The improving hydropower decision making processes in the Mekong Basin

tải về 380.2 Kb.
Chuyển đổi dữ liệu26.09.2016
Kích380.2 Kb.
  1   2   3
Final Report

I. Summary

In the framework of the project "The improving hydropower decision making processes in the Mekong Basin", in 2012 and 2013, WARECOD conducted research to find the improvements as well as the limitations of hydropower decision making process in Vietnam, taking evidences from two case-studies, Yali Fall Dam and Pleikrong Hydropower. The key message of this research is "Changes in hydropower decision making processes in Vietnam bring both improvements and new problems", which points out ten main issues: the coordination in making plans between sectors of consuming energy and providing energy, the role of investors, the participation of stakeholders, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, compensation and resettlement, fulfilling commitments, project operation, priority given to key national projects, river basin, and reviewing hydropower projects (the details can be seen in the section II). Some recommendations were also given to the three key stakeholders (governmental agencies, local authorities and investors).

To revise the research results and to bring the attention of this project to the media (journalists and artists)regarding the current situation, WARECOD organized a field trip with two journalists and a photographer to the study site (Kon Tum province). After the field trip, to attract the attention of public on hydropower development in Vietnam, the photos showing partly the research findings, which were taken in Kon Tum province, were displayed in the photo exhibition in Hanoi for five days. Six main themes were shown in the photo exhibition: blocked rivers, empty houses, gaps in mechanism, empty work lists, empty hydropower dams, destroyed forest. There were both Vietnamese and foreign people visiting the exhibition, fourteen of them shared their thoughts about it. The exhibition was also announced on Vietnamese television broadcast and in several newspapers.

During the exhibition, WARECOD organized a dialogue with students from different university in Hanoi. The aim of this dialogue was to raise the awareness of young generation about what happens in reality surrounding a hydropower project. The topics for the discussion were also the same with the themes of photo exhibition. There were a total of 53 students and teachers participating the dialogue.

In order to to raise awareness about hydropower development to the public, we held another dialogue session among different related stakeholders to share the research results. The participants came from governmental agencies, consultation agencies, institutes, universities, NGOs and the press. There was 53 participants in total. There were 11 people sharing information, giving comments and sharing their thought during the discussion. The results of dialogue were posted in different websites and online-newspapers.

Finally, based on the study, WARECOD took in charge of one chapter in a book that consists of key findings of six partners in the whole project. The title of the book chapter is "Rethinking development narratives on hydropower in Vietnam". The book will be published by CPWF in 2014. Besides, to disseminate the results, WARECOD will produce a book with the title of “Decision making process of hydropower projects in Vietnam and its consequences” based on this research and other related studies of VRN's members.

II. Key messages and research findings

The aim of this project is to find out shortcomings/limitations as well as improvement in decision making process in Vietnam with evidences taken mostly from Yali Fall Dam and Pleikrong hydropower. These issues are highlighted as follows:

1. The coordination in making plans between sectors of consuming energy and providing energy

The plans for sectors (energy-intensive consumes) and hydropower are often implemented without coordination and scientific scheme. Most of the sectorial plans (such as plans for industry, agriculture, and tourism) have targeted to increase the output without taking into account the sectorial energy demand and the plans of energy use for specific sectors. The increased pressure on the power sector in order to achieve the objectives of growth in other sectors has made the Government’s decision-making process biased towards hydropower investors in order to accelerate the approval of these projects. As a result, some privileges have been given to EVN (as mentioned in the Master Plan in 2001 - 2010), such as:

o To be allowed to bypass the pre-feasibility study for a number of EVN’s projects;

o To be allowed to appoint a home consultant as the principal consultant for projects of power sources and grids;

o Commercial banks are allowed to grant loan of over 15% of their equity capital to the EVN for its power projects if these projects are deemed to be efficient and receive the approval of competent authorities for the feasibility study report.

2. The role of investors in the decision-making process for hydropower projects

The existing regulations for the decision-making process have greatly empowered investors after they receive investment approval. It gives investors full powers to decide the technical design and monitor the quality of construction and project execution. This has brought about unfortunate consequences of several hydroelectric projects such as the dam breaking of Dak Mek 3 and Ia Krel 2, earthquake simulation of Song Tranh 2. For Pleikrong HP, investor (EVN) changed the project design from 110MW to 100MW of installed capacity without informing the Prime Minister. The approval of budget as well as construction unit prices were also delayed for three and one year respectively, which violates the related laws.

