Iii cấu trúc thông thường của một câu tiếng Anh • Mẫu câu thông thường: Subject + verb + complement + modifier



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Bài tập 4: Kết hợp câu dùng “not only…but also” hoặc “both….and”

1. He is interested in planting orchids. He is interested in collecting butterflies. (not only….but also…)


2. You can visit the West End in London. You can visit the East End in London. (both….and..)
3. You can attend the party. Your sister can attend the party. (both….and…)
4. She can sing beautifully. She can play the piano well. (not only….but also…)
5. I can drink coffee black. I can drink coffee with sugar. (both…and…)
6. She is good at maths. She is good at English. (not only ….but also….)

Xem đáp án

Bài 1:

1. He came early, so did she/she did too.


2. She knows you quite well, her husband does too.
3. My friend lived in Hai Phong, so did his sister
4. These books don’t belong to me, those don’t either / neither do those.
5. I don’t believe it, my friend doesn’t either.
6. I don’t like the hot weather, neither does my wife
7. Trees don’t grow very well here, grass does neither.

Bài 2:

1. It was too dark for me to see the words.


2. It was too early for me to tell you once more story.
3. Dick is clever enough to learn this in a short time.
4. My mother is too old to do that work.
5. That house isn`t large enough for us to stay there for the night.
6. Daisy was too short to reach the picture.
7. Jack is clever enough to do this work.
8. The little girl was too shy to tell me the story.
9. The driver was too hurried to wait for me.

Bài 3:

1. It’s the first time they’ve ever bought me a present.


–> They have never bought me a present before.
2. Peter isn’t tall enough to reach the bookself.
–> Peter is too short to reach the bookself.
3. John worked very carefully . It took him a long time to finish his work.
–> John worked so carefully that it took him a long time to finish his work.
4. Thank you for helping me.
–> It was very kind of you to help me.
5. Mrs Green told Alice to take the books home.
–> Mrs Green had Alice take the books home
Hoặc:
–> Mrs Green had the books taken home by Alice.
6. You can’t understand those things because you are too young.
–> You aren’t old enough to understand those things.
7. This shirt is too dirty for me to wear.
–> This shirt isn’t clean enough for me to wear.
8. Boiling an egg is not difficult.
–> It’s easy to boil an egg.
9. We spent 5 hours getting to London.
–> It took us 5 hours to get to London.
10. They last visited me five years ago.
–> They haven’t visited me for five years.
11. His briefcase was too full for the zip fastener to close properly.
–> His briefcase was so full that the zip fastener couldn’t close properly.
12. The last time I played football was in 1971.
–> I haven’t played football since 1971.
13. Their dog was so fierce that nobody would visit them.
–> They had such a fierce dog that nobody would visit them.
14. The noise next door didn’t stop until after midnight.
–> It was not until after midnight that the noise next door stopped.

Bài 4:

1. He is interested in not only planting orchids but also collecting butterflies.


2. You can visit both the West End and the East End in London.
3. Both you and your sister can attend the party the party.
4. She can not only sing beautifully but also play the piano well.
5. I can drink both coffee black and coffee with sugar.
6. She is good at not only maths but also English.

III.7. Câu đảo ngữ
Trong một số trường hợp các phó từ không đứng ở vị trí bình thường của nó mà đảo lên đứng ở đầu câu nhằm nhấn mạnh vào hành động của chủ ngữ. Người ta gọi đó là câu đảo ngữ. Trong trường hợp đó ngữ pháp sẽ thay đổi, đằng sau phó từ đứng đầu câutrợ động từ rồi mới đến chủ ngữđộng từ chính:

Ví dụ:


Little did I know that he was a compulsive liar.
At no time (= never) did I say I would accept late homework.

1. Câu đảo ngữ có chứa trạng từ phủ định:
Nhìn chung, câu đảo ngữ thường được dùng để nhấn mạnh tính đặc biệt của một sự kiện nào đó và thường được mở đầu bằng một phủ định từ.

- Nhóm từ: never (không bao giờ), rarely (hiếm khi), seldom (hiếm khi).

Câu đảo ngữ chứa những trạng từ này thường được dùng với động từ ở dạng hoàn thành hay động từ khuyết thiếu và có thể chứa so sánh hơn.


Ví dụ:

Never have I been more insulted!
(Chưa bao giờ tôi bị lăng mạ hơn thế).
Never in her life had she experienced this exhilarating emotion.
Seldom has he seen anything stranger.
(Hiếm khi anh ấy nhìn thấy một cái gì kì lạ hơn thế).
Seldom have I seen him looking so miserable.

