Giải thích các thuật ngữ thường sử dụng trong Marketing



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Các thuật ngữ bắt đầu bằng ký tự "M"

Macro forecasting
Macro forecasting is concerned with forecasting markets in total. This is about determining the existing level of Market Demand and considering what will happen to market demand in the future.

Mail panels
Groups of consumers selected to represent a market or market segment who agree to be regularly interviewed by mail.

Manufacturer brand
Manufacturer brands are created by producers and bear their chosen brand name. The producer is responsible for marketing the brand. The brand is owned by the producer. By building their brand names, manufacturers can gain widespread distribution (for example by retailers who want to sell the brand) and build customer.

Marker leader
The business in a market with the largest market share. The market leader, particularly one with a dominant market share, is often “followed” by competitors in terms of pricing and product strategy.

Market
A market is the demand for a particular product or service, often measured by sales during a specified period.

Market challenger
A business in a market that is fighting hard to increase its market share.

Market concentration
Market concentration is the proportion of market value that is owned by the leading brands or products/companies in the market. Where the market leaders own a large part of the overall market, the market is said to be highly concentrated. By contrast, where the market leader has a relatively small market share and there are many other competitors, a market is said to be “fragmented”.

Market development
The process of growing sales by offering existing products (or new versions of them) to new customer groups (as opposed to simply attempting to increase the company’s share of current markets).

Market entry
The launch of a new product into a new or existing market. A different strategy is required depending on whether the product is an early or late entrant to the market; the first entrant usually has an automatic advantage, while later entrants need to demonstrate that their products are better, cheaper and so on.

Market follower
A firm that is happy to follow the leaders in a market place without challenging them, perhaps taking advantages of opportunities created by leaders without the need for much marketing investment of its own - see also 'market challenger' and 'market leader'.

Market positioning
A marketing strategy that will position a business’ products and services against those of its competitors in the minds of consumers. To achieve positioning success it is suggested that there are four basic competitive strategies that a company can follow (based on work by Porter):
- Cost leadership - the company tries to achieve lowest costs of production and distribution
- Differentiation - making use of specific marketing mixes
- Focus - paying attention to a few market segments
The fourth strategy is a losing strategy in which a business pursues a middle-of-the-road path. Businesses that try to be good at everything are rarely particularly good at anything.

Market research
The systematic gathering, recording and analysing of data about problems relating to the marketing of goods and services.

Market segment
A customer group within the market that has special characteristics which are significant to marketing strategy.

Market segmentation
Segmentation involves subdividing markets, channels or customers into groups with different needs, to deliver tailored propositions which meet these needs as precisely as possible.

Market share
Market share can be defined as the percentage of all sales within a market that is held by one brand / product or company.

Market targeting
Market targeting is the process of evaluating each market segment and selecting the most attractive segments to enter with a particular product or product line.

Marketing
The all-embracing function that links the business with customer needs and wants in order to get the right product to the right place at the right time”.

Marketing audit
A systematic examination of a business’s marketing environment, objectives, strategies, and activities with a view to identifying key strategic issues, threats and opportunities.

Marketing concept
The marketing concept is about matching a business’ capabilities with customer wants.

Marketing intelligence
The composite of all data and ideas available within an organisation that assists in decision-making.

Marketing plan
A detailed statement (usually prepared annually) of how a company's marketing mix will be used to achieve its market objectives. A marketing plan is usually prepared following a marketing audit.

Maturity stage
The stage during which a product's sales curve peaks and starts to decline, and profits continue to decline.

Media analysis
Media analysis is a term used in advertising. It refers to an investigation into the relative effectiveness and the relative costs of using the various advertising media in an advertising campaign.

Micro forecasting
Micro forecasting is concerned with detailed unit sales forecasts. This is about determining a product’s market share in a particular industry and considering what will happen to that market share in the future.

Mission
A mission describes the organisation’s basic function in society, in terms of the products and services it produces for its customers.

Mission statement
A mission statement is a formal description of the mission of a business.

Multi-channel marketing
When a business distributes its products through more than one distribution channel, this is known as multi-channel marketing. Retail chains, for example Argos, besides using the shops to distribute their products, quite often also use catalogue selling. The main purpose of multi-channel marketing is to more effectively reach different customer segments.

Multi-segment strategy
A strategy by which a business directs its marketing efforts towards two or more market segments by developing a marketing mix for each.






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  #13  

10-05-05, 19:01



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Các thuật ngữ bắt đầu bằng ký tự "N"

New product
A new product can be defined as a good, service or idea that is “perceived” by some potential customers as new. It may have been available for some time, but many potential customers have not yet adopted the product nor decided to become a regular user of the product.

Niche marketing
Niche marketing refers to the exploitation of comparatively small market segments by businesses that decide to concentrate their efforts. Niche segments exist in nearly all markets – for example the self-build sports car segment of the motor industry.

Non-personal communication
Methods of promotion that do not generate any personal feedback. Advertising is the best example of this.

Normal goods
Normal goods have a positive income elasticity of demand so as income rise more is demand at each price level.






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  #14  

10-05-05, 19:03



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Các thuật ngữ bắt đầu bằng ký tự "O"

Objectives
Measurable aims of a business set for a given period (e.g. marketing objectives for the next year).

Occasion segmentation
A basis of segmenting a market based on occasions when buyers get the idea to make a purchase, actually buy, or use a purchased item.
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