Revision cách nhận biết từ loại: a. Cánh nhận biết danh từ


II. GRAMMAR: REPORTED SPEECH: Câu tường thuật



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II. GRAMMAR: REPORTED SPEECH: Câu tường thuật

- Nếu động từ tường thuật ở thì hiện tại thì khi đổi sang câu gián tiếp ta không lùi thì.

Ex: She says: “I am doing my homework.”

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

- Nếu động từ tường thuật ở thì quá khứ thì khi đổi sang câu gián tiếp ta đổi ngôi, thì và trạng ngữ.



1/ Cách đổi ngôi:

- Ngôi thứ nhất: đổi dựa vào chủ từ đứng trước động từ tường thuật (said/ told), thường đổi thành ngôi thứ ba.

I → he / she me → him / her my → his / her

We → they us → them our → their

- Ngôi thứ hai (you _ you_ your): đổi dựa vào túc từ đứng sau động từ tường thuật (said/ told)

Ex: He says to her “ I miss you very much”

 He tells her that --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

- Ngôi thứ ba (He / She / Him / Her / His / They / Them / Their): giữ nguyên, không đổi
2/ Cách đổi thì:


Trực tiếp

Gián tiếp

HTĐ - V1 /Vs(es)

HTTD – am / is / are + V-ing

HTHT – have / has + V3

HTHTTD – have / has been +V-ing

QKĐ – V2 / -ed

QKTD – was / were + V-ing

TLĐ – will + V1

TLTD will be + V-ing



Must + V1

QKĐ – V2 / V-ed

QKTD – was / were + V-ing

QKHT – had + V3

QKHTTD - had been + V-ing

QKHT – had + V3

QKHTTD – had been +V-ing

TL trong QK - would + V1

TL tiếp diễn trong QK - would be + V-ing



had to + V1

3/ Cách đổi các trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn:

Trực tiếp

Gián tiếp

today/ tonight

that day/ that night

yesterday

the day before/ the previous day

last month

the month before / the previous month

tomorrow

the following day/ the next day / the day after

the day before yesterday

two days before

the day after tomorrow

in two days’ time

next month

the following month / the next month / the month after

here

there

now

then

ago

before

this

that

these

those


BẢNG ĐẠI TỪ

Chủ từ

Túc từ

Tính từ sở hữu

I

You


He

She


It

We

They



me

you


him

her


it

us

them



my

your


his

her


its

our


their

* Cách đổi từng loại câu cụ thể:

1. Câu trần thuật:

S + said (to + O) + that + S + V……

S + told + O + that + S(đổi) + V(lùi thì) + O …

Ex: ‘I will give you a test tomorrow’, our teacher said.

-> Our teacher said (that) ………………………………………………………………………..

* Có thể sử dụng một số động từ dẫn sau: thought, announced, explained, complained, believed

Note: said to → told

said to + O (She said to me …)

told / asked + O (She told me …/ She asked me …)

2. Câu hỏi

a. Câu hỏi Yes -No

asked + O

S + wanted to know + if/ whether + S + V

wondered

EX : She asked him “ Do you know me?”

 She --------------------------------------------------------------------

b. Câu hỏi có từ hỏi (Wh-)

asked + O

S + wanted to know + Wh- + S + V

wondered

EX : I asked her “What are you cooking?”

 --------------------------------------------------------------

3. Câu mệnh lệnh:

a. Mệnh lệnh khẳng định:

S + told + O + to V1 …

asked

ordered

Eg: “Please wait for a minute.” the man said to me

 The man …………………………………………………………………………….

He said to the waiter, “Please bring me some hot water.”

 He ……………………………………………………………………………………

b. Mệnh lệnh phủ định:

S + ordered + O + not to V1

told

asked

Eg: “ Please don’t talk loudly”.

 He asked me ……………………………………………………………………….

He said “Don’t shut the window, Hoa ”.

 He ………………………………………………………………………………….

4. Câu tường thuật với To-infinitive:

a. Không có túc từ: S + V + to + V1 + …

(agree, demand, hope, promise, offer, refuse, decide...)

