TÀi liệu tham khảO Ôn thi tốt nghiệp tiếng anh lớP 12 I. Tenses a/ Lý thuyết 1


Bước 1: đọc cả bài tìm hiểu nội dung chính, cách tổ chức thông tin, thời gian (30 giây-1 phút) Bước 2



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Bước 1: đọc cả bài tìm hiểu nội dung chính, cách tổ chức thông tin, thời gian (30 giây-1 phút)

  • Bước 2: phân tích chỗ trống cần điền, phân tích đáp án cho sẵnloại đáp án sai, tìm đáp án đúng (3 phút-4 phút)

  • Bước 3: kiểm tra lại  tìm sai sót nếu có (30 giây-1 phút)

    CÁCH LÀM DẠNG BÀI CHỌN CÂU TRẢ LỜI ĐÚNG

    Dạng bài thứ hai trong phần kỹ năng đọc là bài đọc hiểu. Bài đọc hiểu của đề thi tốt nghiệp THPT có độ dài khoảng 200 từ, với 5 câu hỏi. Thời gian làm bài là khoảng 5 phút.

    Với những loại văn bản có nội dung, độ dài, độ khó khác nhau, với mục đích đọc khác nhau thì kỹ thuật làm bài đọc hiểu cũng khác nhau. Đối với bài đọc hiểu trong đề thi tốt nghiệp THPT, các em cần chú ý:



    1. Mục đích đọc là tìm thông tin để trả lời các câu hỏi cho trước, không phải là để học từ vựng, ngữ pháp, lại càng không phải là để hiểu hết tất cả các thông tin mà bài cung cấp

    2. Thí sinh phải làm bài trong điều kiện sức ép thời gian và không được sử dụng phương tiện hỗ trợ

    3. Nội dung thuộc một chủ đề quen thuộc nhưng bài có từ mới

    4. Bài đọc ngắn. Số lượng câu hỏi không quá nhiều.(5 câu hỏi)

    Với đặc điểm này, các em hãy luyện tập và làm bài theo các bước như sau:

    Dưới đây là 5 câu hỏi được sử dụng cho bài đọc hiểu trong đề thi tốt nghiệp THPT năm 2010.

    Các em hãy đọc nhanh các câu hỏi và đáp án cho sẵn, đồng thời trả lời các câu hỏi sau:


    1. Câu hỏi nào yêu cầu 1 thông tin chi tiết, cụ thể và chính xác

    2. Câu hỏi nào yêu cầu người đọc phải đọc, tổng hợp thông tin và suy luận câu trả lời.

    3. Câu hỏi nào yêu cầu đọc và tìm nội dung chính của bài

    4. Câu hỏi nào yêu cầu tìm nghĩa của từ trong ngữ cảnh.

    Các em có 30 giây đến 1 phút để thực hiện bước này. Trong bước này, các em chỉ tập trung vào phân tích câu hỏi, không cần chú ý đến các đáp án đã cho.

    Câu 1: ______ visit California’s national parks every year.
    Câu 2: California is divided into ______.
    Câu 3: What is Silicon Valley well known for?
    Câu 4: Which of the following is NOT in Southern California?

    Câu 5: Where are the desert areas found?

    Trong 5 câu hỏi trên, 4 câu hỏi (câu 1.2.3 và 5) yêu cầu người đọc tìm thông tin chi tiết để trả lời câu hỏi. Đối với dạng câu hỏi này, các em đọc nhanh từ đầu bài và tìm các từ khóa, chỉ rõ vị trí thông tin mình cần tìm, dừng lại ở vị trí có thông tin cần tìm, đọc kỹ câu và trả lời từng câu hỏi một.

    Câu 4 có thể là một câu hỏi thông tin chi tiết, nhưng cũng có thể là câu hỏi yêu cầu người đọc phải tổng hợp thông tin vì nó yêu cầu người đọc xác định cái gì không có ở Southern California, chứ không phải cái có ở đó.

    Với dạng câu hỏi tổng hợp thông tin và suy luận, các em phải tìm thông tin ở những phần khác nhau và kết hợp lại thì mới trả lời được câu hỏi.

