- Lời nói gián tiếp là tường thuật lại ý của người nói với người thứ 3. Để làm bài tập chuyển từ câu trực tiếp sang câu gián tiếp, chúng ta phải bỏ ngoặc và chuyển động từ ngược về quá khứ một bậc, nghĩa là nếu động từ ở thì hiện tại thì chuyển về quá khứ đơn giản, nếu là quá khứ đơn giản thì chuyển về quá khứ hoàn thành.
- Nếu động từ chính ở thì Hiện tại đơn (Say), Hiện tại hoàn thành ( Have / Has said) hoặc Tương lai (Will say) thì trong lời trích dẫn ta chỉ đổi đại từ (pronoun)
Ex: She has said, “ I’m very tired” → She has said that she is very tired.
Một số thay đổi khi đổi sang lời nói gián tiếp như sau.
Thay đổi về thì động từ
“I feel sick”
→ He said he felt sick
“I’m writing a letter”
→He sais he was writing a letter
Simple past / Present perfect
“I’ve seen that film”
→He said he had seen that film
Past perfect continuous
“I was living in Viena then”
→He said he had been living in Vienna then
Future in the past
“I will go to Japan in July”
→He said he would go to Japan in July
2. Thay đổi về tính từ và trạng từ.
“I need this book”
→ He said he needed that book
“I’ll take these with me”
→He said he would take those with me
“I’ll return here at 3p.m”
→He said he would return there at 3p.m
“I’m going now”
→ He siad he was going then
“I’ll do it today”
→He said the would do it that day
The day before
The previous day
“I was at Hue yesterday”
→He said he had been at Hue the day before
The day after
The following day
“We’ll wait until tomorrow”
→ They said they would wait the day after
“I was in Dalat 3 weeks ago”
→He said he had been in Dalat 3 weeks before
The week after
The following week
“I’ll come to see her nexk week”
→He said he would come to see her the week after
3. Thay đổi với câu hỏi Yes / No
- Bỏ ngoặc thêm “if” hoặc “whether”
Ex: “Will he come?”, she asked → She asked if he would come
4. Với câu hỏi wh-
- Bỏ ngoặc giữ wh- và chuyển từ câu hỏi sang dạng không hỏi
Ex: “What time is it?” She asked → She asked what time it was
5. Với câu mệnh lệnh và yêu cầu
- Với loại tường thuật này chúng ta có thể sử dụng mẫu tường thuật: to tell /ask / command / request … someone to so smth
“Please wait for a minute”
“You really must listen to your father”
“Would you mind opening the door?
“ Hurry up, Lan”
“Don’t leave the room”
“Please don’t talk in this part of the library”
→ The man asked me to wait for a minute
→ My teacher told me to litsen to my father
→ She asked me to open the door
→ He told Lan to hurry up
→ He ordered them not to leave the room
→ She asked me not to talk in that part of the library
6. Với lời đề nghị giúp đỡ và sự đề nghị chúng ta dùng các động từ : offer, promise, refuse, agree + to do smth.
“We’ll visit you”
“ I’ll try to make my mom happy”
“Let me give you a helping hand”
→ She promised to visit us
→ The boy promised to make his mom happy
→ He offered to give me a helping hand
Reported speech with Infinitive
1. Verb + to infinitive
Verb + to infinitive
agree: đồng ý
decide: quyết định
offer: đề nghị
refuse: từ chối
1. “ Ok, I’ll give you a lift”
→ John agreed to give me a gift
2.“I’ll have the fish soup”
→ Jerry decided to have the fish soup
2. Verb + object + to infinitive
Verb + object + to infinitive
ask: yêu cầu
encourage: khuyến khích, động viên
remind: nhắc , nhắc nhở
warn: khuyến cáo
1. “Don’t forget to send your mother a birthday cake, Tom”
→ I reminded Tom to send his mother a birthday cake
2. “ Would you like to come to the cinema with me on Saturday, Thomas?”
→ I invited Thomas (to come) to the cinema with me on Saturday
Reported speech with Gerund
1. Suggest : đề nghị
“Shall we go for swim now?” → She suggested going for a swim
“What about playing tennis” → Tom suggested playing tennis
2. Admit: thừa nhận, chấp nhận
“ I know I am wrong” → He admitted being wrong
“I’ve broken the mirror” → She admitted breaking the mirror
3. Insist on: cố nài
- “I really need a break after lunch” → The boy insisted on having a break after lunch
- “Please come on! Lend me some money” →The woman insisted on lending some money
4. Apologize for: xin lỗi về
“Sorry I’ve hurt you” →She apologized for having hurt me
“Sorry I’m late” → The man apologized for being late
5. Accuse sb of: buộc tội ai về
“You’ve stolen my bicycle” → The boy accused his friend of having stolen his bicycle
“It’s you who broke my glassed” → The old lady accused the girl of having broken her glasses.
