Institutionalized and systematic human rights violations by the communist party of vietnam



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7 Inhuman Prison



7.1 International Law
Article 7 of The UN Covenant on civil and political right states:
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In particular, no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.


7.2 Indefinite detention
1) Mr. Nguyen Huu Cau has been 33 years in prison, he was established in 1976 because of the "reactionary-crime arrests. Mr. Nguyen Huu Cau was a captain of the army of South Vietnam; he is currently in Z30A prison camp Xuan Loc.

2) Sub lieutenant Truong Van Suong was arrested in 1984, he is still in the prison Thanh Hoa (North Vietnam), so for 25 years in prison.


7.3 Torture, mistreatment of prisoners
1) Venerable Thich Thien Minh was 2 times life imprisonment; he was honoured by a condemnation and Ambassadors

of the United Nations as prisoners of conscience . He was 26 years in prison tortured, so he adopted because of the torture regularly medically treated.


2) Mr. Pham Anh Tran, and some Vietnamese patriots founded after 1975, the Liberal Front of Vietnam, in order for freedom, democracy and human rights. He and 9 comrades were arrested in July 1977 and were condemned to-life prison by the so-called "people's court" of the province Lam Dong.
Between July 3, 1977 and August 3, 1978, his hands and feet were shackled in detention in Dalat, he received no food, was beaten, tortured, his Eyes were irradiated by intense light and some and he was executed falsified several times.
From August 3, 1978 to October 1984, he was in the prison cell; his feet were shackled day and night with a wooden Leg. He received per month 7 kg of food and one shower.
In prison Xuan Phuoc, he lost a few meters, as the prison guards had beaten him.
Almost 9 years he was in solitary confinement with shackled hands and feet detained. Due to the efforts of Amnesty International, the Swedish Prime Minister and many members of parliament from several countries, he was on 03 August 1997 after over 20 years from the jail.
After release from prison, he sought to leave Vietnam to USA to his family. On September 2, 2006, the communist regime allowed him to leave the country. In the USA, his retinas were changed by two of dead. He received also two prostheses. He is currently vice Chairman of the association of political and religious prisoners in Vietnam.
3) Teacher Nguyen Vu khuong was sentenced to death. On the way to execution, he was beaten by a policeman on the head with a rifle; he fell with a bloody body in the channel and was immobile. The police let him lie in the channel because they thought that he was already died. Two days later he was raised and was taken to hospital but he had skull-brain trauma and half-paralyzed.

Practice of systematic torture in prisons in Vietnam. Source: mountain-foundation.org



7.4 Murder, arbitrary executions of prisoners

1) Father Nguyen Quang Minh, in affaire Vinh Son Church, was life sentences and was in prison camp Xuan Phuoc. His family members have visited him and brought secretly Host. The Host were discovered by the guards. Father Minh was sent in the prison cell. There, he was killed by shackled hands and feet.


2) Mr Vu Tien Dat was lieutenant of the army of South Vietnam, he studied at the university administration. After 1975, he was arrested and delivered to the reeducation camp in Trang Lon. He and the Agra engineer Nguyen Tan Lộc tried to escape the re-education camps. It was unsuccessful, the both graven up. They were executed immediately from the police at the presentation.
3) Hoang Loc was a medical student at the Military University, has been obliged to re-education, he was in the reeducation camp Ka Tum. Despite the ban of guard, he talked with his visited family member on the way from work to re-education camp. A guard killed him as he was in conversation with his Visitor.
4) Mr. Y Ben Hdok, born in 1979 in buon Bre, Phu Hoa district, the city of Buon Ma Thuot, Dak Lak Province, has been kidnapped by the Communists and tortured brutally 26/04/2008. Having realized that his life was in danger, police officers hospitalized but died on 01/05/2008 in the hospital in Dak Lak. (see Case 3 of Chapter 6).
5) Kpa Kloh, born on June 12, 1966, resident in the village of Ploi, Hbong commune, district of Cu Se, Gia Lai province, was arrested by security forces on October 12, 2004.

On July 8, 2007, the security forces used batons to beat Kpa Kloh to the head causing his fainting and ear, nose and mouth bleeding. On December 10, 2007 and February 9, 2008, the security forces continued to torture Kpa Kloh who died on February 10, 2008 after enduring repeated torture by the security forces of the Phu Yen provincial prison (see Case 9 of Chapter 6).


7.5 List of executed prisoners in the communist regime in Vietnam

(known by Vietnamese Political and Religious Prisoners Friendship Association )




Nr.

Name

Reason

Execution Date

Place of execution

1

Nguyễn văn Bảo

Reactionary

July 1976

Gò Công

2

Nguyễn văn Huệ

Reactionary

July 1976

Gò Công

3

Trần thị Lan

Reactionary

July 1976

Gò Công

4

Nguyễn Công Nghị

Vinh Sơn Church

Feb 1976

Sàigòn

5

Nguyễn văn Hoàng

Reconstitution of the Nation

1976

Sàigòn

6

Ali Hùng (Sergeant)

Reconstitution of the Nation

1976

Sàigòn

7

Tạ Hồng Nhẫn

The National Front

1977

Tuy Hòa

8

Phạm văn Mẫn

opponent of Revolution

1977

Pleiku

9

Nguyễn văn Trâm

The National Front

June 1978

Long Thành

10

Trần văn Xe

Reconstruction of the Nation

10/1978

Long Thành

11.

Huỳnh Trung Thâm

The National Front

1978

Đà Nẵng

12.

Trần Ngọc Văn

The National Front

1978

Đà Nẵng

13.

Trương văn Hai

The National Front

1978

Đà Nẵng

14.

