Chapter 1: business in the information age

Employing expert writing techniques to adapt to your audience

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Chuyển đổi dữ liệu18.05.2023
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Employing expert writing techniques to adapt to your audience
Focusing on audience benefits

  • Adapting your message to the receiver’s needs means ptting in that person’s shoes

  • Empathy là khả năng thấy hiểu người khác

  • Empathic cố làm những điều sau:

    • Give something to the receiver

    • Giải quyết vấn đề người nghe

    • Tiết kiện tiền cho người nhận

    • Thấu hiểu họ

Cultivating the “you” view
Sounding conversational but professional

  • An informal, conversational tone is usually more effective than a formal pretenttious tone

Improving the tone and clarity of a message
Choosing to be positive rather than negative

  • Positive language can improve the clarity, tone, and effectiveness of a message

  • Positive language thường conveys nhiều thông tin hơn negative language does

  • Posstive messages are uplifting and pleasant to read

  • Using positive language helps the writer avoid negative words that create ill-will

Avoiding gender-, age-, and disability-biased language
Using precise and vigorous words


-The faster you can articulate your ideas and the more efficiently you can explain what needs to be said, the more successful content you will be in your career
-Being able to write efficiently and clearly is also critical to promotions
-The 3x3 writing process guides you through the steps necessary to write confidently, but more important, clearly

2 of 9:
The 3x3 writing process




-Analyze: Decide on the message purpose
-Anticipate: How will the audience receive this message?
-Adapt: Think about techniques to present this message most effectively

-Research: Gather background data by searching files and the Internet
-Organize: Arrange direct messages with the big idea first
-Draft: Prepare the first draft

-Edit: Strive for parallelism, clarity, conciseness and readability
-Proofread: Check carefully for errors
-Evaluate: Will this message achieve your purpose?

3 of 9:
-The writing process begins with background information
+No savvy businessperson would begin drafting a message before gathering background information or conducting research
+Research simply means collecting information about a topic
+Information collected through research helps you shape the sender’s message

4 of 9:
-Thoughtful writers collect information that answers several questions:
+What does the receiver need to know about this topic?
+What is the receiver to do?
+How is the receiver to do it?
+When must the receiver do it?
+What will happen if the receiver does not do it?

5 of 9:
Informal research
-Many routine tasks such as drafting e-mails, memos, letters, informational reports and oral presentations – require information that you can collect informally
-The following techniques are useful in informal research:
+Search your company’s files
+Talk with the boss
+Interview the target audience
+Create an informal survey
+Brainstorm for ideas

6 of 9:
-Formal research
-Information for long reports and proposals may be obtained through formal research using primary or secondary sources
-Primary sources:
+Primary data come from firsthand experience
+This information might be generated from surveys, interviews, observations and experiments

7 of 9:
Secondary sources
-Secondary data come from reading what others have experienced or observed and writen about
-Books, magazines, journals and online resources are all considered secondary sources
-Most writers conducting research begin with secondary sources

8 of 9:
-Traditionally, teams have generated ideas by brainstorming, the spontaneous contribution of ideas by team members
+A facilitator records these ideas
+The emphasis is on quantity, not quality
+Judgement is discouraged because the goal is to think freely
+Critics charge that the practice may enable one noisy extrovert to dominate the conversation

9 of 9:
-Mind mapping is a process for generating and sorting ideas
+Mind mapping emphasizes visual concepts, beginning with a single concept drawn as an image in the center of a blank page
+Associated words and images branch out treelike showing the relationship between the ideas and the central concept
-What idea-generating method works for you?

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