8. Structure of the study Besides the introduction, conclusion, references, and the appendix, the study consists of two chapters as follows.
Chapter 1 discusses the literature review on Hemingway’s Iceberg Theory, Ernest Hemingway’s life and writing career, the novel “A Farewell to Arms” and previous studies on Hemingway’s Iceberg Theory.
Chapter 2 aims at analyzing the use of literary devices manifesting Hemingway’s Iceberg Theory in “A Farewell to Arms”.
Chapter 1 LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1. Hemingway’s Iceberg Theory 1.1.1. The concepts of Hemingway’s Iceberg Theory In 1932, Hemingway proposed the famous Iceberg Theory in his documentary work, Death in the Afternoon. To date, nonetheless, there have not been any particular definitions of Hemingway’s Iceberg Theory. In lieu, numerous statements on the theory have been proposed in Hemingway’s literary works.
Hemingway (1960) once wrote: “If a writer of prose knows enough about what he is writing about, he may omit things that he knows, and the reader, (if the writer is writing truly enough) will have a feeling of those things as strongly as though the writer had stated them. The dignity of movement of an iceberg is due to only one-eighth of it being above water. A good writer does not need to reveal every detail of a character or action”. He uses the iceberg as a metaphor, believing that only the part of the iceberg above the water should be described. And the underwater part should be supplemented by the reader's imagination through the prompts of the text. He said the reason why iceberg movement is majestic is only one-eighth of it on the surface of water. In literary works, words and images are so-called the one-eighth part, while emotions and thoughts are the seven-eighths parts. The first two are concretely visible, while the latter two reside in the first two.
The Iceberg Theory is first typical with simple art in terms of style which is deleting the dispensable things in the novel and winning more with less. Then, Hemingway advocates the omission of physical experience, believing that readers can imagine and fill parts that the author did not describe based on their own experience. Therefore, this omission technique greatly mobilizes the reader’s experience and participation, making readers feel that the author trusts his or her understanding and experience ability. In this sense, Hemingway (1953) is leaving seven-eighths of the iceberg empty for readers to fill in with their own experiences as written in The Art of the Short Story: “If you leave out important things or events that you know about, the story is strengthened. If you leave or skip something because you do not know it, the story will be worthless”.