  • Nhóm từ: hardly (hầu như không), barely (chỉ vừa đủ, vừa vặn), no sooner (vừa mới), or scarcely (chỉ mới, vừa vặn).

Câu đảo ngữ chứa trạng ngữ này thường được dùng để diễn đạt một chuỗi các sự kiện xảy ra trong quá khứ.
Ví dụ:

Scarcely had I got out of bed when the doorbell rang.
(Hiếm khi chuông cửa reo mà tôi thức dậy).
No sooner had he finished dinner, when she walked in the door.
(Khi anh ấy vừa mới ăn tối xong thì chị ta bước vào cửa).

2. Nhóm từ kết hợp sau “Only” như: only after, only when, only then…

Only after/only when/only then/only if + trợ động từ + S + V…
Only by + noun/V-ing +
trợ động từ/ động từ khuyết thiếu + S + V….: chỉ bằng cách làm gì

Ví dụ:
Only then did I understand the problem.


(Chỉ sau lúc đó tôi mới hiểu ra được vấn đề).
Only by hard work will we be able to accomplish this great task.
Only by studying hard can you pass this exam.

Chú ý: nếu trong câu có hai mệnh đề, chúng ta dùng đảo ngữ ở mệnh đề thứ hai:

Only when you grow up, can you understand it.


Only if you tell me the truth, can I forgive you.
Only after the film started did I realise that I'd seen it before.

3. Nhóm từ: So, Such

Câu đảo ngữ có chứa “So” mang cấu trúc như sau:


So + tính từ + to be + Danh từ …

Ví dụ:


So strange was the situation that I couldn't sleep.
(Tình huống này kì lạ khiến tôi không thể ngủ được).
So difficult is the test that students need three months to prepare.
(Bài kiểm tra khó tới mức mà các sinh viên cần 3 tháng chuẩn bị).

Câu đảo ngữ có chứa “Such” mang cấu trúc như sau:


“Such + to be + Danh từ +…”

Ví dụ:
Such is the moment that all greats traverse.


(Thật là thời khắc trở ngại lớn lao).
Such is the stuff of dreams.
(Thật là một giấc mơ vô nghĩa).

4. Not only….but also…..:không những…….mà còn…..

Not only + trợ động từ + S +V + but also + S + V…

Ví dụ:
Not only does he study well, but also he sings well.



5. Một số cấu trúc khác

• In/ Under no circumstances: Dù trong bất cứ hoàn cảnh nào cũng không.



Under no circumstances should you lend him the money.

• On no account: Dù bất cứ lý do gì cũng không



On no accout must this switch be touched.

• Only in this way: Chỉ bằng cách này



Only in this way could the problem be solved

• In no way: Không sao có thể



In no way could I agree with you.

• By no means: Hoàn toàn không



By no means does he intend to criticize your idea.

• Negative ..., nor + auxiliary + S + V

He had no money, nor did he know anybody from whom he could borrow.

• Khi một mệnh đề mở đầu bằng các thành ngữ chỉ nơi chốn hoặc trật tự thì động từ chính có thể đảo lên chủ ngữ nhưng tuyệt đối không được sử dụng trợ động từ trong trường hợp này.



Clause of place/ order + main verb + S (no auxiliary)

In front of the museum is a statue.


First came the ambulance, then came the police.
(Thoạt đầu là xe cứu thương chạy đến, tiếp sau là cảnh sát.)

• Khi một ngữ giới từ làm phó từ chỉ địa điểm hoặc phương hướng đứng ở đầu câu, các nội động từ đặt lên trước chủ ngữ nhưng tuyệt đối không được sử dụng trợ động từ trong loại câu này. Nó rất phổ biến trong văn mô tả khi muốn diễn đạt một chủ ngữ không xác định:

Under the tree was lying one of the biggest men I had ever seen.
Directly in front of them stood a great castle.
On the grass sat an enormous frog.
Along the road came a strange procession.

Tân ngữ mang tính nhấn mạnh cũng có thể đảo lên đầu câu:

Not a single word did he say.

• Các phó từ away ( = off ), down, in, off, out, over, round, up... có thể theo sau là một động từ chuyển động và sau đó là một danh từ làm chủ ngữ:

– Away/down/in/off/out/over/round/up...+ motion verb + noun/noun phrase as a subject.

Away went the runners.

Down fell a dozen of apples...

– Nhưng nếu một đại từ nhân xưng làm chủ ngữ thì động từ phải để sau chủ ngữ:

Away they went.

Round and round it flew.

