The Effect of Reading Comprehension and Problem So (1)
2. Method 2.1 Research Model This research questioning the existence of the effect of fluent reading (word recognition, automaticity, prosody) and
comprehension (literal comprehension and inferential comprehension) skills on problem solving skill and the effect level
was conducted as relational screening model. Relational screening model aims to determine the existence and/or level of
change between two or more variables (Karasar, 2005).
2.2 Population and Sampling The population of the research is composed of 4
grade students at 26 state schools during 2015/2016 education period in
the city of Kütahya in Turkey. Because it would be difficult to reach them all, using proportional sampling method, a study
group was formed. Karasar (2005) suggests choosing a study group using cluster sampling method when the elements in
the population cannot be selected one by one. In cluster sampling method, the fair chance of being chosen is not for the
elements but for the clusters with all their elements. In proportional cluster sampling, while choosing the clusters, a
variable considered important for the population is categorized and by classifying the groups in the population according
to this variable, they are divided into sub-populations. While choosing clusters out of these sub-populations, the ratio of
the sub-population in the population is taken into account.
After 4+4+4 education system, elementary schools were divided into two: elementary and secondary schools, which made
choosing the clusters to be included into the sample difficult because there wasn’t a standard scale to evaluate elementary
schools. This challenge was tried to be sorted out by taking TEOG YEP (the exam to pass from elementary to secondary
school) results as a scale. In this context, if the secondary school in the sampling had an elementary school, the clusters
were chosen from these schools, but if not, the clusters entering the sampling were chosen from the elementary school
which sent the most number of students to that secondary school.
While doing proportional sampling method, in order to be able to divide 26 state secondary schools in the city of Kütahya
(the schools in the villages weren’t included because it would have caused difficulties in applying the assessment tools),
which constituted the research population, 2014/2015 education period TEOG YEP results were taken as a scale. In this
context, to form the sampling, with a reference to TEOG YEP average success scores of each of the 26 state schools,
TEOG YEP standard deviation value was computed for the city of Kütahya. Later, with a reference to TEOG YEP
averages, these 26 schools were divided into sub-populations. Diagram 1 gives the findings.
Journal of Education and Training Studies Vol. 5, No. 6; June 2017
Diagram 1. Dividing the 26 state schools in the city of Kütahya forming the research population according to 2014/2015
TEOG YEP results
According to Diagram 1, the mean 2014/2015 TEOG YEP score of the city of Kütahya is 308.92 and standard deviation is
33.47. While dividing these 26 schools into sub-populations, mean and standard deviation scores were regarded as a scale.
The schools whose mean scores were higher than 2014/2015 TEOG YEP Kütahya mean score were considered successful
and those with lower scores were considered unsuccessful. The schools among the successful ones with standard scores
between 0 and +1 were classified as with “high” success and those with standard scores over +1 were classified as with
“highest” success. The same classification was done for unsuccessful schools as those with standard scores between 0 and
-1 as with “low” success and those with standard scores over -1 as with “lowest” success. With a reference to this
classification, the 26 secondary schools in the city of Kütahya were divided into sub-populations as 5 with “highest”
success (19.23%), 5 with “high” success (19.23%), 13 with “low” success (50%) and 5 with “lowest” success (11.53%).
After this, the research sampling as chosen out of these 26 schools divided into sub-populations.
According to Diagram 1, it is seen that the overall of the schools in the sub-populations accumulated in the area with -1
mean and 0 standard deviation, while proportionally fewer schools remained between 0 and +1 and over +1 and below -1.
While choosing the school to be included into the sampling, this system was taken into account and the number of schools
representing each sub-population was determined by proportioning it to the number of schools in the population. Table 1
shows the schools constituting the research sampling, their departments and number of students.
Table 1. Success level of the schools constituting the study group and student distribution in the chosen departments.
School Success Level
Elementary school sending students to school B
Elementary school sending students to school D 292.85
According to Table 1, 6 schools were determined using unbiased appointment method: 1 school from 5 schools with
“highest” success rate, 1 school from 5 schools with “high” success rate, 3 schools from 13 schools with “low” success
rate and 1 school from 3 schools with “lowest” success rate. The chosen schools represent 23.07% of the schools in the
city of Kütahya. In terms of the 4
grade department numbers of these schools, some schools had 5, some had 4 and some
had 3 departments, so the study group was composed choosing 2 departments from each of the 6 schools because the
number of departments wasn’t equal. While choosing the departments, in the light of the information gathered from the
school administrators, great care was taken to choose the departments that represented the category of the school best. For
example, 1 out of 5 schools with “highest” success level was chosen using unbiased appointment method and became