Đào Hồng Phước

opponent of Revolution

1978

Đà Nẵng

15.

Tạ Chí Long

Reconstruction of the Nation

1978

Đà Nẵng

16.

Nguyễn văn Gấm

Front for the Liberation of the Nation

5/1978

Bến Tre

17.

Nguyễn văn Chu

Front for the rescue of the people

1978

Lạc Lâm

18

Nguyễn văn Lạc

Front for the rescue of the people

1978

Tuyên Đức

19

Nguyễn văn Dương

Federal Indochina

July 1979

Gò Công

20

Priest Nguyễn văn Vàng

Federal Indochina

July 1979

Gò Công

21

Võ văn Nhị

National Fornt

July 1979

Sài Gòn

22

Lê văn Tài

Reconstruction of the Nation

2/1979

Rạch Gía

23

Nguyễn Ngọc Nhẫn

Reconstruction of the Nation

2/1979

Bến Tre

24

Nguyễn văn Thiên

Reconstruction of the Nation

2/1979

Bến Tre

25

Nguyễn Thanh Từ

Reconstruction of the Nation

2/1979

Vĩnh Long

26

Khổng Trung Lộ

Front for the Liberation of the Nation

7/1979

Sàigon

27

Nguyễn văn Đầy

Font for the National Association

3/1979

Tây Ninh

28

Bùi Thế Xa

Alliance East Asia

1979

Sàigòn

29

Lê Hồng Sơn

Alliance East Asia

1979

Sàigòn

30

Bùi Đình Luyện

National Fornt

1979

Tuy Hoà

31

Nguyễn Đức Năng

National Fornt

1979

Tuy Hoà

32

Nguyễn văn Năng

National Fornt

1979

Tuy Hoà

33

Nguyễn Hiền

National Fornt

1979

Đà Nẵng

34

Nguyễn Khanh

National Fornt

1979

Đà Nẵng

35

Nguyễn Sĩ

National Fornt

1979

Đà Nẵng

36

Nguyễn văn Chánh

National Fornt

1979

Đà Nẵng

37

Nguyễn văn Nhung

National Fornt

1979

Đà Nẵng

38

Phan văn Xuân

National Fornt

1979

Đà Nẵng

39

Nguyễn Ngọc Thanh

opponent of Revolution

1979

Pleiku

40

Nguyễn Tín BĐ

opponent of Revolution

1979

Pleiku

41

Nguyễn văn Tư BD

opponent of Revolution

1979

Pleiku

42

Phạm trường Yên BD

opponent of Revolution

1979

Pleiku

43

Phạm Xương (Bình Định)