Ex : They said: “ We’ll come back again”

 They ………………………………………………………….



b. Có túc từ: S + V + O + to + V1 + …

(ask, advise, invite, order, recommend, encourage, urge, warn, want., beg, instruct, persuade…)
Ex: He said to me “You’d better get up early”

  • He ………………………………………………………………..

“Why don’t you repaint our room?” she said to me.

  • …. ………………………………………………………………..

Note:

Would you / Could you / Will you/ Can you -> asked



Would you mind + V-ing /Do you mind + V-ing -> asked

Would you like / Will you ….-> invited

You should / You ought to V1...........

If I were you ,

You had better + V1… -> advised

Why don’t you + V1….
Remember…

-> reminded

Don’t for get

He said, “Would you like to go out for a drink?”


  • …. ………………………………………………………………..

“I will look after the house for you if you like” he said.

  • He offered …. ………………………………………………………………..



5. Câu tường thuật với V-ing:

a. Không có giới từ: S + V + V-ing …

deny (chối cãi), suggest (đề nghị ), admit (thừa nhận , thú nhận), regret (nuối tiếc)

He said to me; “Let’s go home”



  • …. ………………………………………………………………..



b. Có giới từ: S + V + giới từ + V-ing …

accuse sb of ( buộc tội)

apologize to s.o for s.th ( xin lỗi)

thank sb for ( cảm ơn)

blame sb for ( đổ thừa)

congratulate sb on ( chúc mừng)

insist on ( khăng khăng)

prevent/ stop sb from ( ngăn cản ai không được làm gì)

“It was nice of you to help me. Thank you very much,” Tom said to you.


  • …. ………………………………………………………………..

“I’m sorry I’m late,” Peter said.

  • …. ………………………………………………………………..

Note: warn sb against + V-ing / warn sb not to + V1 (cảnh báo ai đừng làm gì)

How about + V-ing… / Why don’t we + V1 -> suggested

Let’s / Let’s not -> suggested

Shall we/ It’s a good idea -> suggested

I’m sorry -> apologized

Thank you / Thanks -> thanked

Congratulations -> congratulated

John said, “I heard you received the scholarship. Congratulations!”



  • …. ………………………………………………………………..

“I’ll help you with your physics exercise,” Peter said to Susan.

  • …. ………………………………………………………………..

“Don’t go out alone at night,” I said to Linda.

  • …. ………………………………………………………………..

6. Câu điều kiện trong lời nói gián tiếp:

- Đk loại 1: đổi thì, đổi ngôi

- Đk loại 2, 3: đổi ngôi

She said: “If I have enoughmoney, I will buy a new computer.”

…………………………………………………………………………..

The boy said: “If I had come to the party, I would have had a good time.”

…………………………………………………………………………..
EXERCISE

1. Mary asked me----------------

A. whether I would watch the football match on TV the day before.

B. whether I watched the football match on TV the day before.

C. If I had watch the football match on TV the day before.

D. whether I had watched the football match on TV the day before .

2. “ Don’t forget to give a book to Tom” she said

A. She reminded me not to forget to give a book back to Tom.

B. She reminded me to remember to give a book back to Tom.

C. She reminded me remember to give a book back to Tom.

D. She reminded me to give a book back to Tom.

3. Tom said that____

A. An has bought a new car B. An had bought a new car

C. An will buy a new car D. An buys a new car

4. Jack asked his sister______________.

A. where you have gone tomorrow B. where she would go the following day

C. where would she go the following day D. where you will go tomorrow

5. “You’d better apologize to Sally.” I said

A. I advised him should apologize to Sally. B. I advised him apologize to Sally.

C. I advised him to apologize to Sally. D. I advised him had better to apologize to Sally.

6. The host asked Peter _______ tea or coffee.

A. whether he preferred B. that he preferred

C. did he prefer D. if he prefers

7. “I'll never make that mistake again”, Robert said.  Robert promised _______ that mistake again.



A. no making B. not made C. never to make D. never made

8. “Buy some meat in the shop,” said my mother to me.