In addition to be given more power during designing, constructing and operating phases, investors also can change the hydropower plan. This plan is officially made by governmental offices however, it is likely to adjust and supplement planning. Thus, the plans would be easily amended mostly in favor of investors. The continuous adjustment and supplement of planning demonstrates the evidence for the poor quality of planning, without surveys and thorough consultations before granting approval. Adjusting and supplementing the hydropower plans unremittingly is completely contrary to the basic criteria of hard infrastructure plan approved by the Government, which is the fact that "The plans for development of infrastructural sectors shall be called "hard" planning which is oriented for 20 years or farther and shall have long-term stability and be highly bound.”

3. The participation of stakeholders

The participation of agencies, media and civil society organizations in the decision-making process for hydropower development have increasingly improved, especially since receiving international funding and consultation from ADB or Work Bank. Different from Yali Falls dam, there were many articles raising the problems caused by Pleikrong dam. That also contributed to increasing more studies on dam issues by non-governmental organizations and researchers problems. As mentioned in the Law on Environmental Protection in 2005, more attention was paid to the participation of the community (which was not mentioned in the former Law in 1993). In particular, Article 20 of this Law stated that “the EIA report must receives comments of People’s Committees of communes, wards, towns and representatives of the community where the projects carried out”. Article 22 of the Law on Environmental Protection 2005 also determines the agency approving the EIA report shall consider the complaints and petitions of the concerned communities, organizations and individuals before granting approval.

However, there is no legal document to guide how an individual or an organization can give petitions. Interviews with officials of several ministries and researchers in related areas also revealed their unspecified role. Sinh (2008) also mention in his research before approving the national electricity strategy that there is little evidence of open discussion involving civil society, non-governmental organizations, research institutions research, policy peer-reviewers and the home media.

The decision-making process for hydropower development as suggested by Tu (2010) remains a top-down model. The discussion with relevant ministries also reveals that once the EVN’s state-funded hydropower projects obtain approval in guideline, all of the other formalities will hardly be rejected.

4. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Although MONRE has main responsibility of assessing the potential environmental impacts of large hydroelectric dams, it does not have much power as the dams are built and operated. Due to a large number of hydropower projects, there is not enough manpower and funding to monitor all of these projects to make sure they follow the guidelines of the EIA. Only the key national projects and hydropower projects have a serious violation that shall be directly examined by the MONRE’s surveyors.

Decommissioning is also not mentioned in any hydropower projects. This is the gap of the appraisal process, causing limitations in cost-benefit analysis and eliminating impacts caused by this process such as changes in ecology, flows, and reservoir. Another important problem in the EIA report is to assess the impact of biodiversity. Most of hydropower projects are located in the region where there are special use forests that have high biological diversity. In the opinion of the Department of Environmental Appraisal and Impact Assessment, the assessment of biodiversity in the EIA report is in fact not as good as the other contents. The results of evaluation remain vague and unclear, lacking in-depth scientific reviews and mainly the subjective assessment without specific figures.

It also shows that the policies related to SEA and EIA are only issued and put into execution as a series of plans and hydropower projects have been approved or under construction long before. The provision of the SEA report was introduced when the national hydropower plan had been made previously for decades, or when MONRE and policy makers realized the strong impacts of small hydropower on the environment and the society and wanted to amend the Law on Environmental Protection (stating SEA report as an obligation for small and medium hydropower planning).Small and medium hydropower planning had been approved also for decades and many project has been in operation, under construction and approved.

5. Compensation and resettlement

Prior to the issue of 1993 Law on Land, all of the land issues were solved by applying the ‘proposing-granting’ mechanism or recovering land without the regulated prices. The introduction of Land Laws afterward have created a legal framework for civil transactions and recognized land as a special commodity with value. Therefore, the compensation is based on regulated prices in provinces. Yali Falls dam was the first project applying these resettlement policies, although level and scope of compensation were limited compared to those of later policies. Affected people of the Yali Fall project were only given 1000m2 for residential land and no land for production, while those affected by Pleikrong HP were given 400m2 of residential land and about 10,000m2 of production land. At that time compensation, land was only given to people who had legal documents. Up to now, the policies about giving compensation have changed for those living on undisputed land no matter whether they had legal title to the land or not.

