TÀi liệu tham khảO Ôn thi tốt nghiệp tiếng anh lớP 12 I. Tenses a/ Lý thuyết 1



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Câu điều kiện loại 3

Công thức




If + subject + simple past perfect tense

Subject + would have PII

( other modal verbs like could, might can be used)



Mệnh đề If

Mệnh đề chính

Cách dùng: Dùng để diễn tả những sự việc không thể xảy ra trong quá khứ, mang tính ước muốn trong quá khứ ( nhưng thực tế không thể xảy ra)


Ví dụ:

If you had saved your money, you could have bought a computer



Câu điều kiện loại zero:

Công thức



If + subject + present simple tense

S present simple tense

Mệnh đề If

Mệnh đề chính

Cách dùng: thường được sử dụng để chỉ sực thật hiển nhiên

Ví dụ: If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils
Chú ý: Unless = If............ not
B/ Bài tập vận dụng

1/Put the verb into the correct form.



    1. If the earth suddenly ______ (stop) spinning we all ______ (fly) off it.

    2. If you ______ (smoke) in a non-smoking compartment the other passengers ______ (object).

    3. If she ______ (not/ fail) one of her final exams she wouldn't have had to spend part of the summer in college.

    4. I’ll lend you War and Peace if I ____ (finish) it before you go on holiday.

    5. If we ______ (work) all night we ______ (finish) in time; but we have no intention of working all night.



2/ Choose the one word or phrase -a, b, c, or d- that best completes the sentences.

  1. If the technology _______ available, we would be able to expand the business.

    A. would become

    B. had become

    C. were become

    D. became

  2. If the North Sea _______ in winter, you could walk from London to Oslo.

    A. freeze

    B. froze

    C. should freeze

    D. should happen to freeze

  3. It would have been a much more serious accident _____ fast at the time.

A. was she driving

B. If she had been driving

C. she had driven

D. if she drove

4. I'll give you a lift if it _______.

A. rains

B. rained

C. will rain

D. had rained

5.They couldn't decide _______ it was worth re-sitting the exam or not .

A. if

B. whether

C. if or not

D. whether not

6. _______ how difficult the job was, I mightn't have taken it.

A. If I know

B. If I would know

C. Did I know

D. If I had known

7.If____ in my seventies and rather unfit, I might consider taking up squash.

A. not were

B. is not

C. were not

D. had not been

8. If I________ apologise, he ___________ forgive me.

A. don’t/ won’t

B. won’t/ doesn’t

C. didn’t/ wouldn’t

D. wouldn’t/ didn’t

9. John said that if he __________ in my position, he ____________ for the job

A. is/ will apply

B. were/ would apply

C. had been/ would have apply

D. is/ would apply

10 Unless you ___________ all of my questions, I can’t do anything to help you

A. answered

B. answer

C. would answer

D. are answering


3/ Find a mistake in the four underlined parts of each sentence and correct it.
1. If anyone phoned while I am out, tell them I’ll be back in a few minutes.

A B C D


2. If he had not been resigned, we would have been forced to sack him.

A B C D


3. If Rudy would have studied German in college, he would not have found the scientific

A B C


terminology so difficult to understand

D

4. Jane would have joined a music band if her parents allowed her to



A B C D

5. We will tell Joe to call you while we see him tomorrow

A B C D
VII. RELATIVE CLAUSES
A. Lý thuyết

1. Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định và mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định

Trong Tiếng Anh, dùng đại từ quan hệ để nối các câu đơn thành câu phức tạo ra mệnh đề phụ tính ngữ. Mệnh đề này được gọi là mệnh đề quan hệ. Có mệnh đề quan hệ xác định, mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định và mệnh đề nối tiếp.







Restrictive/ Defining relative clauses

Non-restrictive/ Non-defining relative clauses

Dạng và cấu trúc

Không có dấu phẩy chia tách danh từ/ đại từ với mệnh đề

Có dấu phẩy chia tách danh từ/ đại từ với mệnh đề

Chức năng năng

Miêu tả/ xác định cho danh từ/ đại từ phía trước

Bổ sung thêm thông tin cho danh từ/đại từ phía trước

Đặc điểm khác

Đại từ quan hệ tân ngữ có thể được lược bỏ

Đại từ quan hệ tân ngữ không thể được lược bỏ

Các từ chỉ quan hệ

Who, that, which

Who(m), that, which

Whose, of which

When, where, why



Who, which

Who(m), which

Whose, of which

When, w here




2. Giới từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ

* Cuối M ĐQH: dùng được với tất cả ĐTQH ( that, whom, who, which) đồng thời cũng có thể bỏ ĐTQH.



