Iii cấu trúc thông thường của một câu tiếng Anh • Mẫu câu thông thường: Subject + verb + complement + modifier



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G. Questions with “shall I…”–> 4 loại sau:

• About future event (sự kiện trong tương lai)

“Shall we attend the meeting tomorrow”, she said.
–>She asked if they would attend the meeting the next day

• Request for instruction or advice (Lời hướng dẫn hoặc lời khuyên)

“Shall I read it, mother?” ha said.
–> He asked his mother if he should read it.

• Offer to do something

“Shall we bring you some new books?” she said.
–> She offered to bring me some new books.

• Suggest to do something

“Shall we go to the cinema tonight”, he said.
–> He suggested going to the cinema that night.

H. Questions with “Will you, would you, could you…?” (yêu cầu, đề nghị, mời)–> offer, invite, order, ask, told.

“ Will you come to my party tomorrow?” he said.


–> He invited me to come to his party the next day.
“Could you get ready at 6p.m tonight?” he said.
–> He told/asked me to get ready at 6p.m that night.
“Would you like some cigarettes?” he said.
–> He offered me some cigarettes.
“Will you shut your mouth?” he said.
–> He ordered me to shut my mouth.

I. Let’s do…–> suggest + V-ing (nếu bao gồm cả người nói thực hiện hành động)
Let’s do…–> suggest + that S should do…(có thể bao gồm hoặc không bao gồm người nói thực hiện hành động)

“Let’s go to the cinema tonight”, he said.


–> He suggested going to the cinema that night. (anh ta cũng đi)
–> He suggested that they should go to the cinema that night

J. Yes, let’s do…–> agree
No, let’s not do… –> be against the idea.

“Let’s eat out tonight” said the mother.


“Yes, let’s” said the son.
“No, let’s not” said the father.
–> The mother suggested eating out that night and the son agreed but the father was against the idea.

K. Must –> had to

“I must finish my work tomorrow”, he said.


–> He said that he had to finish his work the next day.
“Must you go soon?” she said.
–> He asked if I had to go soon.

L. Câu cảm thán trong lời nói gián tiếp

• What + a + noun! /how + adj


–> said that + clause
–> gave an exclamation of delight (vui mừng, tán thưởng), disgust (kinh tởm), honor (sợ), surprise (ngạc nhiên)

“How beautiful the picture is”, he said.


–> He said that the picture was beautiful
–> He gave an exclamation of delight.
“What a dirty kitchen!” she said.
–> She said that the kitchen was dirty.
–> She gave an exclamation of disgust.
“How wonderful”, he said.
–> He said that it was wonderful.
–> He gave an exclamation of surprise.

• “Yes/no” –> subject + trợ động từ

“Have you finished your homework?”he said
“Yes”, she said
–> He asked her if she had finished her homework and she said she had.
“Are you ready for the exam?” he said.
“No”, she said.
–> He asked if she was ready for the exam and she said she wasn’t.

M. “Thank”–> subject + thanked

“Would you like to have dinner with me tonight?”, he said. “thank you, I’d love to” she said.


–> He invited her to have dinner with him that night. She thanked him and said she would love to.
“Good luck”, he said –> he wished me luck.
“Congratulation!”, he said –> he congratulated me.

I. Đổi sang câu gián tiếp:

1. “Shall I help you with the exercises?” he said.


2. “Shall we give him a birthday cake?” he said.
3. “Could I leave early on Friday?” he said.
4. “Where shall we meet tonight?” she said.
5. “Will you have a drink?” he said.
6. “How far is it from here to college?” he said.
7. “Do you often have breakfast at 6.30 a.m?” he said
8. “Don’t swim too far, boys” she said.
9. “Do come in and have a drink” he said.
10. “Remember to wake me up” she said.
11. “If I were you, I would learn English”, she said.
12. “Why don’t we go camping this Sunday?” he said.
13. “Would you like to come to my birthday party next Sunday?” she said.
14. “Let’s have a talk on the new film”, he said.
15. “ Shall I do the cleaning up for you?” he said.
16. “What a clever boy!” she said.
17. “How ugly!” he said.
18. “Did you prepare your meal?” he said. “No” I said.
19. “Happy birthday”, he said.
20. “Take your seat”, he said. “thank”, I said.