However, the prices calculated by the provinces are in fact much lower than the actual market prices for land transfer ranging from 20% to 70% of the market prices. The value of land does not take culture, religious and societal issues into account either. The change in responsibility for the resettlement from investors (Yali Falls dam case) to the People Committees at province and district levels (Pleikrong HP) has brought about concerns also. Firstly, as investors taking no charge of resettlement, they will have no disincentive to speed up the process. Besides, the growing demand for electricity also has created top-down pressure on the agencies responsible for the resettlement in order to rush the implementation of project. The mistakes in the resettlement are therefore obviously unavoidable. The limited quality of resettlement plans was based on careless surveys and consultation with local authorities and functional offices. Although irrigation systems were built in relocated communes by Yali Fall and Pleikrong HPs (Sa Binh and Ho Moong), they either do not work or work inefficiently (they can provide water for only host villagers but not resettled people). The same problems happen to other infrastructures such as water wells, latrines. Therefore, post-resettlement of HP is still persistent problems, especially employment and poverty reduction issues.

6. Fulfilling commitments

Most hydropower projects are involved in the deforestation for construction and water retention. In the EIA reports, investors are committed to reforestation for the demolished area of forest. However, interviews with the MARD and the MONRE and local officials in KonTum province shows that the reforestation is an impossible task. In practice, it is very difficult to find enough land for investors to afforest, which remains the unfinished task of the EIA reports for most projects.

Most investors when implementing construction, are in violation of regulations to protect the environment because related regulations aren’t stern and fines are not high enough to limit these issues. The actual forest area cut down by Pleikrong HP project was higher than the number written in EIA because of creating more production land. The resettlement land planned for 42 households in Ho Moong commune was limited in size as well as quality therefore, a new site taken from deforestation was chosen.

7. Project operation

All hydropower projects applying for investment licenses are targeted to control drought in the dry season and flood during the rainy season. However, the process of monitoring the implementation of this target remains an unsolved problem. Recently, Song Ba Ha Hydropower JSC did not have flood discharge following the process of pan-reservoir operation, while there was no timely report to the PPC of Phu Yen province either, causing severe flood downstream and difficulties for the people’s lives.

Similarly, the prevention of drought and flood discharge of operating hydropower projects leads to a lot of problems between investors and the local authorities. Hydropower projects must comply with the process of operating the reservoir to ensure the flow of the river and minimize the negative socio-economic and environmental impacts. However, once coming into operation, this is not an easy task to do because the investors want their projects to operate most effectively, which certainly conflicts with local people’s interests of agricultural production and water for their daily life. Hence, the disagreement between investors and local people remain frequent. For example, the Dak Mi 4 hydropower plant in the upstream of Vu Gia River hardly discharges water which causes drought in the two provinces of Quang Nam and Da Nang in early 2013. These two provinces had to request for a discussion with the representatives of the MARD and the investor.

Incorrect dead water level of Pleikrong hydropower reservoir caused crops of local people being flooded and now local people are trying to claim compensation for their flooded crops. Ka Bay village had moved two times by Yali and Pleikrong hydropower projects. These cases express the impact on people’s life by the plant operation and also the mistakes in resettlement planning and technical design.

8. Priority given to key national projects

Concerning key national projects where the state plays the role as an investor (the case of the EVN) in this case, the National Assembly is the most important stakeholder. If the National Assembly does not grant approval, the project shall not be implemented. If the National Assembly passed the project, the Government shall direct departments and agencies to complete the project profile. All of large-scale projects approved by the National Assembly are progressed very quickly and smoothly as the cases of Yali Falls dam and Pleikrong. For national projects by private companies as investors, if they do not abide by the laws and regulations, they shall be subjected to discussion and prolonged evaluation.

9. River basin

Although hydropower development in Vietnam has been an issue for a long time, river basins do not have SEA (except for Vu Gia - Thu Bon and Dong Nai river basin). It is due to the fact that the requirement for SEA is only stated from Environmental Protection Law in 2005.

Decision making hydropower development in almost all river basins in Vietnam are moving forward at a rapid a pace and too large a scale. This haste is unmanageable given current capacities, and brings with it many risks of serious irreversible environmental, social and economic harm. In Se San river basin, 1,539 ha of the key biodiversity area will be inundated by the project’s reservoir and the zone of influence will affect a further 62,446 ha from hydropower development too much (6 large and around 90 small-medium dams).