    Bây giờ, chúng ta đọc bài và trả lời câu hỏi. Các từ khóa giúp xác định vị trí thông tin, chính là tên địa danh được nêu. Các em dùng bút chì để gạch dưới các thông tin được dùng để trả lời mỗi câu hỏi. Các em có 2-3 phút để làm phần này.
    Every year, millions of tourists visit California. California is known for its beautiful scenery, warm climate, and excellent food. There are twenty national parks in California, which over thirty million people visit every year. California also has many world-famous museums.
    The state is divided into two parts: Northern California and Southern California. San Francisco is in Northern California. It is surrounded by water on three sides and is a city with beautiful bays and several bridges. Its streets are always crowded with tourists. There is an area in the south of San Francisco that is famous for the computer industry; it is called Silicon Valley.

    Los Angeles, Hollywood, and Disneyland are all situated in Southern California. Southern California is known for its desert areas, which are sometimes next to snow-covered mountains. It is one of the few places in the world where you can ski in the morning and surf in the afternoon.



    Câu 1: ______ visit California’s national parks every year.
    A. Hundreds of millions of tourists B. Twenty million people
    C. Over thirty million people D. About thirty thousand tourists
    Câu 2: California is divided into ______.
    A. San Francisco and Hollywood B. Northern California and Southern California
    C. San Francisco and Los Angeles D. Hollywood and Disneyland
    Câu 3: What is Silicon Valley well known for?
    A. Beautiful scenery. B. The computer industry.
    C. Excellent food. D. Beautiful bays.
    Câu 4: Which of the following is NOT in Southern California?
    A. Los Angeles B. San Francisco C. Hollywood D. Disneyland
    Câu 5: Where are the desert areas found?
    A. Near Silicon Valley B. In San Francisco.
    C. In Southern California D. In Northern California.

    Đáp án:

    Every year, millions of tourists visit California. California is known for its beautiful scenery, warm climate, and excellent food. There are twenty national parks in California, which (1) over thirty million people visit every year. California also has many world-famous museums.


    The state is divided into two parts: (2) Northern California and Southern California. (4)San Francisco is in Northern California. It is surrounded by water on three sides and is a city with beautiful bays and several bridges. Its streets are always crowded with tourists. There is an area in the south of San Francisco that is (3) famous for the computer industry; it is called Silicon Valley.

    (4) Los Angeles, Hollywood, and Disneyland are all situated in Southern California. Southern



    (5) California is known for its desert areas, which are sometimes next to snow-covered mountains. It is one of the few places in the world where you can ski in the morning and surf in the afternoon.
    Câu 1: ______ visit California’s national parks every year.
    D. Over thirty million people
    Câu 2: California is divided into ______.
    C. Northern California and Southern California
    Câu 3: What is Silicon Valley well known for?
    A. The computer industry.

    Câu 4: Which of the following is NOT in Southern California?
    A. San Francisco.

    Câu 5: Where are the desert areas found?
    D. In Southern California.

    Cuối cùng, các em so sánh lại phần thông tin được gạch dưới với các đáp án đã chọn và kiểm tra một lần nữa xem lựa chọn của mình đã chính xác chưa. Với câu khó chưa tìm được đáp án, đây là lúc các em có thể tìm ra đáp án. Nếu vẫn không tìm được, bỏ qua.Các em có 30 giây đến 1 phút để làm phần này.


    Như vậy, cách làm bài đọc hiểu trong đề thi tốt nghiệp THPT gồm 3 bước:

    Bước 1: phân tích dạng câu hỏi và thông tin cần tìm (30 giây- 1 phút)

    Bước 2: đọc, xác định vị trí thông tin, trả lời câu hỏi (3 phút)

    Bước 3: kiểm tra lại đáp án và xử lý câu hỏi khó.(30 giây- 1 phút)
    Phương pháp luyện tập kỹ năng và làm bài này cũng có thể được được áp dụng với bài đọc hiểu trong đề thi tuyển sinh Đại học và Cao đẳng môn Tiếng Anh. Tuy nhiên, chúng ta cần lưu ý là bài đọc trong đề thi tuyển sinh đại học và cao đẳng dài gần gấp đôi (khoảng 400 từ) và cũng có số câu hỏi gấp đôi (10 câu), có dạng câu hỏi phong phú (3-4 dạng câu hỏi) hơn so với bài đọc trong đề thi tốt nghiệp THPT.