II. Chia động từ trong ngoặc theo đúng thời.

1. I wish I (know) something about computers.


2. I wish the traffic (not make) so much noise everyday.
3. It’s high time the children (prepare) their lesson. They are watching TV now.
4. If only it (be) warm and sunny today. I’m fed up with snow and cold.
5. Everybody was exhausted. It looked as if they (work) hard.
6. I’d rather my teacher (give) fewer compositions tonight.
7. My neighbors always treat us as if we (be) their servants.
8. Nick is quite ready for the exam. It looks as if he (prepare) everything.
9. I wish it (not rain) heavily last Sunday.
10. They are making so much noise. It looks as if they (have) a party.
11. If only I (be) rich now so that I (buy) this expensive car.

III. Viết lại câu sao cho nghĩa không thay đổi

1. He appears to be running away from your fierce dog.


–> It looks……………………………………..
2. I would love to be rich and famous.
–> If only………………………….
3. I’d love to be in a secluded beach in Mexico.
–> I wish………………………………………
4. I really think you ought to acquire a few manners.
–> It’s high time……………………………………
5. I’m really sorry I didn’t invite her to the party.
–> I really wish I………………………………..
6. Would you mind not smoking here?–> I’d rather…………………………..
7. Please don’t say things like that.
–> I wish………………………

Xem đáp án

Đáp án:

1. He offered to help me with the exercises.


2. He suggested that they should give him a birthday cake.
3. He asked if he could leave early on Friday.
4. She asked where they would meet that night.
5. He offered me a drink.
6. He asked how far it was from there to college.
7. He asked if I often had breakfast at 6.30.
8. She warned the boys not to swim too far.
9. He invited me to come in and have a drink.
10. She reminded me to wake her up.
11. He advised me to learn English.
12. He suggested going camping that Sunday.
13. He invited me to come to his birthday party the following Sunday.
14. He suggested having a talk on the new film.
15. He offered to do the cleaning up for me.
16. She said that the boy was clever.
17. He gave an exclamation of horror.
18. He asked whether I had prepared the meal and I said I hadn’t.
19. He wished me happy birthday.
20. He told me to take my seat and I thanked him.

Bài 2:
1. knew
2. wouldn’t make
3. were preparing
4. were
5. had been working
6. gave
7. were
8. has prepared
9. hadn’t rained
10. are having
11. were, could buy

Bài 3:

1. He appears to be running away from your fierce dog.

–> It looks as if he is running away from your fierce dog.

2. I would love to be rich and famous.

–> If only I were rich and famous.

3. I’d love to be in a secluded beach in Mexico.

–> I wish I were in a secluded beach in Mexico.

4. I really think you ought to acquire a few manners.

–> It’s high time you acquired a few manners.

5. I’m really sorry I didn’t invite her to the party.

–> I really wish I had invited her to the party.

6. Would you mind not smoking here?

–> I’d rather you didn’t smoke here.

7. Please don’t say things like that.

–> I wish you wouldn’t say things like that.

III.4. Thức giả định
1. “Wish” sentence

A. Wish + to do/ wish somebody something/wish somebody to do something.

I wish to pass the entrance exam.


I wish you happy birthday.
I wish you to become a good teacher.

Chú ý: trong trường hợp này, chúng ta có thể thay thế “wish” bằng “want” hoặc “would like”

I would like/want to speak to Ann.



B. Wish (that)+ subject + past tense : thể hiện sự nuối tiếc trong hiện tại, điều không có thật ở hiện tại

I wish I knew his address. (thật ra tôi không biết địa chỉ của anh ta)


I wish I had a car.
I wish I were rich

Chú ý: trong câu “wish” không có thật ở hiện tại, dùng “were” nếu là động từ tobe cho tất cả các ngôi.

C. Wish (that) + subject + past perfect: thể hiện sự tiếc nuối trong quá khứ

I wish I hadn’t spent so much money.(sự thực là tôi đã tiêu rất nhiều tiền)


I wish I had seen the film last night. (sự thực là tôi không xem phim tối qua)

D. A + wish (that) + B + would do something: phàn nàn hoặc muốn thay đổi tình huống hiện tại (A, B là hai người khác nhau)

I wish they would stop making noise.


I wish it would stop raining hard in summer.

2. “If only” sentence: giá như…..

A. If only + present tense/future tense: diễn tả hi vọng trong tương lai

If only he comes in time = we hope he will come in time


If only he will listen to her = we hope he will be willing to listen to her

B. If only + simple past: diễn đạt hành động không có thật ở hiện tại

If only there were snow in summer. We could go skiing.