10. Hydropower review

Under the circumstance of uncontrolled hydropower development and its safety, hydropower projects, especially small size ones, have been reviewed in 2013. Compared to the planning review in 2010, an additional 221 projects were removed at the planning stage, 13 potential projects will not be invested and 193 projects were added to the review list.

III. List of outputs and outcomes with links to each output

Output Type (see above)

Reference (Author, year, title/ output name, etc.)

Target audience (as in OLM)

How disseminated / promoted / used

Any feedback on its use, or how monitored/ evaluated


Book chapter (peer-reviewed)

Dao, 2013, Rethinking some development narratives on hydropower in Vietnam

MK team, researchers

Showing the key research findings in the case-studies of Vietnam, which can be lesson-learnt for other countries in the MK region


WARECOD, 2014. Decision making process of hydropower projects in Vietnam and its consequences

Researchers, NGOs, Institutes in Vietnam

Distributed in workshop, meetings

This book will summarize the hydropower development in Vietnam. The evidences will be taken from the research results and other related studies conducted by VRN members. There will be 200 copies


WARECOD, 2013, Annual report, Mid-year report, Final report

MK team, researchers

Uploaded in CPWF website

Showing the progress, results, lesson-learnt and planning of activities in the project conducted by WARECOD

Multi-stakeholders dialogue with minutes taken

Dialogue on Water - Energy - Life , November, 2013

Governmental officials, Researchers, Reporters, NGOs, foreigners

News on media, Email, and requests for information, Questionnaire

To share research results, to raise existing issues related to hydropower development in Vietnam and to share ideas among participants who are central governmental officials, investors, researchers, NGOs (both VNGOs and INGOs) and media. There were three main issues raised in the dialogue, namely the procedure of hydropower development in Vietnam (see Appendix 1), the operation process of inter-reservoirs and dam decommissioning.

There were 53 people participating in the dialogue on the 27th of November.

(The list of participants and agenda of dialogue can been seen in the Appendix 5)

Dialogue with students

Listen from the gaps, November, 2013

Students, teachers

A follow-up forum


To raise awareness of young generation on Hydropower development in Vietnam through sharing of four speakers (two researchers, a photographer and a journalist).

The dialogue was held on 24th of November in the exhibition house.

The participants were 53 students and teachers of different universities (Hanoi University of Agriculture, Thang Long University, Hanoi University of Natural Resources and Environment and Water Resources University).

(The list of participants and agenda can be seen in the Appendix 4)

Photo exhibition (photos, postcards)

"Water - Energy - Life" photo exhibition, November, 2013

The public

Press release, Invitation distribution, facebook and website of WARECOD, newspapers, Uploaded in CPWF website

"Thought sharing" note, request for sending materials

To attract the attention of the public on the existing problems of hydropower development in Vietnam. Based on the finding of the research, the themes of the photo exhibition were empty houses, the empty work list, empty hydropower dams, gaps in mechanism, destroyed forest due to the blocked rivers. It was open from 21st to 25th of November, 2013

There were many people visiting the exhibition. They are governmental officials, journalists, researchers (both Vietnamese and international), NGOs and . On the opening ceremony, 54 people were officiallyinvited. The list of participants, program and some comments can be seen in Appendix 2, 3.

The photos and invitation can been find in CPWF website (from ID 324 to ID 331).

News on printed newspaper and online newspapers

The public

Posted in newspaper

Comments on newspaper websites

To contribute to raising awareness of the public about existing problems related to hydropower development in Vietnam based on research findings and discussion on multi-stakeholder dialogue.

The piece news was even posted in the governmental agency, Department of Water Resources Management - Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.

The list of websites posting news on the dialogues and photo exhibition can been seen in Appendix 6.

News on television broadcast

The public

Link was posted in WARECOD facebook

To contribute to raising awareness of the public about existing problems related to hydropower development in Vietnam.

The news was shown on the VTV 1 and VTV3, the most popular TV channels in Vietnam, on the 22nd and 30th of November.

Websites, facebook (photos, articles, comments)

Trien Lam "Nuoc - Nang luong - Cuoc song"

The public

Uploaded in these media mean

All events and their results were put on the WARECOD website and facebook.