6. Dream of: mơ về
“I deperatedly want to become a doctor” →He dreamed of becoming a doctor
“ What I always want is to see my family again”
→ She dreamed of seeing her family again
7. Prevent sb from: ngăn không cho ai làm gì
“I won’t allow you to get in touch with him”
→ Her father prevented her from touching with him
“I can’t let you use the mobile phone”
→Her mother prevented her from using mobile phone.
8. Deny: chối
“ I didn’t say that” →She denied saying that
“I didn’t turn on the TV” → He denied turning on the TV
9. Thank sb for: cảm ơn ai về
“It’s really nice of you to visit me” → She thanked him for visiting her
“It’s very kind of you to lend me some money”
→ He thanked her for lending him some money.
10. Think of: nghĩ đến
“I like the car. I will buy it” →The woman thought of buying the car
“The woman is very poor. I think we should help her”
→ The woman thought of helping the poor woman.
11. Look forward to: trông
- “I feel like going to America soon” → The woman looked forward to going to America soon
- “ I can’t wait to meet you again” → The boy looked forward to meeting his mother again
Notes: No verb tense change (không đổi thì của động từ): Trong các trường hợp sau đây thì của động từ trong lời nói gián tiếp sẽ không thay đổi.
1. Động từ tường thuật ở các thì hiện tại đơn, hiện tại hoàn thành, hiện tại tiếp diễn và tương lai đơn.
- He says/ has said / is saying: “ I am staying at home tonight”
- He says / has said / is saying that he is staying at home
2. Lời nói trực tiếp diễn tả một chân lý, sự thật hiển nhiên, một định lý khoa học.
- My teacher said, “ The earth goes round the sun”
- My teacher said that the earth goes round the sun
3. Một số động từ sẽ không đổi: should, had better, ought to, used to
- He said “ I used to live here with my family”
- He said that he used to live there with his family
4. Các cấu trúc câu
a. Wish: không thay đổi
- “I wish I had known the truth,” she said
- She wished / she said that she wished she had known the truth
b. Would rather + subject + past simple
- He said, “ I’d rather Tom drove the car”
- He said that he would rather Tom drove the car.
c. It’s high time + subject + past simple
- The man said , “ It’s high time you went to school alone, my son”
- The man told his son that it was high time he went to school alone
d. The second and the third conditional sentence.
- She said, “ If my children were older, I would send them to boarding school”
- She said that if her children were older, she would send them to boarding school.
I. REPORTED SPEECH: STATEMENTS ( CÂU TRẦN THUẬT)
1. She said, "I went to the cinema yesterday." → She said……………………
2. He said, "I am writing a test tomorrow." →He said ……………………
3. You said, "I will do this for him." →You said …………………
4. She said, "I am not hungry now." → She said ……………………
5. They said, "We have never been here before." →They said ………………….
6. They said, "We were in London last week." →They said …………………
7. He said, "I will have finished this paper by tomorrow." →He said ………………
8. “I will apply for my visa tomorrow,” She said. → She said…………
9. “If I were you, I wouldn’t come here,” Lan said. → Lan said…………………
10. Mary said “I wish I were a boy “. → Mary said..................................
11. He said “ I was born in 2000”. → He said………………………
12. My teacher said “ the sun rises in the East”. →My teacher said.........................
13. “ You had better not contact to her, “Tom said to me.→Tom said to me.................
II. REPORTED SPEECH:QUESTIONS (CÂU HỎI)
1. "Where is my umbrella?" she asked. → She asked......................
2. "How are you?" Martin asked us. → Martin asked us............
3. He asked, "Do I have to do it?" → She asked......................
4. "Where have you been?" the mother asked her daughter.
→ The mother asked her daughter................
5. "Which dress do you like best?" she asked her boyfriend. → She asked her boyfriend.
6. "What are they doing?" she asked. → She wanted to know.......
7. "Are you going to the cinema?" he asked me. → He wanted to know.......
8. The teacher asked, "Who speaks English?" → The teacher wanted to know
9. "How do you know that?" she asked me. → She asked me..................
10. "Has Caron talked to Kevin?" my friend asked me. → My friend asked me.......
III. REPORTED SPEECH: REQUESTS (CÂU MỆNH LỆNH)
1 .She said, "Go upstairs." → She told me..................
2. "Close the door behind you," he told me. → He told me.....................