A. My mother said to me to buy some meat in the shop

B. My mother told to me to buy some meat in the shop

C. My mother told me to buy some meat in the shop

D. My mother said me to buy some meat in the shop

9. The doctor said to Peter’ “Don’t go for a walk today”

A. The doctor said Peter not to go for a walk today

B. The doctor told Peter not go for a walk today

C. The doctor said to Peter not to go for a walk today

D. The doctor told Peter not to go for a walk today

10. “Please don’t mention it to any body,” Mary said to her friend.

A. Mary asked her friend not to mention it to anybody.

B. Mary asked her friend not mention it to anybody.

C. Mary asked her friend to not mention it to anybody.

D. Mary asked her friend did not mention it to anybody.

11. Tom said: “ I have already has breakfast, so I am not hungry.’

A. Tom said he had already had breakfast, so he is not hungry.

B. Tom said he has already had breakfast, so he is not hungry.

C. Tom said he had already had breakfast, so he was hungry.

D. Tom said he had already had breakfast, so he was not hungry.

12. I said to Nick: “Where are you going?”

A. I asked Nick where was he going. B. I asked Nick where he was going.

A. I asked Nick where is he going. D. I asked Nick where he is going.

13. He said to them: “Who will you see before you leave here?”

A. He asked them who they would see before they left there.

B. He asked them who would they see before they left there.

C. He asked them who they would see before you left there.

D. He asked them who you would see before they left there.

14. She asked me: “Why didn’t you come here yesterday?”

A. She asked me why I hadn’t gone there the day before.

B. She asked me why I didn’t go there the day before.

C. She asked me why didn’t I go there the day before.

D. She asked me why hadn’t I gone there the day before.

15. Mother asked me: “Did you play with your friends yesterday?”

A. Mother asked me if I had played with my friends the day before.

B. Mother asked me if I played with my friends the day before.

C. Mother asked me if I had played with your friends the day before.

D. Mother asked if you had played with my friends the day before.

16. “Would you like to have lunch with me on Sunday?” He said to me.

A. He invited me to have lunch with him on Sunday.

B. He offered me to have lunch with him on Sunday.

C. He suggested me to have lunch with him on Sunday.

D. He reminded me to have lunch with him on Sunday.

17. “Will you help me, please? She said. “I can’t rich the top shelf.”

A. She asked me help her as she couldn’t reach the top shelf.

B. She asked me to help her as she can’t reach the top shelf.

C. She asked me to help her as she couldn’t reach the top shelf.

D. She warned me to help her as she couldn’t reach the top shelf.

18. “This is a horrible room. Why don’t you ask for something better?” he said

A. He said it was a horrible room and reminded me to ask for something better.

B. He said it was a horrible room and advised me to ask for something better.

C. He said it was a horrible room and warned me to ask for something better.

D. He said it was a horrible room and invited me to ask for something better.

19. “Remember to switch off the fan when you have finished”, he said

A. He reminded me to switch off the fan when I’d finished.

B. He offered me to switch off the fan when I’d finished.

C. He suggested me to switch off the fan when I’d finished.

D. He reminded me to switch off the fan when I have finished.

20. “If I were you, I'd tell him the truth,” she said to me.



A. She said to me that if I were you, I'd tell him the truth.

B. She will tell him the truth if she is me.

C. She suggested to tell him the truth if she were me.

D. She advised me to tell him the truth.

21. “Why don’t you go by train? It’s much less tiring than driving,” I said.

A. I advised him to go by train as it was much less tiring than driving.

B. I suggested him to go by train as it was much less tiring than driving.

C. I warned him to go by train as it was much less tiring than driving.

D. I advised him going by train as it was much less tiring than driving.

22. “Will you be here tomorrow?” she asked – “Yes” I answered

A. She asked if I would be there the next day and I said that I would.

B. She asked if I will be there the next day and I said that I will.

C. She asked if you would be there the next day and I said that you would.

D. She asked if I would be there the next day and I said that I will.

23. “If I were you I’d try to get a room on the top floor,” he said

A. He advised me to try to get a room on the top floor.

B. He advised me to try getting a room on the top floor.

C. He offered me to try to get a room on the top floor.

D. He suggested me to try to get a room on the top floor.

24. I wanted to know_____ return home.

A. when would she B. when will she C. when she will D. when she would

25. The woman wonders _______ doing well at school.

A. whether her children are B. if her children were

C. whether her children were D. her children are if

26. Peter said he was leaving for Paris ______.

A. next week B. the week previous C. following week D. the following week

27. “I don’t usually drink milk when ______ ” Mrs. Pike said.