If only he would join our party.

C. If only + past perfect: diễn đạt hành động không có thật ở quá khứ

If only the Bush government hadn’t spead war in Irak, million people there wouldn’t have been killed.



D. If only ….would do….= person A wish person B would do something

You are driving too dangerously. If only you would drive slowly


= I wish you would drive slowly

3. “As if/as though” sentence

A. As if/as though + simple past: diễn đạt hành động không có thật ở hiện tại

It’s very cold today. It looks as if/as though it were autumn now.(thực ra bây giờ đang là mùa hè)



B. As if/as though + past perfect: diễn đạt hành động không có thật ở quá khứ

The whole were seriously damaged. It looks as if it had been destroyed by bombs. (thực ra đó là do động đất)



C. As if/as though + present tense: diễn đạt hành động có thật

He appears running from a fierce dog.


–> It looks as if he is running from a fierce dog.

4. Other subjunctive structures

It’s time somebody did something: đã đến lúc ai đó phải làm gì ở hiện tại.

The exam is coming. It’s time they worked hard.

Chúng ta có thể dùng cấu trúc “It’s high time somebody did something” để nhấn mạnh hơn ý muốn nói.

It’s high time we started.

Person A would rather person B did something: đề nghị ai đó một cách lịch sự ở hiện tại

A: Would you mind if I smoke?
B: I’d rather you didn’t smoke.

• Sau đây là một số các tính từ đòi hỏi mệnh đề sau nó phải ở dạng giả định, trong câu bắt buộc phải có that và động từ sau chủ ngữ 2 ở dạng nguyên thể bỏ to: advised, necessary, recommended, important,obligatory, required, imperative, mandatory, proposed, suggested



Lưu ý: Nếu muốn cấu tạo phủ định đặt not sau chủ ngữ 2 trước nguyên thể bỏ to.

It is necessary that he find the books.


It is necessary that he not find the books.
It has been proposed that we change the topic.
It has been proposed that we not change the topic.

Nếu bỏ that đi thì chủ ngữ 2 sẽ biến thành tân ngữ sau giới từ for, động từ trở về dạng nguyên thể có to và câu mất tính chất giả định trở thành dạng mệnh lệnh thức gián tiếp.

It is necessary for him to find the books.
It is necessary for him not to find the books.
It has been proposed for us to change the topic.
It has been proposed for us not to change the topic.

III.5. Câu điều kiện ("If" sentence)
A. Câu điều kiện loại I (the conditional sentence type I)

1. Cấu trúc



Clause 1 (the simple future) + if + Clause 2 (the simple present)

2. Cách sử dụng và ví dụ

– Diễn tả sự việc có thể xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai.

Ví dụ:


I’ll visit Ho Chi Minh city if I have time.
We’ll pass the exam if we work hard.

3. Các biến thể cơ bản



Clause 1 (might/do +V) + if + Clause 2 (the simple present)

→ để chỉ khả năng khách quan

Ví dụ: It’s sunny. We may get a headache if we go out without a hat.

Clause 1 (may/can + V) + if + Clause 2 (the simple present)

→ để chỉ sự cho phép

Ví dụ: You can go home if you finish your test.

Clause 1 (must/should + V) + if + Clause 2 (the simple present)

→ để chỉ yêu cầu, đề nghị.

Ví dụ: You must do exercises if you want to get good marks.

4. If….not…= Unless

Ví dụ:
- I won’t visit you if I don’t have time

→ Unless I have time, I won’t visit you.

- We’ll go camping if the weather is fine.

→ Unless the weather is fine, we won’t go camping.

- If you miss seeing the first part of the film, you can’t say you understand it.

→ Unless you see the first part of the film, you can’t say you understand it.



Chú ý: mệnh đề chứa “unless” không dùng dạng phủ định.

B. Câu điều kiện loại II (the conditional sentence type II)

1. Cấu trúc



Clause 1 (would + V) + if + Clause 2 (the simple past tense)

2. Cách sử dụng và ví dụ

– Diễn tả sự việc không có thật ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai

Ví dụ:


If it were cold now, we wouldn’t switch on the fans.
(but it’s hot and we have to switch on the fans)
I would fly if I were a bird.
(but I am not a bird and I can’t fly)

Chú ý: Chúng ta dùng “were” cho tất cả các ngôi, không dùng “was”

3. Các biến thể cơ bản



Clause 1 (might/ could + V) + if + Clause 2 (the simple past tense)

→ chỉ khả năng

Ví dụ: He might succeed if he tried

I could speak French well if I lived in France.