3. "Don't be late," he advised us. → He advised us...........
4"Stop staring at me," she said. → She told him...................
5. "Don't be angry with me," he said. → He asked her...............
6. "Leave me alone," she said. → She told me....................
7."Don't drink and drive," she warned us. → She warned us...............
8"John, stop making noise,” →John’s mother ordered.....
9."Don't worry about us," they said. → They told her.................
10."Meet me at the cinema." he said. → He asked me...................
IV. REPORTED SPEECH WITH TO INFINITIVE
1.” You Should see a doctor ,Hoa. → She advised................
2.” If you like, I’ll help you clean the windows,” Jane said. →Jane offered....................
3. “We’ll tell Bruno about the party, “ said Tom and Jerry. →Tom and Jerry promised
4.”Why did you change your job?” Lam asked Linh . →Lam wanted............
5. “ Remember to lock the door before going to school,” she said.→ She reminded……
6. “You should join the football tea, Eric,” said the teacher. →The teacher encouraged..
7.” Come and see me whenever you want,” he said to me. →He invited.....................
8.” All right, I’ll wait for you;” he said to me. →He agree................
9.” You can go home, boys.” →The man allowed.............
10.” Be careful of strangers and not to go out at night”. →He warned us...........
V. REPORTED SPEECH WITH GERUND
1.” Shall we go for a swim now?”. →She suggested.................
2.” I know I’m wrong,” he said. →He admitted…………
3.” I didn’t say that,” Lan said. →Lan denied......................
4. “ If only I had told him the true!” →Jane regrets..................
5. “ I haven’t finished the assignment yet. I’m really sorry”.→The boy apologized.... .....
6. “ It’s you who took my bag,” said the man to the boy. →The man accused.............
7. “No, no .I really must sit for the test.” →She insisted on...............
8.”What I always want is to become a doctor,” she said. →She dreamt.............
9.” I can’t let you use the mobile phone,” his mother said. →His mother prevented......
10. “ It’s really nice of you to visit me,” she said to him. →She thanked..................
11.” I like the car. I’ll buy it.” →The woman thought........
12.” I feel like going to America soon.” →She looked forward to.....
VI. CHOOSE THE BEST ANSERS
1. “ Don’t be late again!” she said.
A. She promised me not to be late again.
B. She said me not to be late again.
C. She asked me not to be late again.
D. She agreed not to be late again.
2. “ Remember to lock the door!” my mother said.
A. My mother reminded me remembering to lock the door.
B. My mother reminded me to remember to lock the door.
C. My mother reminded me locking the door.
D. My mother reminded me to lock the door.
3. “ If I were you, I would help him,” he said.
A. He said me to help him. C. He wanted to help him
B. He advised me to help him. D. He promised to help him
4. “ Let me open the door for you, “ she said to me.
A. She offered to open the door for me.
B. She offered to open the door for you.
C. She invited to open the door for me.
D. She invited to open the door for you.
5. She said “I’m sorry I didn’t reply to the letter.”
A. She apologized for didn’t reply to the letter.
B. She apologized for not to reply to the letter.
C. She apologized for not to replying to the letter.
C. She apologized for not replying to the letter.
6. ‘I bought these books last week”.
A. He said he bought these books last week.
B. He said he had bought these books last week.
C. He said he had bought these books the week before.
D. He said he bought these books the week before.
7. “ Did they tell you when they left?” she said to me.
A. She asked me if they told me when they left.
B. She asked me if they told me when they had left.
C. She asked me if they had told me when they left.
D. She asked me if they had told me when they had left.
8. Rosa asked Jose, "Have you been studying English very long?"
A. Rosa asked Jose when do you study English
B. Rosa asked Jose if he had studied English.
C. Rosa asked Jose if he had been studying English very long.
D. Rosa asked Jose if he was studying English very long.
9. Samara asked me, "May I borrow your English dictionary?"
A. Samara asked me if she may borrow my English dictionary.
B. Samara asked me if she could borrow my English dictionary.
C. Samara asked me if I could borrow her English dictionary.
D. Samara asked me if I had borrowed her English dictionary.
10. The teacher said, "Study chapters 1-4 for the final test!"
A. The teacher told us to study chapters 1-4 for the final test.
B. The teacher asked us if we studied chapters 1-4 for the final test.
C. The teacher said us to study chapters 1-4 for the final test.
D. The teacher asked to us to study chapters 1-4 for the final test.
11. The secretary said me that I would receive the letter from him.
A B C D
12. They asked him washing the glassware carefully in the laboratory
A B C D
13. Her doctor advised her stay out of crowds .
A B C D
14. They said that they had a lift but very often it doesn’t work .
A B C D
15. He asked them what time did the plane arrived.
A B C D
16. I asked to him whose car he had borrowed the night before.
A B C D
17. They said that they went to the supermarket before coming home.
A B C D
18. The girl regrets not buy that mobile phone.
A B C D
19 My little sister suggested to go to the beach for a change.
A B C D
20. The woman accused the boy to break her house’s window.
A B C D
21. Her father prevented her not to use his car.
A B C D
Change the following sentences into indirect sentences:
1. “Please, don’t tell anyone the news,” Ha said to her sister.