opponent of Revolution

1979

Pleiku

44

Nguyễn văn Tề

Regiment Lê văn Duyệt

2/1980

Long An

45

Lê văn Bê

National Fornt

12/1980

Mỹ Tho

46

Nguyễn Thành Trai

National Fornt

2/1980

Long An

47

Nguyễn văn Lụa




April 1980

Long Xuyên

48

Mai Hắc Đế

Hắc Long Force

April 1980

Mỹ Tho

49

Nguyễn Lạc

opponent of Revolution

1980

Pleiku

50

Nguyễn Nghiêm

opponent of Revolution

1980

Pleiku

51

NGuyễn Đình Thanh

opponent of Revolution

1980

Pleiku

52

Nguyễn văn Thanh

opponent of Revolution

1980

Pleiku

53

Tôn Thất Nhẫn

opponent of Revolution

1980

Pleiku

54

Trương An Hoà

opponent of Revolution

1980

Pleiku

55

Đặng Lý Thông

Captain

11/1980   

Xuân Phước

56

Nguyễn Duy Đức

Sublieutenant

11/1980   

Xuân Phước

57

Nguyễn ngọc Vũ

Sublieutenant marine

11/1980   

Xuân Phước

58

Nguyễn Lưu Úy

Sublieutenant

11/1980   

Xuân Phước

59

Nguyễn Hồng Quân

Bộ chiêu hồi

11/1980   

Xuân Phước

60

Nguyễn văn Minh

Sublieutenant

11/1980   

Xuân Phước

58. Hoàng Tùng National Fornt May 1981 Vũng Tàu

59. Nguyễn Ngọc Sáng National Fornt May 1981 Vũng Tàu

60. Nguyễn công Minh Reconstruction of the Nation Feb 1981 Hàm Tân

56. Lê Phú Quang National Fornt May 1981 Tiền Giang

57. Nguyễn văn Thanh Alliance East Asia 1981 Tiền Giang

58. Võ xuân Dương opponent of Revolution 1981 SàiGòn

59. Nguyễn văn Viên National Fornt 1981 Biên Hòa

60. Hà Tùng Linh Alliance Religion (MTQGGPVN) 1981 Biên Hòa

61. Vũ Trọng Kim Alliance Religion (MTQGGPVN) 1981 Bảo Lộc

62. Trần Thiện Thanh Reconstruction of the Nation 1981 Tuyên Đức

63. Nguyễn văn Thanh Alliance Religion 1981 Đức Trọng

64. Ngàn Huy Vũ Reconstruction of the Nation 1981 Tùng Nghĩa

65. Lê văn Quì Reconstruction of the Nation 1981 Đại Bình

66. Cao Hoài Khương Cao Đài Khâm Châu 1982 Bến Tre

67. Nguyễn văn Bền Alliance Religion (MTQGGPVN) 4/1982 Bến Tre

68. Phan văn Tân Federal Indochina 1982 SàiGòn

69. Võ Xuân Dương Federal Indochina 1982 SàiGòn

70. Nguyễn văn Hổ Federal Indochina 1982 SàiGòn

71. Hứa văn Đông Federal Indochina 1982 Minh Hải

72. Dương Huỳnh Hoa Reconstruction of the Nation 1982 Tiền Giang

73. Ma Tấn Tài Reconstruction of the Nation 1982 Mỹ Tho

74. Hoàng văn Ngai Alliance Religion 1982 Mỹ Tho

75. Nguyễn văn Cuả front de la libération du peuple 1983 Đồng Nai

76. Lê Quang Ba front uniformisation  1984 nt

75. Lê Quang Ba Reconstruction of the Nation 1984 Đà Nẵng

76. Đinh Công Kính Reconstruction of the Nation 1985 Bến Tre

77. Nguyễn văn Nhỏ front de la libération du peuple 1985 Đồng Nai

78. Ơn văn Thành front de la libération du peuple 1985 Đồng Nai

79. Phạm văn Vân front de la libération du peuple 1985 nt

80. Lê văn Yên National Fornt 1985 Bến Tre

81. Ngô văn Hoàng Federal Indochina 1985 Sài Gòn

82. Kiều Đình Thanh Reconstruction of the Nation 1985 Đà Nẵng

83. Nguyễn văn Mười front uniformisation  1985 Bến Tre

84. Trần văn Hiếu front uniformisation  1985 Bến Tre

85. Phùng văn Tài Front Liberty of Vietnam 1985 Hàm Tân

86. Hồ Thái Bạch Front for the Liberation of the Nation 1985 Thủ Đức

87. Lê Quốc Quân Front for the Liberation of the Nation 1985 Thủ Đức

88. Trần văn Bá Front for the Liberation of the Nation 8/1/1985 Thủ Đức

89. Trịnh Hoàn Front of Liberty of People 1986 Sóc Trăng

90. Lawyer Nguyễn văn Cảnh Progression Human 1987 Sài Gòn

91. Đoàn Vang Reconstruction of the Nation 1987 Đồng Nai

92. Trần Cao Hùng Front of People 1987 Đồng Nai

93. Trương văn Hòa Alliance East Asia 1991 Tuy Hòa

94. Trương Xuân Hòa attempted overthrow of the regime 1991 “

95. Lê Thiếu Mai Front of liberation   1991 Tuy Hòa

96. Bùi Thanh Long Front of liberation   1991 Sài Gòn

97. Nguyễn Viết Hùng Việt Hùng Phục Quốc 1991 Sài Gòn

98. Đặng văn Thân Việt Hùng Phục Quốc 1991 Sài Gòn

99. Nguyễn Đình San Việt Hùng Phục Quốc 1991 Sài Gòn

100. Nguyễn văn Bảy Việt Hùng Phục Quốc 1991 Sài Gòn

101. Nguyễn văn Trung nt 1991 Sài Gòn

102. Phạm Công Hiên nt 1991 Sài Gòn

103. Priest Trần Ngọc Hiệu Reconstruction of the Nation 1991 Biên Hòa

104. Võ Phê. Front for the rescue of the people 1979 Qui Nhơn

105. Thiệu khắc Phương Front for the rescue of the people 1979 Qui Nhơn

106. Nguyễn Tấn Phát Front for the rescue of the people 1979 Qui Nhơn

107. Phan văn Vinh Front for the rescue of the people 1979 Qui Nhơn

108. Nguyễn văn Linh Front for the rescue of the people 1979 Qui Nhơn

109. Nguyễn Tấn Phát Front for the rescue of the people 1979 Bình Định

110. Nguyễn Quốc Hùng Front for the rescue of the people 1979 Bình Định

111. Lâm Anh Hải Front for the rescue of the people 1979 Bình Định

112. Võ Văn Mưu Front for the rescue of the people 1979 Bình Định

113. Nguyễn Văn Giang Front for the rescue of the people 1979 Bình Định

114. Huỳnh Long Sơn nt nt nt

115. Nguyễn văn Có nt nt nt

116. Lê Văn Thuận nt nt nt



117. Nguyễn Thành Khuyên nt nt nt

118. Phạm văn Long opponent of Revolution 1981 Đại Bình

119. Huỳnh ngọc Long opponent of Revolution 1981 Đại Bình

120. Nguyễn đức Nghiêm opponent of Revolution 1981 Đại Bình


8 Conclusions

Human Rights violations in Vietnam are not isolated acts. They are comprehensive and systematic, perpetuated by the state and the Vietnamese Communist Party over 60 years now with all means at their disposal such as the security police, the army, the press, the information network… and their own law.


The National Assembly is a place where representatives of the people of the nation meet together to make laws in accordance with the wishes of the people in order to serve and protect the rights and interests of citizens. Electoral law of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, however, empowers The Fatherland Front, a political organization of the Vietnamese Communist Party, to:
1. Present the candidates for the Election of Deputies of the National Assembly

2. Organize and conduct the election of the National Assembly


As indicated in Part 3, this is not only a violation of the UN International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) but also a transgression of the Constitution of the SRV. In other words, the constitution of the National Assembly as well as the political power of the SRV are unconstitutional and sheer violations of human rights.
On the other hand, the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam contains several contradictory provisions which flagrantly violate the principles of the following documents
1. The UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)

