3. Results In accordance with the Water Law [
], which regulates the intake protection zones in
Poland, a protection zone that includes an area of direct protection and an area of indirect
protection is based on a risk analysis that includes an assessment of the health hazards
resulting from the way the land is development, hydrological documentation analysis and
the results of water quality analysis. This approach is in line with the requirements of
Drinking Water Directive 2020/2184 [
] and the requirements of the WHO [
] on risk
assessment in water supply systems.
A risk analysis was performed for four water intakes in selected cities located in
south-eastern Poland. After a detailed identification of the risks to the water quality of
the rivers, the existing safety measures that protect consumers from consuming water of
inadequate quality were identified. The existing safety measures were also validated. The
purpose was to confirm the effectiveness of these measures in normal and crisis conditions.
The effectiveness of the safety measures reduces the risk value. Missing safety measures
were also indicated, i.e., safety measures that should function in the system but had not
been implemented so far.
shows the results of the risk analysis performed. The obtained results are
from studies prepared by the authors. They were commissioned by the water companies
managing intakes A, B, C and D. Each event is described by three parameters: “probability”,
“consequences“ and “protection”, and based on determined parameters of the risk. Figure
show the obtained risk values broken down by the type of undesirable event.
The method of determining the risk value is presented in the examples below.
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