2. “Don’t drive so fast” Ha said to Minh.
3. Please remove your shoes before entering” Ha said to Hang.
4. “Ba, don’t interrupt me when I’m meditating” Ha said to Ba.
5. First switch on, then wait for 2 minutes” Ha said to Nhung.
6. “Hanh, take the man to the cells” Ha said to Tung.
7. “Don’t forget to write me a letter every week” Ha said to her friend.
8.Ha said: “Don’t make so much noise, Hieu”
9. Ha said to Mai, “You’re going to post the letter, don’t forget.”
10. Ha said to Mai: “ Don’t touch the electric wires”
11. He said, “I don’t know what happened.”
12. She said, “I went to the doctor yesterday.”
13. He said, “I have a toothache.”
14. She said, “I’ll write him a prescription.”
15. They said, “We’re going to the drugstore.”
16. He said, “The doctor gave me some pills.”
17. She said, “I go to the supermarket every day.”
18. He said, “I have received the envelope.”
19. They said, “We visited Cannery Row.”
20. She said, “I feel very sick.”
21. “If you are late tomorrow, I am going to fire you,” he said
22. “I’m telling you that I didn’t break that window”, the boy said
23. “I’m going to change the wheel on my car myself,” said Hang.
24. “It’s certainly essential to take a long –term view of the situation,” the boss said
25. “I passed my driving test first time,” said Sam.
26. “It’s the first time I’ve flown”, Ha said.
27. Hang said: “Why doesn’t Ha buy them this picture as a wedding present?”
28. “I can’t work at all! My typewriter isn’t working properly,” she said
29. “I think you should try to be more punctual,” she said to Ha
30. “You can’t park here”
31. “Have you worked before?” she said to him
32. “Can you work on Saturday before?” she said to him
33. “May I open the window?” she asked
34. “Would it be alright if I had the day off?” she said to her boss
35. “May I borrow your tennis racket?” she asked him
36. “Are you coming to the party tonight, Ha?” she asked
37. “Can you borrow your pen please, Ha?” she asked
38. “Do you know where my tennis racquet is, Mum?” she asked her Mum
39. “Was Ha at work yesterday?” she asked her secretary
40. “Did you read the article about Prince Diana?” she asked him
41. “Where do you live?” she said to him
42. “Why do you want the job?” she said to him
43. “How did you hear about it?” she said to him
44. “How much do you expect to earn?” she said to him
45. “When can you start?” she said to him
46. “What time is it, Ha?” she asked
47. “How long have you worked for this company?” she asked
48. “Why has he been working so hard?” she asked
49. “Why did you do it when I told you not to?” she said to me
50. “Why didn’t you come at ten o’clock?” she said
51. “If you type this letter out for me, I’ll buy you a drink, OK? Thanks!” he said (persuade)
52. “Sure, I don’t mind at all if you use my typewriter. Go ahead.” he said (allow)
53. “All right, it’s true, I was nervous.” he said (confess)
54. “I don’t think Liverpool will win.” he said (doubt)
55. “Don’t forget: you’ve got to hand in your work this evening” he said (remind)
56. “It’s a shame you couldn’t make it to the party last night” he said (regret)
57. “Don’t worry, as long as you keep your head, you’ll manage all right” he said (assure)
58. “You really must come, and visit us next weekend” he said (insist)
59. “If I had more time, I’d help you with your work” he said (claim)
60. “Might it be a good idea if we all organized our time more effectively” he said (suggest)
61. He said, “I don’t know what happened.”
62. She said, “I went to the dentist yesterday.”
63. She said, “The doctor wrote me a prescription.”
64. He said, “I have a toothache.”
65. She said, “I go to the museum every day.”
66. They said, “We’re going to the supermarket.”
67. She said, “The doctor gave me some pills.”
68. He said, “I received the report.”
69. They said, “We visited the aquarium.”
70. He said, “I’m feeling sick.”
71. He said, “I don’t know what happened.”
72. She said, “I went to the dentist yesterday.”
73. She said, “The doctor wrote me a prescription.”
74. He said, “I have a toothache.”
75. She said, “I go to the museum every day.”
76. They said, “We’re going to the supermarket.”
77. She said, “The doctor gave me some pills.”
78. He said, “I received the report.”
79. They said, “We visited the aquarium.”
80. He said, “I’m feeling sick.”
81. “I’m tired,” Trevor said.