PowerPoint presentations

WARECOD, 2012, 2013.

MK team

Uploaded in CPWF website

All presentations can be found in the CPWF website. ID 321, 322, 323

Key research finding brief

Dao Thi Viet Nga, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan, Le Van Hung, Bui Lien Phuong, 2013. Hydropower decision making process. (in Vietnamese

Participants of two dialogues

Distributed after the dialogues,

Uploaded in CPWF website

Can be found in CPWF website, ID 332

IV. Budget

Project Duration: 4/2012 to 12/2013 ( 20 months )

Currency: USD

Total_Amount_Received_(3_Times):_USD__109,250'>Total Amount Received (3 Times): USD


The fird payment received : day 5/9/2012 ( Exchang rate : USD/ VND 20845)


The second payment received: day 28/3/2013 ( Exchang rate : USD/ VND 20960 )


The third payment received : day 25/7/2013( Exchang rate : USD/VND 21195)


Total Expenditure:


From 5/2012 to 12/2012


From 1/2013 to 6/2013


From 6/2013 to 12/2013





Estimation (US$)

Amount Spent

Cost difference

( %)


Training on analytical framework for all project participants in (10 persons) two days (14/5 to 16/5/2012) in Hanoi - Vietnam




Including professional fees (1 person * 2 days), tea-break and meals for participants

Traning on methodologies for all project participants (10 persons) in two days (16/5 to 18/5/2012) in Hanoi - Vietnam




Including professional fees (1 person * 2 days), tea-break and meals for participants

Research outline _ trainning for 10 persons in 2 days ( 21/6 to 22/6/2012)




Including professional fees (1 person * 2 days), tea-break and meals for participants

Training on questionnaires and interview skill before going to the field for 10 persons in two days (18/5/ to 20/5/2012)




Including professional fees (1 person * 2 days), tea-break and meals for participants

Training on basin game for research team




Not implemented because it was not practically appropriate. Instead, we organized a Photo Exhibition (in Events), prior agreement by Nate Matthews


Estimation (US$)

Amount Spent

Cost difference

( %)


Dialogue and play game with decision makers (MONRE, MARD, MOIT, etc) ( 2 dialogues )




Not implemented because it was not practically appropriate. Instead, we organized a Photo Exhibition (in Events), prior agreement by Nate Matthews

Conducting research (Literature review for 4 months) - Going to field (interview decision makers at national and provincial levels) in 6 months- Data analysis-Discourse analysis) ( 10/2012, 1/2013 to 6/2013)




Including expenses for researchers collecting data, designing questionnaires, travelling, allowances for interviewees, stationery and report writing. This was done by WARECOD stafffs and Mr. Le Van Hung (Vietnam Institute for Socio-Economics) (leader). This activitiy was mainly in Hanoi so travelling expenses were less than planned because we used our own transport vehicles.

Case study in 4 months ( Selecting case study - Literature review- Preparing questionaires- Conducting fiedwork ( including travel, perdiem,accommudation ) - Writing report - Processing data - Stationery- Expenses for expert assessment ) ( 10/2012 to 7/2013)




Including expenses for researchers collecting data, designing questionnaires, travelling, allowances for interviewees, stationery and report writing. This was done by WARECOD stafffs (Ms Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan, Nga Dao, Bui Lien Phuong)

Field trip with journalists (Travel (2 persons in Warecod) 2 persons/trip - Car rent -( motorbikes, boats)-Hotel ( 2 stays *3 rooms/ 5 days )-allowance for interviewers- Photocopy ( 9/2013)




Journalists are from Tuoi tre Newspaper, Thanh nien Newspapers, and Kon Tum newspaper at local. The actual fieldtrip days was fewer than planned, besides, some of the journalists were from the local so the travelling expenses was less than planned.

Communication material set (comic book, handbook, leaflet, poster , post card) (11/2013)




20 Posters, 1600 postcards. This line is underspent because they were printed less than planned. The remaining was spent on Exhibition.