    B/ BÀI TẬP VẬN DỤNG

    Read the following passage taken from Microsoft Encarta and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word(s) for each of the blanks from 4 to 8.
    WHY DO ANIMALS GO EXTINCT?

    Different kinds of animals have appeared and disappeared throughout Earth’s history. Some animals go extinct because the climate (1)_______ they live changes. The climate may become wetter or drier. It may become warmer or cooler. If the animals cannot change, or adapt, to the new climate, they die.

    Some animals go extinct because thay cannot (2) _______ with other animals for food. Some animals go extinct because they are killed by enemies. New kinds of animals are always evolving. Evolving means that the animals are changing (3) _______ from generation to generation. Small differences between parents, children, and grandchildren slowly add up over many, many generations. Eventually, a different kind of animal evolves.

    Sometimes many of the animals on Earth go extinct at the (4) _______ time. Scientists call this a mass extinction. Scientists think there (5) _______ at least five mass extinctions in Earth’s history. The last mass extinction happened about 65 million years ago. This mass extinction killed off the dinosaurs.


    Question 1: A. where B. which C. when D. what

    Question 2: A. complete B. find C. compete D. exist

    Question 3: A. accidentally B. suddenly C. quickly D. slowly

    Question 4: A. same B. similar C. different D. various

    Question 5: A. has been B. have been C. will be D. are
    BODY LANGUAGE AND CULTURAL DIFFERENCES

    The body language people use often communicates more about their feelings than the words they are saying. We use body movements, hand gestures, facial expressions, and changes in our voice to communicate with each other. Although some body language is universal, many gestures are culturally specific and may mean different things in different countries.

    If you want to give someone the nod in Bulgaria, you have to nod your head to say no and shake it to say yes – the exact opposite of what we do! In Belgium, pointing with your index finger or snapping your fingers at someone is very rude.

    In France, you shouldn’t rest your feet on tables or chairs. Speaking to someone with your hands in your pockets will only make matters worse. In the Middle East, you should never show the soles of your feet or shoes to others as it will be seen as a grave insult. When eating, only use your right hand because they use their left hands when going to the bathroom.

    In Bangladesh, the ‘thumbs-up’ is a rude sign. In Myanmar, people greet each other by clapping, and in India, whistling in public is considered rude.

    In Japan, you should not blow your nose in public, but you can burp at the end of a meal to show that you have enjoyed it. The ‘OK’ sign (thumb and index finger forming a circle) means ‘everything is good’ in the West, but in China it means nothing or zero. In Japan, it means money, and in the Middle East, it is a rude gesture.


    Question 1: It is mentioned in the passage that many gestures __________

    1. may mean different things in different countries

    2. are not used to communicate our feelings

    3. can be used to greet each other in public

    4. are used in greeting among men and women

    Question 2: People nod their head to say no in __________

    1. Belgium B. Bulgaria C. France D. Japan

    Question 3: In the Middle East, people do not use their left hands for eating because they use their left hands ________

    A.when going to the bathroom B. when preparing the meal

    C.to put in their pockets D. to clean their tables and chairs

    Question 4: Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?


    1. In France, people shouldn’t rest their feet on tables.

    2. In Belgium, snapping your fingers at someone is very rude.

    3. In China, the ‘OK’ sign means money

    4. In Myanmar, people greet each other by clapping

    Question 5: The word “others” in paragraph 3 refers to __________

    1. other people B. other shoes C. other soles D. other feet


    Đọc kỹ đoạn văn sau và chọn phương án đúng nhất cho 5 câu sau.

    JOB INTERVIEW - SELLING YOURSELF

    When you apply for a job, one of the most important things is job interview. In order to make a good impression during a job interview, you need to prepare yourself for the interview carefully.

    Punctuation is very necessary. You should arrive in plenty of time so that you have a little of time to relax and keep calm before the interview.

    You should be well dressed. Do not wear a skirt which is too short or jeans. You also need to plan what you are going to say. You have to answer a lot of questions about your education and experience. You may be asked many things about yourself, and especially about the reason why you decide to apply for the job.

    You can ask the interviewer about the salary you expect, the position you are applying and the duties you have to do in the job.

    You also must try to find out as much as possible about the Company you want to work for.