82. “Sorry. I wasn’t listening,” Hang said.
83. “Is this your pencil?” he asked his pupil.
84. “I’m going to Paris soon,” she said.
85. “It’s time to start revising (ôn lại) for the exam,” the teacher said.
86. “The film will be interesting,” I thought.
87. “I can’t help you because I have too much to do,” she said.
88. “Anne has bought the tickets.” She said to me.
89. “It took me three hours to get here because the roads are flooded” he told me.
90. “I think it’s a crazy (điên dại/ ngu xuẩn) idea. It’s won’t work” she said.
91. “Where are you going?” he asks me.
92. “Do you want to go out for a meal?” she asked him.
93. “Why are you late?” they asked their guests.
94. “Can I use your phone to make a local call?” she asks me.
95. “Which countries have you been to?” the customs officer asks me.
96. “Do you know where Jean is living?” he asked me.
97. “What color are you going to paint the living room?” she asks them.
98. “Where did you go last night?” his father asked him.
99. “Why doesn’t she talk to me any more?” I thought to myself.
100. “What are you going to do with your scholarship?” Hang asked Huong.
101. “Remember to book a table” said Ann.
102. “Could you please ring back in half an hour?” said the secretary.
103. “Get into the right lane” said the driving instructor.
104. “Don’t put sticky things in your pockets,” said his mother.
105. “I should say nothing about it if I were you,” said my brother.
106. “Please, please don’t do anything dangerous,” his wife said.
107. “Why don’t you open a bank account?” Tom said.
108. “I can’t sell the cassette player at that price” he said.
109. “Could I see your driving license?”said the policeman.
110. “Why don’t you go to a dentist,Mary, before your toothache gets any worse,” I said.
111. “Open your suitcase for inspection .” the customs officer said to all passengers.
112. “You will have to make up your mind (quyết định/ nhất định) soon” she said to me.
113. “I’ve replaced all the carpets .” She said to me.
114. “Can I move the furniture around?” I asked her.
115. “How many bedrooms are there?” Sally asked.
116. “When do you want to move in?” Mrs. Mawby asked.
117. “Is there a fridge in the kitchen?” she asked him.
118. “I need $ 100 deposit (tiền đặt cọc)” she said.
119. He said, “I bought some popcorn.”
120. They said, “We’re flying to California.”
121. He said, “I’m cutting off the main valve.”
122. She said, “I bought some bread.”
123. He said, “I’m turning off the television.”
124. They said, “We’re driving to Chicago.”
125. The receptionist says “Breakfast is served between 7.00 and 9.00”
126. She said, “I bought some bread.”
127. He said, “I’m turning off the television.”
II. Change the following sentences into direct sentences:
1. He said he didn’t know what had happened.
2. She said that she had gone to the dentist yesterday.
3. She said the doctor had written her a prescription.
4. He said that he had a toothache.
5. She said she went to the museum every day.
6. They said they were going to the supermarket.
7. She said that the doctor had given her some pills.
8. He said he had received the report.
9. They said they had visited the aquarium.
10. He said that he was feeling sick.
11. She said she had bought some bread.
12. He said that he was turning off the television.
13. They said they were driving to Chicago.
14. She said she would write him a prescription.
15. They said they were going to the drugstore.
16. He said that the doctor had given him some pills.
17. She said that she went to the supermarket everyday.
18. He said he had received the envelope.
19. They said that they had visited Cannery Row.
20. She said that she felt very sick.
21. He said he had bought some popcorn.
22. They said they were flying to California.
23. He said he was cutting off the main valve.
24. He said he didn’t know what had happened.
25. She said that she had gone to the doctor yesterday.
26. He said he had a toothache.
27. He said he didn’t know what had happened.
28. She said that she had gone to the dentist yesterday.
29. She said the doctor had written her a prescription.
30. He said that he had a toothache.
31. She said she went to the museum every day.
32. They said they were going to the supermarket.
33. She said that the doctor had given her some pills.
34. He said he had received the report.
35. They said they had visited the aquarium.
36. He said that he was feeling sick.
37. She said she had bought some bread.
38. He said that he was turning off the television.
39. They said they were driving to Chicago.
40. Mary said, she didn’t know why the car had hit her.