– Trong tiếng Anh viết (written English) các ngữ giới từ mở đầu bằng các giới từ down, from, in, on, over, out of, round, up... có thể được theo sau ngay bởi động từ chỉ vị trí (crouch, hang, lie, sit, stand...) hoặc các dạng động từ chỉ chuyển động, các động từ như be born/ die/ live và một số dạng động từ khác.

From the rafters hung strings of onions.


In the doorway stood a man with a gun.
On a perch beside him sat a blue parrot.
Over the wall came a shower of stones.

Chú ý: các ví dụ trên có thể diễn đạt bằng một V-ing mở đầu cho câuđộng từ to be đảo lên trên chủ ngữ:

Hanging from the rafters were strings of onion.


Standing in the doorway was a man with a gun.
Sitting on a perch beside him was a blue parrot.

Bài tập 1: Viết lại câu với hình thức đảo ngữ

1. She had never been so happy before.

2. I have never heard such nonsense!

3. I have never seen such a mess in my life.

4. Public borrowing has seldom been so high.

5. They had seldom participated in such a fascinating ceremony.


6. They little suspected that the musical was going to be a runaway success.
7. The embassy staff little realized that Ted was a secret agent.

8. I had hardly begun to apologize when the door closed .

9. The shop can in no way be held responsible for customers' lost property.

10. The couple had no sooner arrived than the priest started the ceremony.

11. Tom only understood the meaning of the comment when he saw his wife's face.

12. The restaurant cannot accept animals under any circumstances.

13. The artist rarely paid any attention to his agent's advice.

Bài tập 2: Viết lại câu sao cho nghĩa không thay đổi.

1. Her grief was so great that she almost fainted.

–> So………………………………………….

2. He got down to writing the letter as soon as he returned from his walk.

–> No sooner……………………………………………………..

3. She had hardly begun to speak before people started interrupting her.

–> Hardly……………………………………………………………..

4. I only realized what I had missed when they told me about it later.

–> Only when……………………………………………………

5. You won’t find a more dedicated worker anywhere than Mrs John.

–> Nowhere…………………………………………..

6.–> The outcome of the election was never in doubt.

–> At no time…………………………………….

7. He forgot about the gun until he got home.

–> Not until………………………………

8. The only way you can become a good athlete is by training hard everyday.

–> Only by…………………………………………………………
Xem đáp án

Bài 1:

1. She had never been so happy before.


--> Never had she been so happy before.
2. I have never heard such nonsense!
--> Never have I heard such nonsense!
3. I have never seen such a mess in my life.
--> Never have I seen such a mess in my life.
4. Public borrowing has seldom been so high.
--> Seldom has public borrowing been so high.
5. They had seldom participated in such a fascinating ceremony.
--> Seldom had they participated in such a fascinating ceremony.
6. They little suspected that the musical was going to be a runaway success.
--> Little did they suspect that the musical was going to be a runaway success.
7. The embassy staff little realized that Ted was a secret agent.
--> Little did the embassy staff realize that Ted was a secret agent.
8. I had hardly begun to apologize when the door closed.
--> Hardly had I begun to apologise when the door closed.
9. The shop can in no way be held responsible for customers' lost property.
--> In no way can the shop be held responsible for customers’ lost property.
10. The couple had no sooner arrived than the priest started the ceremony.
--> No sooner had the couple arrived than the priest started the ceremony.
11. Tom only understood the meaning of the comment when he saw his wife's face.
--> Only when Tom saw his wife’s face did he understand the meaning of the comment.
12. The restaurant cannot accept animals under any circumstances.
--> Under no circumstances can the restaurant accept animals.
13. The artist rarely paid any attention to his agent's advice.
--> Rarely did the artist pay any attention to his agent’s advice.

Bài 2:

1. Her grief was so great that she almost fainted.


–> So great was her grief that she almost fainted.
2. He got down to writing the letter as soon as he returned from his walk.
–> No sooner had he returned from his walk than he got down to writing the letter.
3. She had hardly begun to speak before people started interrupting her.
–> Hardly had she begun to speak when people started interrupting her.
4. I only realized what I had missed when they told me about it later.
–> Only when they told me about it later did I realize what I had missed.
5. You won’t find a more dedicated worker anywhere than Mrs John.
–> Nowhere will you find a more dedicated worker than Mrs John.
6. The outcome of the election was never in doubt.
–> At no time was the outcome of the election in doubt.
7. He forgot about the gun until he got home.
–> Not until he got home did he remember about the gun.
8. The only way you can become a good athlete is by training hard everyday.
–> Only by training hard everyday can you become a good athlete.
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