2. The Universal Declaration on Human Rights

3. The Charter of The United Nations
Not only in terms of human rights. According to reports of several foreign embassies in Hanoi, companies and businessmen who have been investing or are planning to invest in Vietnam in recent years, the law of Communist Vietnam has countless mixed-up and contradictory provisions. Law enforcement is not uniform, each region interprets the law in a different way and in many cases, law enforcement is totally inconsistent with the laws being promulgated. According to an investigation conducted by the Ministry of Justice which lasted 5 years (2003-2008), "About 12% of the official documents examined have been found to be against the law”. This high ratio was later re-investigated and confirmed by the ministries affected and the central Government. The number of official documents that have transgressed the law in provinces where local authorities are conducting investigation themselves is high "in Cao Bang, where half of the 124 documents checked have irregularities. In Nghe An, the ratio is 660 to 1000 documents examined”.
With such bad records regarding the lack of conformity with the law at the regional and central government level even though the documents are drafted by law experts, one would wonder how high the level must be at the lower district and commune levels. It must be pointed out that the investigations are confined to official documents issued by administrative agencies and are by no means undertakings to solve radically the problems in today’s Vietnam society. These problems caused by a contradictory legal system can be resolved only when Vietnam becomes a nation governed by law; and the only way to build a nation governed by law in Vietnam is to:
1. Dissolve the National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. After the dissolution of the National Assembly, the rule of law as well as international obligations must be respected to ensure the fundamental freedoms in Vietnam.

2. Organize free election with the supervision of the United Nations of a Vietnamese Constituent Assembly.


Only then can a Vietnamese legal system be established by the people to serve the people, to preserve peaceful living between ethnic groups in Vietnam as well as between Vietnam and the international community. And only then can human rights be respected in Vietnam.


9. Appendices


9.1. LIST OF POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS PRISONERS

1. Lê Văn Tính, member of the Nhân Dân Hành Động party, advisor for BCHH (GHPGHH), arrested on January 01, 1995, sentenced to 20 years in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


2. Nguyễn Tuấn Nam, member of the Nhân Dân Hành Động Party, sentenced to 19 years in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


3. Nguyen Van Trai, militant of the Nhân Dân Hành Động Party, condemned to 16 years in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


4. Tran Cong Minh, militant of the Nhân Dân Hành Động Party, condemned to 13 years in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


5. Lê Phương Đông, militant of the Nhân Dân Hành Động Party, condemned to 12 years in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


6. Bùi Đăng Thủy, militant of the Nhân Dân Hành Động Party, condemned to 18 years in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


7. Nguyễn Anh Hao, militant of the Nhan Dan Hành Động Party, condemned to 13 years in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


8. Nguyen Huu Phu, member of the Nhân Dan Hành Động Party, condemned to 10 years in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


9. Nguyen Van Hau, militant of the Nhân Dân Hành Động Party, condemned to 8 years in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


10. Vu Thi Ngoc An, militant of the Nhân Dân Hành Động Party, condemned to 8 years in the Z30 D Ham Tan’s prison


11. Tran Thi Le Hang, founder of the Alliance of Workers and Farmers, arrested on April 12, 2007 and detained in B5Đồng Nai’s prison.


12. Attorney Tran Quoc Hien, spokesperson of the Alliance of Workers and Farmers, arrested on January 12, 2007, condemned to 5 years imprisonment in Bố Lá, Bình Dương


13. Đoàn Van Dien, arrested on April 12, 2007, member of the Alliance of Workers and Farmers, detained in B5 prison, Đồng Nai province


14. Đoàn Hữu Chương, arrested on April 12, 2007, released on Mai 13, 2008, member of the Alliance of Farmers and Workers, was detained one year in B5 Đồng Nai’s prison.


15. Trần Thị Thuy Trang, arrested, awaiting trial.


16. Vũ Hoang Hai, arrested, awaiting trial.


17. Nguyễn Ngọc Quang, arrested, awaiting trial.


18. Phạm Bá Hải, arrested, awaiting trial.


19. Bùi Tấn Nha, arrested on July 13, 1997, condemned to life imprisonment


20. Nguyễn Văn Điền, priest of the BCHH, arrested on August 05, 2005 and sentenced to 7 years in Sài gòn prison.


21. Võ Văn Buu, Head of the Youth Group of the Buddhist church Hoa Hao (BCHH), arrested on August 05, 2005 and condemned to 6 years in Xuan Loc prison


22. Mai Thi Dung, Head of women Group of Cho Moi, An Giang province, arrested on August 05, 2005 and condemned to 5 years in Vĩnh Long prison


23. Vo Van Thanh Liem, residing in Quang Minh Tu Pagoda, An Giang province, arrested on August 05, 2005 and condemned to 7 years in Xuan Loc prison


24. Nguyễn Thanh Phong, Member of the BCHH’s Youth Association of Cho Moi, An Giang province, arrested on August 05, 2005 and condemned to 6 years in Vĩnh Long prison.


25. Nguyễn Thị Hà, member of the BCHH’s women Association of Cho Moi, An Giang region, arrested on August 5, 2007, condemned to 5 years in Vĩnh Long prison.


26. Tô Văn Mạnh, member of BCHH, arrested on August 05, 2007, condemned to 6 years in Xuân Loc prison


27. Nguyễn Thành Long, member of the BCHH, arrested on August 05, 2007, condemned to 5 years in Xuan Loc prison


28. Nguyễn Văn Thuy, priest and Head of the BCHH’s Youth Group of Vĩnh Long, arrested on April 22, 2006, sentenced to 5 years imprisonment


29. Nguyễn Văn Thơ, Head of the Đồng Tháp BCHH, arrested on October 02, 2006 and sentenced to 6 years in Đồng Tháp prison