A. she was hungry B. I was hungry C. I am hungry D. I will be

28. She wanted to know ______.

A. what was happening B. was happening

C. it was happening D. was happening what

29. My father asked me _____ of the film.

A. what do you think B. what I think C. what did you think D. what I thought

30. "I left my umbrella here two days ago," said Susan.

A. Susan said that she had left her umbrella there two days before.

B. Susan said that she had left her umbrella there two days ago.

C. Susan said that she had left her umbrella here for two days.

D. Susan said that I had left my umbrella there two days before.

31. "John left here an hour ago, " said Jane.

A. Jane told me that John had left there an hour before.

B. Jane said John left here an hour before.

C. Jane told John to have left there an hour before.

D. Jane told me that John to leave there an hour before.

32. "I will come to see you next Sunday ". John said to me.

A. John promise me that he will come to see me on the following Sunday.

B. John promise to come to see me on the following Sunday.

C. John told me that he will come to see me on the following Sunday.

D. John said that he will come to see me on the following Sunday.

33. Mai said that her brother ……… to Paris ……….

A. had gone / the next day B. would go / the next day

C. will go / tomorrow D. went / tomorrow

34. “ If I were you, I would take a break.”, Tom said to Daisy.

A. Tom told Daisy he would have taken a break if he had been her.

B. Tom advised Daisy he would take a break if he were her.

C. Tom advised Daisy to take a break.

D. Tom advised Daisy to take a break if he were her.

35. Lan suggested going out for dinner. .

A. Lan said, "Why don't we go out for dinner?" B. Lan said, "Do you want to go out for dinner?"

C. Lan said, "Must we go out for dinner?" D. Lan said, "Will you go out for dinner?"

36. "Why don't you ask the teacher for help?" Peter asked me.

A. Peter advised me to ask the teacher for help.

B. Peter recommended me not to ask the teacher for help. ,

C. Peter told me the reason why I did not ask the teacher for help.

D. Peter suggested that he should ask the teacher for help.

37. “Where’s the book I lent you?” John asked me.

A. John asked me where is the book he lent you.

B. John asked me where was the book he lent you.

C. John asked me where the book he had lent you was.

D. John asked me where the book he had lent me was.

38. I asked Martha________ to enter law school.

A. are you planning B. if she is planning C. was she planning D. if she was planning

39. Nam wanted to know what time _________ .

A. the movie began C. the movie begins

B. did the movie begin D. does the movie begin



40. Julia said that she ________ there at noon.

A. is going to be B. was going to be C. will be D. can be

41. They asked me when _________ .

A. did I arrive B. will I arrive C. I had arrived D. I can arrive

42. I wondered the right thing.

A. if I am doing B. was I doing C. am I doing D. whether I was doing

43. Charlie __________ that his father was in hospital.

A. told me B. told to me C. said me D. asked me

44. I told him once again not to make much noise while I am working.

A B C D

45. My father said my elder brother to give up smoking because of his health.



A B C D

46. Paul asked Sally when would she go out with him.

A B C D

47. I asked him how far was it to the station if I went there by taxi.

A B C D

48. They asked me that I could do the shopping for them.



A B C D

49. He advised her thinking about that example again because it needed correcting.

A B C D

50. He said that he will pick me up at 8 am the following day.



A B C D
TEST YOURSELF A
Choose the word which is stressed differently from the rest.

  1. a. communicate b. impatient c. interesting d. apologize

  2. a. nervous b. body c. verbal d. polite

  3. a. through b. other c. everything d. thanks

  4. a. sometimes b. gestures c. interests d. examples

  5. a. included b. wanted c. decided d. noticed

Choose a, b, c, or d that best completes each unfinished sentence, substitutes the underlined part, or has a close meaning to the original one.

