Syncrip facilitates porcine parvovirus viral dna replication through the alternative splicing of ns1 mrna to promote ns2 mrna formation


PPV infection up‑regulates SYNCRIP expression in vitro



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PPV.NS

PPV infection up‑regulates SYNCRIP expression in vitro 
and in vivo
To determine the roles of porcine SYNCRIP in the pro-
cess of PPV infection, we further investigated the expres-
sion profiles of SYNCRIP in PPV-infected PK-15 cells. 
Time-course experiments show that SYNCRIP mRNA 
significantly increased at 12 h post-infection (hpi) and 
reached the highest levels at 36 hpi (Figure 
3
A). Con-
sistent with the changes of SYNCRIP mRNA levels, 
the SYNCRIP protein gradually increased at 12 hpi and 
peaked at 36 hpi (Figure 
3
B). In contrast with the pattern 
of SYNCRIP, the PPV viral titer gradually increased dur-
ing the 12 to 36 hpi (Figure 
3
C).
To further confirm the effects on the expression 
of SYNCRIP during PPV infection, PK-15 cells were 
infected with different doses of PPV (MOI = 0, 0.5, 1, or 


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Chen et al. Vet Res (2021) 52:73 
Figure 2 Screening and identification of NS1 mRNA interacting host proteins. A Experimental design for pulldown assays and identification 
of NS1 mRNA associated cellular proteins. NS1 mRNA and LacZ mRNA were biotinylated by transcription in vitro, and incubated with PK-15 total 
cell lysates. B Coomassie bright blue staining of biotinylated NS1 mRNA associated proteins. C The gene ontology (GO) analysis on NS1 mRNA 
interacting with host proteins. The GO analysis was performed by mRNA processing of the biological process on NS1 mRNA interacting with 
host proteins using webgestalt. D HEK293 cells were transfected with different expression vectors containing Flag tagged host proteins for 24 h. 
RNA-pulldown was performed with streptavidin beads, followed by western blotting using the anti-Flag antibodies. E Western blotting identified 
the interaction between NS1 mRNA and endogenous SYNCRIP protein in PPV-infected PK-15 cells by RNA-pulldown. F RNA-immunoprecipitation 
identified the interaction between NS1 mRNA and endogenous SYNCRIP protein in PPV-infected PK-15 cells. An anti-SYNCRIP antibody or negative 
control IgG was used to pull down RNA–protein complexes. Recovered cDNA from PPV-infected PK-15 cells was examined for viral RNA by PCR with 
primer sets of NS1 and GAPDH, Y-PPV plasmid was used as a template for positive controls of PCR. G Laser confocal identify the interaction between 
NS1 mRNA and endogenous SYNCRIP protein in PPV-infected PK-15 cells. H Identification of GST and GST-SYNCRIP protein purification. (I) EMSA 
identified the interaction between NS1 mRNA and endogenous SYNCRIP protein. Scale bar = 10 μm.


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Chen et al. Vet Res (2021) 52:73 

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