30. Duong Thi Tron, BCHH’s member, arrested on October 02, 2006, and sentenced to 4 years Cao Lãnh prison


31. Lê văn Sóc, Vice President of Vĩnh Long BCHH, arrested on November 04, 2006, condemned to 6 years imprisonment


32. Nguyễn Văn Thọ, sentenced to 4 years imprisonment


33. Nguyễn Thị Thanh, residing in Tuy Hòa, Phú Yên province, arrested on August 05, 2006, detained in Vĩnh Long prison


34. Pham Van Troi, engineer, from Hà Tây, arrested, awaiting trial


35. Nguyễn Văn Tuc of Thái Bình, arrested, awaiting trial


36. Father Nguyễn Văn Lý, Group 8406’s founder, sentenced to 8 years in Ba Sao prison, Hà Nam province


37. Nguyễn Phong, Thăng Tiến Party’s member, sentenced to 6 years in Thanh Hóa prison


38. Nguyen Binh Thanh, Thăng Tiến Party’s member, sentenced to 5 years in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


39. Attorney Nguyễn Thị Công Nhân, member of 8406 Group, spokesperson of the Thăng Tiến Party, sentenced to 4 years in Thanh Hóa prison


40. Attorney Nguyễn Văn Đài, member of the 8406 Group, sentenced to 5 years in Ba Sao prison, Hà Nam province


41. Dr. Le Nguyen Sang, President of the People's Democratic Party sentenced to 5 years imprisonment


42. Attorney Nguyen Bac Truyen, People's Democratic Party Member, sentenced to 4 years imprisonment


43. Huynh Nguyen Đạo, People's Democratic Party member, sentenced to 3 years imprisonment


44. Hoang Thi Anh Đào, Progress Party member, given a suspended sentence of 2 years


45. Lưu Văn Si, Alliance of Worker and Farmers member, wanted


46. Truong Quoc Huy, born on September 22, 1980, arrested on October 19, 2005


47. Ngô Văn Ninh, 87 years old, President of the Buddhist church Buu Sơn Kỳ Hương, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


48. Nguyễn Sĩ Bằng, participant in the Hoang Viet Cuong’s Red Flower movement, given life sentence in Xuan Loc prison, Dông Nai province


49. Phạm Xuân Thân, participant in the Hoang Viet Cuong’s Red Flower movement, given life sentence in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


50. Truong Van Duy, participant in the Hoang Viet Cuong’s Red Flower movement, given life sentence in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


51. Lê Kim Hùng, Free Viet Nam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


52. Hồ Đức Long, Free Viet nam Party member, sentenced to 20 years in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


53. Nguyễn Thanh Vân, Free Viet nam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


54. Nguyen Van Phuong, Free Viet nam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


55. Nguyễn Ngọc Phương, Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


56. Nguyễn Hoàng Giang, Free Việt Nam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


57. Nguyen Van Huong, Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


58. Sơn Nguyễn Thanh Điền , Free Việt Nam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


59. Nguyen Minh Man, Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


60. Nguyễn Văn Minh, Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


61. Buu Huỳnh Châu, Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


62. Huỳnh Tú Anh, Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


63. Huỳnh Anh Trí, Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


64. Nguyễn Văn Thân, Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


65. Trần Văn Đức, Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province
66. Võ Sĩ Cuong, Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province
67. Ngô Thanh Sơn, Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province
68. Trần Văn Thái, Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province
69. Đổ Thanh Vân (alias nhàn), Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province
70. Đinh Quang Hai, Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province
71. Lâm Quang Hải, Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province
72. Nguyễn Anh Hao, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai Province
73. Tô Thanh Hồng, Free Vietnam Party member, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province

74. May Xuân Khánh, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai Province


75. Trần Văn Thiêng, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province

76. Phan Quốc Dũng, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province

77. Nguyen Van Hoa, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province

78. Nguyễn Văn Chung, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province

79. Nguyễn Sinh Nhat, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province

80. Bùi Rê, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province

81. Nguyen Huu Cau, detained in Xuan Loc prison, Đồng Nai province


82. Lê Thi Hang, Thăng Tiến Party member, given a suspended sentence of 18 months


83. Nguyễn Van Ngọc from Đồng Nai, arrested, awaiting trial


84. Hô Thi Bich Khuong, arrested in Nam Đàn, Nghệ An province


85. Hàng Phát Tấn, arrested on October 22, 2006 in Nha Trang City


86. Lê Trung Hieu, arrested, awaiting trial


87. Ngô Lướt, from Phan Thiet, Binh Thuan province, arrested on August 3, 2007


88. Phùng Quang Quyền, sentenced to 1 years 6 months imprisonment


89. Luong Van Sinh, detained since 2 years , awaiting trial


90. Nguyen Thi Tuyet, detained since 1 years and 6 months, awaiting trial


91. Nguyễn Thị Cẩm Hông, from Long An, arrested, awaiting Trial


92. Professor Vũ Hùng, from Hà Tây, arrested, awaiting trial


93. Nguyễn Xuân Nghĩa, writer from Hải Phòng, arrested, awaiting trial


94. Phạm Thanh Nghiên, from Hải Phòng, arrested, awaiting Trial


95. Nguyễn Kim Nhàn, from Bắc Giang, arrested, awaiting trial


96. Ngô Quỳnh, student from Bắc Giang, arrested, awaiting Trial


97. Trần Đức Thach, poet from Nghe An, arrested, awaiting trial


98. Lê Thị Kim Thu, from Đồng Nai, arrested, awaiting trial


99. Nguyễn Văn Tính, from Hải Phòng, arrested, awaiting trial


9.2. The literary movement of Nhân Văn Giai Phẩm
Giai Phẩm Mùa Xuân is a bimonthly magazine, published in Ha Noi, released in late February 1956; judging by the length of time, this review did not live up to a year. The first, issue N°1, came out on September 16, 1956 and issue N°6 did not come out because the newspaper closed on 15 December of that year. To be exact, there were only 10 months since the appearance of Phẩm Mùa Giai Xuân, until the newspaper Nhân Văn closed. There were only 10 numbers, 5 masterpieces and 5 issues of the newspaper.