  1. It is of great ______ to show your interest and politeness when you are having a job interview.

a. importance b. important c. importantly d. unimportant

  1. Facial ______ show one's feelings when he is communicating.

a. expressions b. expresses c. expressive d. expressively

  1. Education is very necessary ______ leading a good life.

a. on b. in c. for d. with

  1. She never looks ______ anyone who she is talking ______. She seems to be lack ______ confidence.

a. at / to / of b. for / with / in c. up / for / with d. on / about / for

  1. He came to ______ for what had happened because he had clearly been in the wrong.

a. apologize b. compliment c. promise d. serve

  1. She told him _______.

a. patient b. to be patient c. was patient d. that being patient

  1. Daniel asked me if I thought _______.

a. it will rain today b. it will rain that day

c. it would rain today d. it would rain that day



  1. Barbara asked me _______ the homework that week.

a. that she must do b. if she has to do

c. if she had to do d. if did she have to do



  1. Robert wanted to know if I was leaving the _______ Friday.

a. following b. ago c. previous d. before

  1. Jennifer asked me _______ the week before.

a. where had I gone b. where I had gone

c. where did I gone d. I had gone where



  1. I ______ to the shops, but I ______ anything because I ______ my wallet.

a. go / cannot buy / will lose b. was going / did not buy / have lost

c. am going / am not buying / will lose d. went / could not buy / had lost



  1. I _______ well recently. I _______ to see my doctor yesterday. He said that I _______ some rest.

a. do not sleep / went / would need b. have not slept / went / needed

c. did not sleep /go / will need d. had not slept / went / had needed



  1. They _______ him for weeks.

a. do not see b. did not see c. have not seen d. will not have seen

  1. Every day Mary _______ on the computer, but today she _______ a typewriter because there is no power.

a. types / is using b. is tying / uses c. has typed / will use d. types / has used

20. He was so _______ that he could not even say a word.

a. nerve b. nerves c. nervous d. nervously

21. I am really _______ in the way he talks, but the way he behaves.

a. interest b. interested c. interesting d. interestingly

22. His attitude made me really _______.

a. anger b. angers c. angry d. angrily

23. Peter is very busy _______ his new house.

a. over b. with c. for d. on

24. When I _______ up this morning, my roommate _______ already.

a. am waking / leaves b. wake / has left

c. woke / had left d. was waking / left

25. Someone _________ at the door. I _______ it.

a. is knocking / will answer b. knocked / would answer

c. knocks / have answered d. would knock / was answering

26. In five minutes, they _______ for three hours on the phone.

a. are talking b. have talked c. will talk d. will have been talking

27. These workers _______ on strike to ask for higher salary at present.

a. are going b. was going c. have gone d. had gone

28. Max told me _______ a book in the evening.

a. if he often reads b. he has often read

c. that he often read d. he was reading

29. Mary told me _______ home at that moment she _______ her parents with the farm work.

a. that if she was / had helped

b. if she were / will have helped

c. that if she had been / would have helped

d. that she had been / would have helped

30. Tim asked Sarah _______ English so far.

a. she had been learning how long b. how long was she learning

c. how long .she has been learning d. how long she had been learning

31. Tom said that he had been to England _______.

a. ten years before b. the years ago

c. the following ten years d. the next ten years

32. Peter promised to pick Mary up at 10 o'clock.

a. Peter said, "Mary, I will pick you up at 10 o'clock."

b. Peter said, "Mary, I am sorry for not picking you up at 10 o'clock."

c. Peter said.' "Mary, I am too busy to pick you up at 10 o'clock."

d. Peter said, "Let's pick Mary up atl0 o'clock."

33. Mary :'You look nice in that blue shirt. '- Tom: “___________”

A. It's nice of you to say so. B. Am I? Thanks.

C. Oh, poor me. D. I am interesting to hear that.

34. My mother's main ________is to run the household.

A. responsible B. responsibility C. respond D. responsibly

35. A survey is made to________ their attitudes toward love and marriage.

A. decide B. point C. answer D. determine




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