    1. When you apply for a job ______

    A. job interview is not important. B. don't make any good impression.

    C. preparation is not necessary. D. interview is important for you to prepare.

    2. What about punctuation?

    A. Being late is all right B. You should arrive early enough to relax

    C. Punctuation is not important D. If you are late the interviewer will wait.

    3. What about clothes?

    A. You can wear whatever you like. B. You should be well dressed.

    C. Jeans are suggested. D. A short skirt makes you more attractive.

    4. You may be asked about ___________.

    A. your study B. the reason why you are interested in the job

    C. your experience D. All are correct

    5. You can ask the interviewer about _____

    A. the salary, position and duties

    B. the salary, position and his age

    C. the salary and the interviewer's education

    D. the salary, the interviewer's family and his duties.


    Đọc kỹ đoạn văn sau và chọn phương án đúng nhất cho 5 chỗ trống sau.

    Forests are useful to Man in several ways. Wood is always necessary for building and for making all kinds of things and we usually need firewood in our homes. Forests provide timber, one of the most (1) ………… resources, but they must be used wisely and managed (2) ………… . Men should control the cutting of trees in such a way that the forest grows more trees (3) ….…… it would be cut, leaving the young ones to grow bigger. Trees and shrubs are also needed to preserve land (4) ..………… their roots bind the soil, preventing heavy rain (5) ………… washing the soil away.



    1. A. valuable B. reasonable C. comfortable D. famous

    2. A. good B. widely C. nicely D. carefully

    3. A. as B. than C. then D. that

    4. A. because B. because of C. but D. and

    5. A. in B. with C. from D. at
    Choose the item (A, B, C or D) that best completes the unfinished statement (or best answers the question) about each passage.

    The 23rd Southeast Asian Games were held in the Philippines from November 27th to December 5th in 2005. The games were participated by the eleven nations of Southeast Asia. This was the first time that the opening and closing ceremonies were held in a large open field, despite the fact that Manila has many stadiums. The organization decided to hold the games at an open space to accommodate the large number of participants and spectators. As a result, the 2005 SEA Games ranked as having the largest audience - 200,000 people – during the opening and closing ceremonies. These games were also noted for having the most number of delegates in the history of the SEA Games. In the end, all participating countries received medals.

    Events in men's football actually started on November 20th, prior to the opening ceremony. Water polo events began on November 21st, women's football on November 23rd, sailing on November 26th, and tennis on November 26th;

    The first gold medal of the games was awarded to Singapore on November 25th when their water polo team came out undefeated during the round-robin tournament round. The Philippine team took the silver medal in that event, and Malaysia brought home the bronze.

    The Games were also considered a valuable opportunity for athletes to gain competition experience and preparation for the upcoming Asian Games and Olympic Games. It was purposely created to strengthen friendship, solidarity and understanding among neighboring countries in the region.

    This was the third SEA Games to be hosted by the Philippines. The last two times the Philippines hosted the games were in 1981, and again in 1991.

    There were 1,461 medals awarded, 444 of which were gold, 434 were silver, and 583 were bronze.

    1. Up to now, the Philippines has hosted the SEA Games _______ times.

    A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 5

    2. According to the first paragraph, _______.

    A. the opening and closing ceremonies were hold in the stadiums of Manila

    B. only four of eleven participating countries got medals

    C. the 23rd SEA Games had been over by the end of November, 2005

    D. the number of audience in the 23rd SEA Games was about 200,000 people

    3. Which sport was first competed in the 23rd SEA Games?

    A. Water polo B. Tennis C. Men's football D. Sailing

    4. Which was not mentioned in the 23rd SEA Games?

    A. Peace B. Friendship C. Solidarity D. Understanding

    5. Which country got the first gold medal in the 23rd SEA Games?

    A. Vietnam B. Singapore C. The Philippines D. Malaysia


    V. Choose the word or phrase (A, B, C, or D) that best fits each space in the following passage.

    Thanks giving is a national holiday in the United States which (1) ______ the bountiful crop harvested by the Pilgrims in 1621 (2) ______a winter of starvation. It's a day of feasting and giving thanks. This (3) _______of celebrating Thanksgiving has continued through the years. On November 26th, 1789, President George Washington proclaimed the First National Thanksgiving Day. In 1863 President Lincoln revived the custom. Since then each president has (4)_______a Thanksgiving Day proclamation, usually designating the fourth Thursday of November (5) _______the holiday.


