At present, Ali is in her class, she (sit)________at her desk. She usually (sit)____at the same desk everyday.
Ann (not go)_________downtown yesterday morning.
I hope they (repair)__________ this road by the time we come back next summer.
I’m afraid. I am not quite ready – Never mind. I (wait)_______
When we come to her house, she (already/leave)__________
Since classes (begin)_______, I (not/have)________much free time.
She (watch)_____an interesting program on TV last night.
When the phone (ring)________, I (sleep)_______
Now, Kelly (read)_____an article in the newspaper, but she (not understand)_______it. Some of the vocabulary (be) _______too difficult for her.
Brain (teach) ____English in 1998
They (sell)________ orange juice here.
Last night, I (read)_________ a newspaper while my father (watch)________ television.
Hi, Anna, I (not see) _______you for weeks. What you (do)_____lately?
He (say)_____that he (already/ see) Ann.
How long you (work)__________ as a cook?
She (eat)________ dinner when her friend came.
A: No, I’m not going away for the weekend. I’m staying at home. I (start)_____ building my garage.
B: you (do)_______it all by your self?
A; no, my nephew (help)_________me.
Come back in an hour. I (do)_________ my packing by then.
It’s not uncommon for people to fall asleep on trains but snoring loudly in public is another matter. One day recently I (read)________ my newspaper on the train when I (become)________aware of a loud snoring coming from the opposite man. As the train (come)__________into the last station on the line, I (give)_______him a sharp poke with my umbrella to wake him up. In stead of being grateful, he (look)__________at me furiously; he (not be)________ asleep at all!! The snoring (come) from the dog who (lie)_______ at his feet.
My friend (travel)________ on a domestic flight in South America a few year ago. They (go)________for about forty minutes, when the pilot (suddenly start) __________speaking excitedly in Spanish. Most of the passengers (run)______forward, shouting, and in panic, my friend (get) _______ into the crash position, leaning forward his head between his knees. He (sit)_______ like that for some minutes when the stewardess kindly (explain)_______to him that they (fly)_______over the Angel Falls, and would he like to look out of the window like other passengers?
An Australian woman traveling home from Melbourne (drive)_________ down a narrow road one dark evening when she (enter)________ a tunnel. Although a little surprised at this, as she (not notice)______that tunnel on that road before, she (carry)_________on. But after half an hour of twisting and turning, she (run out)_____of petrol. It (be)________completely dark in the tunnel, so she (decide)_______to wait for help. She (only wait)_______for a few minutes when three men came towards her. Rather surprisingly, the three man (wear)_______ helmets with lamps on the front. The three men (seem)_____ even more surprised to see her. It was then when the woman (realize)______ that she ( drive)______ into a coal mine.
Put the verbs in the brackets into the correct forms
Yesterday I went with my sister (buy)_____something for her birthday. She didn’t really know what (get)______ but she seemed (like) ______ the idea of a pet, o she went to the nearest pet shop. She started (look)________ around at all the animals. The man in the shop let her (pick up) ______ the rabbits and stroke the hamsters but when she saw some puppies (play)_____in the box she said she would like (have)_________one of them.
It’s obvious he’s only interested in (make)_________money.
Anna couldn’t find a taxi so I offered (drive)_______her to the station.
I managed (book)_______two seats on the morning flight.
I promised (send) ________ to send her the new brochure as soon as possible.
Peter was delighted (meet)_______a former colleague at the conference.
I avoid (take)_____ the car whenever possible, especially in big cities.
My father hates (wear)_____a tie to work.
We can’t afford (take)________ a vacation this summer.
Would you mind (open) ______the window?
Tom suggested (climb)________to the top.
He left without (say)______ a word.
She managed (lose)________ a lot of weight.
(swim)______helps you keep fit.
They made him (tell)_______ them the truth.
We are sorry (inform) ______ you that you have failed the exam.
I’d love (go)_____to the cinema tonight.
I look forward to (see)________you again soon.
It’s no use (try)_____to make him change his mind.
I don’t know how (do)_____this kind of exercise.
I’ve tried (eat)_____mango many times, but it’s still terrible.
Oh dear, you look so bad in that dress, try (wear)______ the pink one over there! It’ll make you (become)______Cinderella.
My mother is an amazing woman. She is 87 years old and she still enjoys (go)______ out for a walk every day. She doesn’t mind (do)_____all her housework and she’s glad (help)_____ her elderly neighbors when they can’t (go)____to the shop. She’s too old (dig)_____the garden any more- she stopped (do)_____that last year- but she still healthy enough (mow)_____the glass! In the summer, she still goes (swim)____ when it’s warm and she lets her grandchildren (bury)_____her in the sand. She often says “ it’s no good (be)______ alive if you don’t enjoy yourself”. I’d love (be)____like my mother when I am in her age.