The following victims were still alive:


 Cam Hoàng, poet, Hanoi musician Văn Cao and Hữu Loan, poet.

Nhân Văn Giai Phẩm was a movement of artists and intellectuals in the North of Vietnam. It started with a large group in early 1955, but was officially suppressed in June 1958.

March 1955 saw the emergence of a movement intended principally to request that artistic and cultural activities be returned to artists. But they had to wait until February , 1956 for the movement to officially become public. The movement was then directed by Hoàng Cam and Lê Đạt. They published the works of Trần Dân, Văn Cao, Sĩ Ngọc , Tử Phac, Phung Quan, Nguyen Sang, Tô Vũ ...


Immediately after, the magazine Giai Phẩm Xuân Mùa was confiscated. Trần Dân and Tử Phac were arrested. Trần Dân committed suicide by slashing his throat but did not die.
On August 29, 1956, subsequently, was published Giai Phẩm Mùa Thu’s first issue( No.1) and on September 15, 1956, was published the first issue of the semi-monthly magazine Nhân Văn (No.1) directed by Hoàng Cam, Lê Đạt, Nguyễn Hữu Đang, Trần Duy and Phan Khôi acting as publisher and Trần Duy as Secretary. On September 30, 1956 the second issue of Nhân Văn (N°2) was published. On October 08, 1956 Giai Phẩm Mùa Xuân was reedited. On October 15, 1956 was published the third issue of Nhân Van (N°3). At the end of October, 1956 was published the second issue of Giai Pham Mua Thu (N°2). In the same month, the University professors, Trương Tuu, Trần Đức Thảo and a number of professors encouraged their students to edit the journal Đất Mới (New Earth) No.1 with the collaboration of Phùng Quan, Bui Quang Đoài…. Đất Mới has been released in a single number. On December 9, 1956, Hồ Chí Minh signed the decree withholding the right of a free press.

On December 15, 1956, the order to close the Nhân Văn newspaper was given while the newspaper’s sixth issue was in process


During the second Cultural Festival held in Hanoi from December 20 to December 28, 1957 with almost 500 representatives, Truong Chinh condemned the movement in these term "We must break the Nhân Văn Giai phẩm movement”
The movement Nhân Văn Giai Phẩm started strongly, but was extinguished only after three months. The movement Nhân Văn Giai Phẩm became known as the court case of Nhân Văn Giai Phẩm with the sentencing of all the participants to a nightmare of imprisonment for years.
9.3. The case of land reform and crime against humanity.

Some pictures illustrating the reform of agriculture in North Vietnam:












The burial of people alive and then their decapitation with a buffalo cart driven over, has being the masterpiece of Ho Chi Minh.

First stage of the Agrarian Reform in the North Viet Nam has begun with the Decree to Lower Taxes N°78/SL dated July 14, 1949 and the tax policy for Agriculture by the Government of Resistance included in the overall tax regime, including those of Industries and Commerce, slaughterhouse, forest products, Import Export, etc ...established since July 01, 1951 by Decree N°42/SL signed by Hồ Chí Minh.
The second phase of the Agrarian Reform began in late 1955 early 1956 with the population’s mobilization reaching the highest level of cruelty in the revolution. Several Catholics priest were arrested, tortured and killed, among them father Thanh, the preacher of the Ba Lang’s Petit seminary from 1949 to 1950, a good, gentle and virtuous religious who was brutally murdered in prison.

The objective of the Agrarian Reform

In a communist regime, the main target of any reform is to turn up side down the old social order by abolishing the citizen’s private property rights of citizens for land, garden, lake, flowers, livestock and production tools. The abolition of citizen’s private property rights aimed to seize his political power and to put it in the hand of the proletarian dictatorship. The communist state is finally turning the citizens into slave, into proletarian worker serving a communist boss. Proletarians Workers and intellectuals, having lost their political power, will be easily controlled by the “new Boss", the Communist Party using the ration (hộ khẩu) system and the merit annotation.

In the 3rd meeting of the first session of the National Assembly, Ho Chi Minh read the report on "The State situation and the duty for a land reform" and has signed three (3) following Executive Decrees for the land reform approved by the National Assembly:
1. Decree determining the policy for the land of culture ordering the confiscation, recovery and purchase of land to be redistributed to farmers.
2. Decree determining the establishment of the People’s tribunal in areas involving the need for people’s mobilization.
3. Decree determining the punishment of landowners in areas which need people’s mobilization for the agrarian reform.

The methods of execution

A. Creation of the Committee for the LAND REFORM:

The motto of action of the land reform committees is the slogan: "To kill ten innocents rather than let one enemy alive". With this motto thousands of innocent people had been killed.




B. Establishment of People's Court:

The people’s court system was established in violation of the Geneva Convention, in violation of the International Agreement on Civil and Political Rights of Citizens and in violation of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights

In the tribunals, there is no lawyer, in violation against the 10 provision of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights.


Most defendants bought before the court, did not even know why they were arrested, what were their accusation, and had no way to defend themselves, the hole in violation of the 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 provision of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights. But everyone was condemned, some has been executed on the spot, and the rest was taken away, all in violation of the 2 and 3 provision of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights.

The 1953 Executive Decree , like that of 1955, established the People's Court to try victims of the Land Reform ;even dead people or people who had committed suicide, all have to stand trial.



