2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Characteristics of the Research Object
A risk analysis was carried out on four water intakes located in the region of south-
eastern Poland in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship. Their locations are shown in Figure
These are surface water intakes of the onshore type, with three of them taking water from
rivers, and one taking water from a dam reservoir. Table
presents the basic information
regarding the analyzed water intakes.
Resources 2021, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW
3 of 17
A protection zone covering only the area of direct protection is established ex officio.
A protection zone, including the area of direct protection and the area of indirect
protection, is established on the basis of a risk analysis, including an assessment of health
hazards taking into account the factors adversely affecting the quality of the abstracted
water, carried out on the basis of hydrogeological or hydrological analyses and hydroge-
ological or hydrological documentation, an analysis of the identification of the sources of
threats resulting from the method of land development, as well as the results of the study
of the quality of abstracted water.
Risk analyses are carried out for: water intakes providing more than 10 m
per day or serving water to more than 50 people; and individual water intakes supplying
up to 10 m
of water per day or serving water to 50 people, if the water is supplied as
water intended for human consumption, or as part of commercial, service, industrial or
public utility buildings.
Risk analyses are updated at least every 10 years, and in the case of water intakes
delivering less than 1000 m
of water per year, at least every 20 years. A protection zone
is established at the expense of the owner of the water intake.
Risk analyses in water supply systems are widely known and used [4,9–13]. How-
ever, the Water Law Act, introduced in 2018, listed risk analyses as official for the first time.
The aim of this study was to present a risk assessment methodology for surface water
intakes, and these assessments are to be carried out in Poland by the end of 2022. The
hazard risk assessments were carried out for four surface water intakes located in south-