I’ve always wanted (go) ____to China and last year my dream came true. I love (travel)_____. The travel agent suggested (visit)_____ the Great Wall first. After (see) ______ Beijing, we flew to Canton because it’s too far (go)______ by train. I enjoyed (fly)______ over the fields and villages.
Thể Bị động (Passive Voice)
Là hình thức nhấn mạnh vào chủ thể chịu tác động của hành động (O) và bản thân hành động (V), ít quan tâm đến chủ thể gây ra hành động (S).
Notes: O phải là chủ thể chịu tác động của hành động
Ex: I gave my brother a picture ( my brother là chủ thể chịu tác động của hành động “gave”)
Nhưng “I have a brother” (a brother chỉ là một tân ngữ đơn thuần và không chịu tác động của hành động “have”)
Tân ngữ có 2 dạng:
Odirect: tân ngữ trực tiếp,thường là tân ngữ chỉ vật
Oindirect: tân ngữ gián tiếp, thường là tân ngữ chỉ người
Thông thường có kiểu câu
S+V+Od+giới từ+Oi: I bought a present for him
S+V+Oi+Od : I bought him a present
Ex: I gave him a gift
=> He was given a gift
A gift was given to him
Nếu chọn tân ngữ trực tiếp làm tân ngữ để chuyển từ câu chủ động sang câu bị động, phải chủ ý đến giới từ nối giữa “phân từ 2” và tân ngữ gián tiếp.
Một vài cụm động từ phổ biến:
Cause sb st => cause st to sb Write sb st => write st to sb
V: phải là động từ gây tác động cho tân ngữ, không nhất thiết phải là động từ chính của câu, nhưng phải thỏa mãn đồng thời 3 điều kiện : (1) là một động từ thường, (2) là một động từ hành động (phân biệt với động từ chỉ trạng thái, tri giác, cảm giác) ,(3) là một ngoại động từ (có tân ngữ)
S: nếu là các đại từ hoặc danh từ đại chúng, có thể bỏ “by S” trong cấu trúc câu bị động
Các bước chuyến câu chủ động sang câu bị động
Tìm O ở câu chủ động => chuyển thành S ở câu chủ động
Tìm V (động từ gây tác động cho O) => chuyển thành dạng PII và các thành phần đi kèm
Tìm S ở câu chủ động => biến đổi thành cấu trúc “by S” nếu cần
Cụ thể ta có các câu trúc câu bị động sau đây
Câu bị động thông thường
Công thức chung ta có : S + tobe +PII+ (by O)
Trong cấu trúc câu trên, S, PII, by O là thành phần cố định, tobe là biến thể và biến đổi theo thì
Thì hiên tại đơn giản có tobe là : am, is, are vì thế ta có cấu trúc câu bị đông như sau:
Tương tự như thế ta có công thức câu bị động ở các thì như sau:
Thì quá khứ đơn:
S+VQK+ O => S+was/were+ PII+ (by S) Ex: They buit that bridge in 1985=> That bridge was built in 1985
Thì hiện tại tiếp diễn
S+am/is/are+ Ving+ O => S+ am/is/are+being+PII+(by S)
Thì quá khứ tiếp diễn
S+ was/were+ Ving+ O => S + was/were+ being+ PII+ (by S)
Ex: At that time, they were building a bridge=> At that time, a bridge was being built.
Ex: They are building that bridge=> That bridge is being built
Thì hiện tại hoàn thành
S+has/have+PII+ O=> S+has/have+been+PII+ (by S)
Ex: They have just built a bridge=> A bridge has just been built
Thì quá khứ hoàn thành
S+had+PII+ O=> S+had+been+PII+ (by S)
Ex: They had built a bridge before spring came=> A bridge had been built before spring came
Thì tương lai đơn
S+will+V+O=> S+will+be+PII+ (by S)
Ex: they will build a new bridge in 2 years=> A new bridge will be built in 2 years
Các dạng bị động đặc biệt
Can do => can be done must do=> must be done ought to do=> ought to be done
Could do=> could be done have to do=> have to be done might do=> might be done
Should do=> should be done would do=> would be done
Ex: you must carry out this task immediately => this task must be carried out immediately
To do=> to be done
To be going to do=> to be going tobe done to be able to=> to be able to be done
Used to do=> used to be done seem/appear to do=> seem/appear to be done
Want/wish/would like/ would prefer sb to do st=> want st to be done
Ex: Tom used to hit me when I was small=> I used to be hit by Tom when I was small