Witness from within
  
Mr Nguyễn Minh Cần who currently lives in Moscova (Russia) was a permanent member of the Ha Noi city council, Vice President of Administrative Committee of Ha Noi, Director of Hà Nội press (1954-1962) and had directly participated in the Review campaign, analyzed the consequences of the land reform and concluded that the land reform policy is guilty toward the Vietnamese people for the 4 following crimes:
First: the killing of innocent citizens.
Second: the destruction of all tradition built over thousands of years
Third: the destruction of the nation’s morality
Fourth: the destruction of nation’s spiritual and cultural life
  
The crime of killing innocent citizens, a crime against humanity

According to the official statistics of the Vietnamese Communist authorities, published in the History of Vietnamese economy (2nd volume) 1945-2000, edited by the Vietnamese ministry of economy, there are 172,008 persons classified as land owners and rich farmers, class enemies to be "uprooted" meaning to be shot on the spot or condemned to die in prison.


Hồ Chí Minh gave the order to kill or jail 5% of the North Viet nam village population as for example the case of Ba-lang, the killing of thousands of citizens of the Mèo ethnicity in Hà-giang ( Mèo-vac and Phó bảng villages) and many cases during "the reform against capitalistic industry and commerce"and during the "reorganization campaign” etc ...




Hồ Chí Minh’s letter sent to Stalin:

Report & Request for directives for the Land Reform
First letter:
 


 
Translation by Thanh Nam:
Reference N ° 88
Dear Comrade Stalin!

I send you the draft of the land reform of the Vietnamese Workers Party. I completed this project with the help of two comrades, Liu Shaoshi and Van Szia-Sian. I propose that you examine and give instructions in this regard.


I send you the Communist salute


Hồ Chí Minh
(signed)
31/10/1952

The creation of the people’s court and the land reform’s committee system is:

1. a crime against humanity
2. a crime of Genocide
3. a severe violation against the Universal Declaration on Human Rights and against the International Agreement on civic and political rights.
9.4. Massacre of the Huế citizens in 1968: 5,800 ordinary citizens were killed and/or missing

On the Eve of Tet, Vietnamese Lunar New Year, on January 30, 1968, the communist North Vietnamese army with 12000 soldiers attacked and occupied the city of Huê for 26 days. During this occupation they have killed and taken away 5800 citizens.




The mass graves
The following mass graves has been found:
1. The first mass grave, found in the courtyard of a school in Gia Hội after the Army of the Republic of Viet Nam (South Viet Nam) took back the city of Hue on February 26, 1968 contained a total number of 170 bodies.

2. Two other graves discovered in the Theravada pagoda known as Tăng Quang Tự contained 12 holes with 67 bodies.


3. Two mass graves containing the bodies of 3 Vietnamese working for the United States Embassy, of 2 Americans ,Mr. Stephen Miller and Mr. Gompertz, employees of the USOM and of a college’s French professor, all executed on a field behind a catholic seminary. All were tied up. The bodies found were buried February 09, 1968 except the two Americans

and the French professor’s bodies to be sent back to Ðà Nẵng.

4. In the Ta Ngan district, on October 03, 1968 an Australian military discovered three mass graves with 21 corpses, all men with hands bound, killed by gunshot to the head and neck.


5. Another mass grave, located 5 km eastward of Huế , was discovered on March 14 1968 by an American military patrolling with a group of Vietnamese soldiers, containing 25 corpses, all killed by gunshots to the head with hands tied behind . The mass grave was discovered thank to an arm of a victim sticking out of the mass grave.


6. The body of father Urbain and the body of the father Guy of Thiên An order were found in a ditch on March 27, 1968, near the Ðồng Khánh temple, with traces of bullet in the head and neck.


7. At Thông market, 2 km to the west of the citadel, 102 corpses have been found. At the Gia Long temple region, in Thiện Ham district, on the banks of the River Huong, about 16 km from the city to the south and about 13 km South West of Đàn Nam Giao, were found under trees and dense bushes, nearly 200 bodies of schoolchildren, students, clerks, soldiers and several women.


8. A mass grave was located between the pagoda and Tăng Quang Tuong Van, 2.5 km South West of Hue, with 4 bodies of German nationality, 3 doctors teaching at Huê University namely Dr. Alterkoster, Dr. Discher and Dr. Krainick Horst Gunther with his wife. All four were taken to the Tăng Quang pagoda then killed and buried in a mass grave found on April 02, 1968.


9. At Ðông Gia district, 16 km east of Huế on the path towards the sea, 101 bodies were found on April 01, 1968, most tied up and mouth filled with cloth.


10. During the seven first months of 1969, still been found more than 800 bodies in Phú Thứ (Gò Cát - Sand Dune) district. The largest mass graves was found at three locations Vĩnh Lưu, lê Xã Đông and Xuân Lộ , hidden in the sand dunes with quite high grass near the beach. Separated by a lot of salt dunes, far from the villages, these sand dunes were ideal places to hide a mass grave. At Go Cat, all the victims were tied up in groups of about 10 to 20 persons, placed online before the ditches just been dug by the victims themselves, and executed by machine guns. Russian machine guns bushings were found in these ditches. Catholic Priests, Father B ưu Đồng and Father Michael Bang, with two Lasan Christian Brothers were found in these ditches at Gò Cat( or sand dunes ) .

11.At Khe Ðá Mài, 428 victims were found on September 19,1969. Three repentant Vietcong told the 101 Paratrooper Battalion soldiers that they have witnessed the massacre of hundreds of victims in Đá Mài in February 1968, approximately 10km of Huế.


Witness.

In the book "The Vietcong Massacre at Hue" Doctor Elje Vannema relate the story of victims taken from the Từ Đàm Pagoda to Khe Đá Mài to be assassinated based on the testimony of a witness who could run away.


