right now.

A. are studying B. is being studied C. study D. are studied

3. Joe’s leg ………while he was playing football.

A. broke B. was breaking C. was broken D. was being broken

4. When the accident happened, the police ………..immediately.

A. were called B. called C. were calling D. had called

5. Nobody ………in the accident, so the ambulance ………..

A. was injured / wasn’t needed B. was injured / not needed

C. injured / wasn’t needed D. injured / needed

6. They have canceled all flights because of the bad weather  ………………

A. All flights were canceled because of the bad weather.

B. All flights have canceled because of the bad weather.

C. All flights has been canceled because of the bad weather.

D. All flights have been canceled because of the bad weather.

7. How do people learn languages?  ………………….

A. How are languages learned? B. How do languages learn?

C. How are languages learn? D. How do languages learned?

8. Her purse ………..from her handbag, although she had put it there a moment before.

A. is disappeared B. disappeared C. was disappearing D. disappears



THE END

KEYS

EXERCISE 1

1.This flower is watered (by my father) every morning.

2.Fiona was invented to John’s birthday party last month.

3.The dinner is being prepared (by her mother) in the kitchen.

4.Our teeth should be cleaned twice a day.

5.The English grammar has been explained (by our teacher).

6.The accident was caused in this city (by some drunk drivers).

7.Tom’s parents will be visited (by him) next month.

8.The secretary wasn’t phoned (by the manager) this morning.

9.Was this beautiful dress bought by Mary?

10.These old pictures won’t be hung in the living room(by me).

11.This factory wasn’t built (by the Greens) during the Second World War.

12.This house and these cars are going to be painted for Chrismas day by the Greens.

13.The cats had been fed (by Ann) before she went to the cinema.

14.The pollution problems have been discussed (by the students) since last week.

15.Has the most valuable painting in the national meseum been stlen (by the thieves).

16.The new president will be interviewed on TV (by tsome people).

17.How many languages are spoken in Canada(by them)?

18.Are those shoes going to be repaired ?

19.His nose has been broken in a football match(by him).

20.Have above sentences been finished ?

EXERCISE 2.

1.This dish is brought to me (by the waiter).

2.These postcards are sent to us(by our friend).

3.This story was told to them(by their grandmother) when they visited her last week.

4.This train ticket was ordered for Tim’s mother.

5.The special cameras weren’t showed to me.

6.Her ticket was showed to the airline agent(by her).

7.His new shoes are lent to his friends(by him).

8.Five million pounds was left to her relatives (by her).

9.These boxes were handed to the customer (by the shop assistant).

10.The first prize was awarded to the reporter (by the board).

11.Have the christmas cards been sent to your family?

12.Alice was appointed secretary for the meeting(by the committee).

13.The broken cup is hidden in the drawer (by him).

14.This room is kept tidy (by them) all the time.

15.The party was voted a great success(by them).

16.Ann was given some bananas and some flowers(by us).

17.The fridge was moved into the living room(by them).

18.Some cups of tea were brought to the visitors in the next room (by her).

19.The new project is found worthless.

20.The note wasn’t taken to the manager(by the secretary).

EXERCISE 3

1.I was told that you were the architect in this city.

2.It was reported that the flowers were killed by frost./ The flowers were reported to be killed by frost.

3.I am informed that the director is going to take a business trip to England.

4.It was announced that the meeting was delayed until next week.

5.It was discovered that this cotton was grown in Egypt.

6.It is promised that the performance will start on time.

7.It is recommended that we should stay at the city center.

8.It was believed that Alice would pass the driving test./ Alice was believed to pass the driving test.

9.All the workers are notified that they will have to work extra hard this month.

10.I have been persuaded that they will go with me to the stadium.

11.It has been decided that the company will go to the beach together at the weekend.

12.It is thought that Maradona is the best football player in the 20th century./ Maradona is thought to be the best football player in the 20th century.

13.It is found that the job is not suitable for a girl like her./ The job is found to be not suitable for a girl like her.

14.It was explained that this powerful engine pulled the train.

15.I was told that his football team had played well last season.



EXERCISE 4

1.I had the gate painted last week.

2.She will have her car washed tomorrow.

3.They have the story told again.

4.John gets his shirt cleaned.

5.Anne has had her composition typed.

6.Rick will have his hair cut.

7.I will get a new dress made.

8.He had his car repaired.

9.She often gets the heater maitained.

10.They had the shoplifter arrested.

11.Are you going to have your shoes repaired?

12.I must have my teeth checked.

13.She will have her dog examined.

14.We had this photograph taken when we were on holiday last summer.

15.The Greens had their carpet cleaned.



GV:Manh Thi Thuy Diem

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