    1. A. organizes B. memorizes C. celebrates D. marks

    2. A. as B. for C. with D. after

    3. A. custom B. habit C. experience D. work

    4. A. published B. issued C. gave D. produced

    5. A. as B. like C. of D. for
    Choose the item (A, B, C or D) that best completes the unfinished statement (or best answers the question) about each passage.

    The nuclear family, consisting of a mother, father, and their children, may be more an American ideal than an American reality. Of course, the so-called traditional American family was always more varied than we had been led to believe, reflecting the very different racial, ethnic, class, and religious customs among different American groups.

    The most recent government statistics reveal that only about one third of all current American families fit the traditional mold and another third consists of married couples who either have no children or have none still living at home. Of the final one third, about 20 percent of the total number of American households are single people, usually women over sixty-five years of age. A small percentage, about 3 percent of the total, consists of unmarried people who choose to live together; and the rest, about 7 percent are single, usually divorced parents, with at least one child. Today, these varied family types are typical, and therefore, normal. Apparently, many Americans are achiev­ing supportive relationships in family forms other than the traditional one.

    41.With what topic is the passage mainly concerned?

    A. The traditional American family B. The nuclear family

    C. The current American family D. The ideal family

    42.The writer implies that _____.

    A. there have always been a wide variety of family arrangement in the United States

    B. racial, ethnic, and religious groups have preserved the traditional family structure

    C. the ideal American family is the best structure

    D. fewer married couples are having children

    43.The word 'current' in line 7 could best be replaced by which of the following?

    A. typical B. present C. perfect D. traditional

    44. In the passage, married couples whose children have grown or who have no children represent _____.

    A. 1/3 percent of households B. 20 percent of households

    C. 7 percent of households D. 3 percent of households

    45.Who generally constitutes a one-person household?

    A. A single man in his twenties B. An elderly man

    C. A single woman in her late sixties D. A divorced woman
    V. Choose the word or phrase (A, B, C, or D) that best fits each space in the following passage.

    In an age when technology is developing faster than ever before, many people are being (36) _____ to the idea of looking back into the past. One way they can do this is by investigating their own family history. They can try to (37) _____ out more about where their families came from and what they did. This is now a fast-growing hobby, especially in countries with a (38) _____ short history, like Australia and the United States. It is one thing to spend some time (39) _____ through a book on family history and to take the (40) _____ to investigate your own family's past. It is quite another to carry out the research work successfully.

    46. A. pushed B. attracted C. brought D. considered

    47 A. lay B. make C. put D. find

    48 A. fairly B. greatly C. mostly D. widely

    49 A. seeing B. moving C. going D. living

    50 A. idea B. plan C. purpose D. decision

    IVX. PRACTICAL TESTS

    (Đề thực hành)
    ĐỀ SỐ 1

    Họ và tên học sinh: ______________________________ Điểm:

    Lớp: 12_____

    Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions.

    Question 1: In some cultures, it is polite to raise one’s hand to _____ attention.

    A. hold B. cause C. have D. attract



    Question 2: The long dark days and lack of a job made him feel _____.

    A. excited B. satisfied C. interested D. depressed



    Question 3: It is not easy to _____ our beauty when we get older and older.

    A. develop B. maintain C. gain D. collect



    Question 4: People often _____ confidence when they are criticized.

    A. lose B. fail C. drop D. omit



    Question 5: Because the vase is very fragile, it must be handled with _____.

    A. care B. caring C. careful D. carefully



    Question 6: We _____ Katherine since last Saturday.

    A. don’t see B. haven’t seen C. didn’t see D. hadn’t seen



    Question 7: Tom _____ football when he was a little boy.

    A. was playing B. had played C. played D. has played



    Question 8: When I returned, I found that my car _____ away.

    A. had been pulling B. has been pulling C. has been pulled D. had been pulled



    Question 9: I advised her _____ anything about it to her friends.

    A. not saying B. saying C. not say D. not to say



    Question 10: I don’t enjoy _____ care of as if I were a child.

    A. taking B. being taken C. to take D. to be taken



    Question 11: Jane’s glasses are on the desk, so she _____ be here.

    A. will B. shall C. ought D. must





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