Multistakeholders dialogue (27/11/2013)




Including travelling and hotel for invitees, lunch, tea-break, allowance for presenters, renting Dialogue Room and Exhibition Room

Communication event (Photo Exhibition) prepare in 10/2013, actual Exhibition Date was from 19-25/11/2013 + Student Dialogue (24/11/2013)




This budget line is higher than planned because we organized (1) Photos Exhibition included
travel for photgrapher 2 times, printing photos, rent exhibition room, logistics, opening of the exhibition (2) A part of Photo Exhibition is Dialogue with students. Expenses for student Dialogue was moved from basin game. The expenses included experts to talk with students


Estimation (US$)

Amount Spent

Cost difference

( %)


Participating workshops (Presenting at workshops to share the finding research in VRN workshop in Đồng Tháp ) ( 5/12/2013) Ms Nga Dao Presenting




Expenses for Ms Nga Dao sharing results of MK8 in VRN's annual meeting

Stationery for Warecod every month




Project management: Salary in 20 months (5/2012 to 12/2013)




Salary for Coordinator (Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan), Researcher (Bui Lien Phuong), Accountant (Nguyen Vy Linh)

Communication input (book and publishing on channels VTV3, VTV1, VTV6)




(1) Expenses for communicate information of the project, dialogues and exhibition on channels. (2) Using remaining from bugdet line above (from research) to publish a book named "Decision-making process of Hydropower projects and its consequences" (prepaid expenses including edit and design). The will be published in Jan 2014, 200 copies

2013 One science workshop (3 days) + team meeting




This is not spent because CPWF paid for the expenses. We spent this budget line for printing books and other activitities that were overspent

Two MK HP Forum (3days*2times)- ( Ms Nga Đào travel Toronto Canada to Hn city)




Prior agreement by Nate Matthews, including travelling and hotel, meals






V. Invoice


Date: 06/12/2013
D Foundation for Doing Good Work

No 5, Sirimankhlajan Soi 5,

T Suthep Muang,

50200, Chiang Mai

Attn: Po Garden
Dear Po Garden,

Based on the contract between the D Foundation for Doing the Good Work and WARECOD to implement the activities under the framework of the project named The Improving hydropower decision-making processes in the Mekong Basin Project, I would like to request the Final installment of USD 5,750 (in words: five thousand, seven hundred and fifty US dollars).

Please transfer this amount to:


Account number: 0011371849524

Bank name and address: Joint- Stock Commercial Bank for foreign trade of Vietnam

Address: 31-33 Ngo Quyen Street, Hanoi, Vietnam


Nga Dao


Centre for Water Resources Conservation and Development (WARECOD)

Suite 801, Building  HACISCO, No. 15 Lane 107, Nguyen Chi Thanh Str, Hanoi, Vietnam

Appendix 1. The Process of Decision Making for Hydropower Projects

Ministry/Department of Industry and Trade publicizes the National Planning of Hydropower/ Small and Medium Hydropower.
autoshape 130
Step 1
autoshape 103 autoshape 126 autoshape 125 autoshape 124 autoshape 123 autoshape 122 autoshape 121 autoshape 119 autoshape 118 autoshape 117 autoshape 116 autoshape 115 autoshape 114 autoshape 113
This is not yet clearly defined and paid attention to during the decision-making process.

Investors, PPCs, the MONRE and DONREs shall implement.
autoshape 105 autoshape 96 autoshape 102 autoshape 101 autoshape 100 autoshape 97

autoshape 133autoshape 136
Documents for investment registration are sent to competent authorities (Prime Minister/Provincial People’s Committee (PPC)).

autoshape 120

Investors make investment report (preliminary study) to receive approval of competent authorities.

autoshape 98


autoshape 134autoshape 99
Investors build up a project record in accordance with regulations for an appraisal/approval of competent bodies.

autoshape 135

group 127
Investors invite tenders in accordance with regulations; and specialized agencies shall monitor.

group 137group 140
Investors coordinate with other bodies including the MARD and DARDs, and PCs at all levels in flood control and irrigation.

Appendix 2. Comments on photo exhibition

There are 14 people sharing their feeling about the photo exhibition, two of them are from foreigners.

Below are the photos of three comments.

Appendix 3. Program of opening ceremony of photo exhibition

  1. Time and place

  • Time: 16.00 to 18.00, 21 November 2013

  • Place: Exhibition house, 29 Hang Bai, Hanoi

  1. tải về 380.2 Kb.

    Chia sẻ với bạn bè của bạn:
  1   2   3

Cơ sở dữ liệu được bảo vệ bởi bản quyền © 2023
được sử dụng cho việc quản lý

    Quê hương