E.g: The room( which/that) the meeting was held in is very small.

* Đầu M ĐQH:

Có thể chuyển giới từ lên trước ĐTQH, nhưng chỉ dùng được which (for things), whom not who (for persons) và không được lược bỏ ĐTQH

The room in which the meeting was held was very small

+ Đối với MDQH ko xđ ta ko dùng that, và không thể bỏ ĐTQH làm tân ngữ.



John, with whom Ann goes out, is a nice person

John, whom Ann goes out with, is a nice person.

3. Đại từ quan hệ được thay thế bởi đông tính từ (hiện tại, quá khứ) và to V.

a. Động tính từ hiện tại

Noun + Who/ Which + V2 (active)

Noun + V-ing –phrase
Eg 1: The boy who is playing with the dog is Nam’s brother.

=> The boy playing with the dog is Nam’s brother.


b. Động tính từ quá khứ

Noun + Who/ Which – be +P2 (passive)



Noun + P2 –phrase
Eg1: The girl who was injured in the accident is now in hospital.

=> The girl injured in the accident is now in hospital.



c. To V

The first/second/…(N) + Who/ Which + V2...

The first/second/…(N) + to V/ to be Vp2

Eg1: Who was the first man that stepped on the Moon?

=> Who was the first man to step on the Moon?

Notes:

+ We can use an infinitive to replace a relative clause.

+ We often use an infinitive after an ordinal number.

+ After next, last, only, after.

+ After a superlative adjective.
B. Bài tập vận dụng

Exercise 1: Rewrite the following sentences using relative pronouns.


  1. We talk about the party. Sarah wants to organise the party for my birthday.

We talk about the party which/ that/ Ø Sarah wants to organise for my birthday.

  1. To get to Frank's house, take the main road. It bypasses the village.

To get to Frank's house, take the main road which/ that bypasses the village.

  1. Mr. Flowers has the paintings in his house. They are worth around £100,000.

The paintings which/ that/ Ø Mr Flowers has in his house are worth around £100,000.

  1. Mrs. Richmond is 42. He has three children.

Mrs Richmond, who is 42, has three children.

5. Don is a friend. I stayed with him in Australia.

Don is a friend who(m)/ that/ Ø I stayed with in Australia

Exercise 2: Choose the best answer.

  1. Post office is a place ______ you can buy stamps, mail letters and packages, and receive mail.

A. that B. which C. where D. in which

  1. Do you know the date ______ we have to hand in the essay?

A. which B. in which C. on that D. when

  1. My uncle ______ you met yesterday is a lawyer.

A. which B. who C. whose D. to whom

  1. The council is in discussion with Lord Thomas, ____ land most of the village is built on.

A. who B. whom C. whose D. that

  1. These adults, ______ come to my night class, are very eager to learn.

A. whose B. who C. that D. when
Exercise 3: Choose word or phrase - A, B, C or D – that needs correcting.


  1. Now that I no longer have to wear uniform, I'll be able to wear which I want

A B C D

  1. Ripe fruit is often stored in a place who contains much carbon dioxide

A B C

so that the fruit will not decay too rapidly.

D

3. Dr Harder, that is the professor for this class, will be absent this week



A B C

because of illness.

D

4. The man, of whom the red car is parked in front of our house, is a



A B C D

prominent physician in this town.

5. The legal age which a person is considered to be an adult is customarily 18

A B C D


VIII. COMPARISONS
A. Lý thuyết


Equality

Equality

as +adj./adv. +as



Unequality

not as/ not so+adj./adv. +as



Superiority

Short adj./ adv.

adj./adv. +er than



Long adj./adv.

more adj./adv. than



Irregular adj. and adv.

- Good/well →better →best

- Bad/badly →worse →worst

- Many/much →more →most

- Little/ a little →less →least

- Far →farther→ farther

→further →further


less adj./adv. Than

Superlative

the adj./adv. +est

the most adj./adv.







The least adj./adv.

Double comparison

Short adj./ adv.

Adj./adv + er adj./adv. +er



Long adj./adv.

more and more adj./adv.

less and less adj./adv.








The +clause + The + Clause.






B. Bài tập vận dụng

Exercise 1: Rewrite the following sentences in the way they have the same meaning with the original.