Several victims bore the mark of an atrocious death: hands tied behind his back, rag stuck in the throat, the body curled up without injury. This proves they were buried alive. The 600 victims who still bear the marks of injury, but experts could not say whether they were executed by firing or killed by the bullets.

Crime: The massacre of the citizens of Huế at the New Year of the Dog 1968 (Tết Mậu Thân) in central Viêt Nam can be compared to the massacre in Croatia and Bosnia (former Yugoslavia) by Slobodan Milosevic, or the massacre in Rwanda .


           






Neither the Nazis nor the Khmer Rouge crime; But the crime of Vietnamese Communists in 1968 Huế


Participant Religious organizations and associations:

Domestic (within Vietnam):

  1. Buddhist Unified Church of Vietnam (Most Venerable Thích Không Tánh, Representative)

  2. Block 8406 (Father Phan Văn Lợi Representative)

  3. Democratic Alliance on Human Rights in Vietnam (Đỗ Nam Hải Engineer, Representative)

  4. Group Nguyễn Kim Điền (Father Chân Tín, Representative)

  5. UMCC (Pastor Nguyen Cong Chinh, representative) and Vietnamese Confederation of Evangelical Communion peoples of Vietnam (CPEF) (Pastor Nguyen Cong Chinh, Chairman)

Abroad:

  1. Đại Việt Revolutionary Party (Mr. Đỗ Việt, Representative)

  2. Đại Việt Peoples’ Party (Mr. Phan Văn Song, Chairman)

  3. Vietnam Progression Party (Mr. Nguyễn Ngọc Hùng, Representative)

  4. Alliance for Democracy in Vietnam (Mr. Nguyễn Quốc Nam, Chairman)

  5. Vietnam Restoration Party (Mr. Trần Quốc Bảo, Chairman)

  6. Vietnam Reform Party (Mr. Đỗ Hoàng Điểm, Chairman)



  1. Ban Trị Sự Trung Ương Giáo Hội Phật Giáo Hòa Hảo Thuần Túy Hải Ngoại (Mr. Nguyễn Tấn Đức, Representative)

  2. General Lý Tòng Bá, Army of Republic of Vietnam

  3. Ban Việt Tộc (Mr. Vũ Văn Việt, Representative)

  4. Cơ Quan truyền thông tại Paris, Báo Bạn Đường (Mr. Từ Ngọc Lễ , Representative)

  5. Cộng đồng người Việt Quốc Gia Tự Do tại Pháp (Mr. Phan Khắc Tường, Representative)

  6. Cộng đồng Việt Nam Nam California (Mr. Nguyễn Tấn Lạc, Chairman)

  7. Cộng đồng Việt Nam tại Liège Vương Quốc Bỉ (Mr. Lê Hữu Đào, Representative)

  8. Đoàn Thanh Niên Việt Nam Tự Do (Mr. Trần Văn Sơn, Representative)

  9. Đoàn Thanh Niên Võ Đạo Việt Nam Đức Quốc (Mr. Trần Phước Thiện, Đại diện)

  10. Hội Aí Hữu người Việt Tự Do vùng Val de Marne tại Pháp (Mr. Nguyễn Giác, Representative)

  11. Vietnamese Political and Religious Prisoners Friendship Association (Mr. Phạm Trần Anh, Chairman in Abroad)

  12. Hội Dịch Học tại Pháp (Mr. Nguyễn như Giác, Chairman)

  13. Hội Hải Quân Hàng Hải VNCH tại Pháp (Mr. Đặng Vũ Lợi, Chairman)

  14. Association for Mutual of France-Vietnam AFVE - l'Association France-Vietnam d' Entraide (Mr. Bùi Xuân Quang, Chairman)

  15. Association of Liberal Vietnamese women in Germany (Mrs. Phạm thị Bích Thủy, Chairwoman)

  16. Hội Thanh Niên Việt Nam Ty Nạn tại Pháp - Association des Jeunes Vietnamiens de France (Mr. Nguyễn Ngọc Liêm, Chairman)

  17. Hội Thanh Thiếu Niên Việt Nam tại Paris –Association des jeunes Vietnamiens de Paris (Mr. Nguyễn trác Việt, Representative)

  18. Liên Hội Người Việt Tỵ Nạn tại CHLB Đức (Mr. Lưu Văn Nghiã, Chairman)

  19. Vietnam Human Rights Network (Prof. Nguyễn Thanh Trang, Chairman)

  20. Radio VN Hải Ngoại Âu Châu (Mr. Đinh Kim Tân, Representative)

  21. Tập thể chiến sĩ tại Âu Châu (Mr. Hoàng Cơ Lân, Representative)

  22. Tổ Chức Sinh Hoạt Người Việt Tỵ Nạn tại CHLB Đức (Mr. Phạm Công Hoàng, Chaiman)

  23. Ủy Ban Bảo Vệ Chính Nghĩa Quốc Gia Việt Nam Tự Do (Mr. Nguyễn Tường Long, Representative )

  24. Ủy Ban Điều Hợp Công tác Đấu Tranh của Người Việt tại CHLB Đức (Mr. Nguyễn Thành Văn, Chairman)

  25. Văn Phòng Liên Lạc Quân Nhân / Quân Lực VNCH / Âu Châu (Mr. Phạm Văn Đức, Representative)

  26. Văn phòng Liên Lạc các Hội đoàn và Người Việt Tự Do tại Pháp (Mr. Nguyễn Phúc Tửng, Secretary-General)

  27. Việt Hưng Hợp Đoàn (Lawyer Lê Trọng Quát, Representative)

  28. Võ Việt Art (Mr. Daniel Hoàng, Representative)



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