1. Driving a car is more difficult than a motorbike.

2. Going to the theatre is more expensive than going to the cinema.

3. You don’t work as hard as your brother.

4. English people drink more tea than American people.

5. The journey was longer than I expected.



Exercise 2: Choose the best answer.

  1. My neighbor is driving me mad! It seems that _______ it is at night, _______ he plays his music!

A. the less / the more loud B. the less / less

C. the more late / the more loudlier D. the later / the louder



  1. Thanks to the progress of science and technology, our lives have become _______.

A. more and more good B. better and better

C. the more and more good D. gooder and gooder



  1. The Sears Tower is _______ building in Chicago.

A. taller B. the more tall C. the tallest D. taller and taller

  1. Petrol is _______ it used to.

A. twice as expensive as B. twice expensive more than

C. twice more than expensive D. more expensive than twice



  1. Peter is _______ John.

A. younger and more intelligent than B. more young and intelligent than

C. more intelligent and younger than D. the more intelligent and younger than


Exercise 3: Choose word or phrase - A, B, C or D – that needs correcting.

1. He finds physics many more difficult than other science subjects.

A B C D

2. The more he drank, more violent he became.



A B C D

3. Mary was the cleverest of the two sisters.

A B C D

4. French is a more and more difficult language to learn than English is.

A B C D

5. The cuisine of France is famous than the cuisine of England.

A B C D
IX. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

A/ Lý thuyết

1.Adv clause of time

Clause 1

T.lai/ T.lai tiếp diễn

TLHT/TLHTTD

H.tại


H.tại h.thành

H.tại/H.tại tiếp diễn

QK

QKTD/QK


QKHT

QKHTTD


QKHT

when

as

while/ whereas

until

till

as soon as

before

after

once

the moment

by the time

since

whenever

as long as

Hardly ….when

Scarely…when

No sooner…than

everytime

Clause 2

H.tại/HTHT


H.tại

QK

H.tại tiếp diễn



QK

QK/ QKTD


QKHT

QK

QK



2.Adv clause of cause

Clause 1

because/ since/ as

seeing that/ now that

for

Clause 2


3.Adv clause of place


Clause 1

where

wherever

Clause 2


4. Adv clause of contrast


Clause 1

although

though

eventhough

even if

however +adj./adv./N

whatever +S/O

no matter how +adj./ adv./V

no matter what +S/ O

Clause 2


5. Adv clause of purpose

Clause 1

so that

in order that

lest (để không, để khỏi, kẻo)

Clause 2

V: can/could/may/might/will/ would/should +V


  1. Adv clause of result




Clause 1

so

so that

Clause 2


Eg.

He has been working since early morning so he feels tired now.

so +adj/ adv. + that + clause 2

such + N + that + clause 2.

so many + N (đếm được) + that + clause 2

so much + N (không đếm được) + that + clause 2


Lưu ý: Nếu động từ trong mệnh đề chính là các động từu chỉ tri giác như “look, appear, seem, feel, taste, smell, sound…”, ta dùng công thức như “be+so…”

Eg. The little girl looks so unhappy that we all feel sorry for her.

The soup tastes so good that everyone will ask for more.



7.Adv clause of comparison


Clause 1

as

as…as

more…than

Clause 2



8. Adv clause of manner

Clause 1

as if

as though

Clause 2



It isn’t as if + clause 2

(đâu phải) (V lùi 1 thì→không thật)

B. Bài tập vận dụng

Exercise1 : Use a clause of purpose to combine each pair of sentences below.

1. My father drove carefully. He didn’t want to cause accident.

→My father drove carefully so that he wouldn’t cause accident.

2. Please shut the door . I don’t want the dog to go out of the house.

→Please shut the door so that the dog won’t go out of the house.


  1. She needs job. She wants to support her old parents.

→She needs a job so that she will support her old parents.

  1. The boy stood on the benches. He wanted to get a better view.

→The boy stood on the benches so that he could get a better view.

  1. I whispered. I didn’t want to disturb anyone.

→I whispered so that I wouldn’t disturb anyone.

Exercise 2: Choose word or phrase - A, B, C or D – that needs correcting.

1. Yesterday I had so much things to do that I can’t go out.

A B C D

2. It isn’t as if I was a child.

A B C D

3. He is most handsome than I’ve thought.

A B C D

4. She is so famous person that everybody knows her.



A B C D

5. He speaks English so quick that we can’t understand.

A B C D




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