C. Câu điều kiện loại III (the conditional sentence type III)

1. Cấu trúc cơ bản



Clause 1 (would have + P2) + if + Clause 2 (the past perfect)

2. Cách sử dụng và ví dụ

– Câu điều kiện loại III là câu điều kiện không có thật ở quá khứ.

Ví dụ:
a. Miss Phuong wouldn’t have won the prize if she hadn’t attended the beauty contest.


(but the fact that she attended and she won the prize)
b. We would have got good marks if we had prepared our last lesson carefully.
(but the fact that we didn’t prepare our last lesson carefully and we didn’t get good marks).

3. Các biến thể cơ bản



Clause 1 (could have + P2) + if + Clause 2 (had + P2)

→ chỉ sự chủ quan, sự cho phép.

Ví dụ:
I could have won a prize if I had taken part in the competition last week.
You could have gone to the cinema if you had finished your homework last night.

Clause 1 (might have + P2) + if + Clause (had + P2)

→ chỉ khả năng khách quan.

Ví dụ: The last crop might have been better if it had rained much.

D. Câu điều kiện hỗn hợp II, III (the mixed conditional sentence type II and III)

1. Cấu trúc cơ bản



Clause 1 (would + V) + if + Clause 2 (had + P2)

2. Ví dụ:

If I had been born in town, I would like life there.
(the fact that I wasn’t born in town, so I don’t like life there now)
If I followed your advice, I would have a job now.
(the fact that I didn’t follow your advice, so I don’t have a job now)

3. But for + noun + điều kiện loại II, III


But for: nếu không có…

Ví dụ:
You help me everyday so I can finish my work.


→ But for your daily help, I couldn’t finish my work.
She encouraged him and he succeeded.
→ But for her encouragement, he wouldn’t have succeeded.
The teacher explained and we understood.
→ But for the teacher’s explanation, we wouldn’t have understood.

E. Đảo ngữ của câu điều kiện

1. Điều kiện loại I

• Nếu trong câu có “should” ở mệnh đề if, thì đảo “should” lên đầu câu

If he should ring , I will tell him the news.


→ Should he ring, I will tell him the news.

• Nếu trong câu không có “should”, chúng ta phải mượn “should”

If he has free time, he’ll play tennis.
→ Should he have free time, he’ll play tennis.
If she comes early, we’ll start.
→ Should she come early, we’ll start.

2. Điệu kiện loại II

• Nếu trong câu có động từ “were”, thì đảo “were” lên đầu.

If I were a bird, I would fly.


→ Were I a bird, I would fly.
They would answer me if they were here.
→ Were they here, they would answer me.

• Nếu trong câu không có động từ “were” thì mượn “were’ và dùng “ to V”

If I learnt Russian, I would read a Russian book.
→ Were I to learn Russian, I would read a Russian book.
If they lived in Australia now, they would go swimming.
→ Were they to live in Australia now, they would go swimming.

3. Điều kiện loại III


• Đảo trợ động từ của thì quá khứ hoàn thành.

If it had rained yesterday, we would have stayed at home.


→ Had it rained yesterday, we would have stayed at home.
If he had trained hard, he would have won the match.
→ Had he trained hard, he would have won the match.

Chú ý: ở dạng phủ định, “not” được đặt sau chủ ngữ:

Had it not been so late, we would have called you.



Bài tập1: Chia động từ trong ngoặc theo đúng dạng

1. Bring him another if he (not/like) this one.


2. She (be) angry if she (hear) this tomorrow.
3. Unless you are more careful, you (have) an accident.
4. If you (like), I (get) you a job in this company.
5. If grandmother (be) 5 years younger, she (play) some games.
6. If he sun (stop) shinning, there (be) no light on earth.
7. If I (be) a millionaire, I (live) on Mars.

Bài tập 2: Viết lại câu theo gợi ý

1. I didn’t eat lunch, I feel hungry now.


–> If I………………………………….
2. If it hadn’t rained, we would have a better crop.
–> But for………………………………………
3. If you want my advice, I wouldn’t buy it.
–> If I ………………………………………
4. I only come if they invite me.
–> Unless……………………….
5. He didn’t revise all his lessons, he failed the exam.
–> If he………………………………………………
6. His sister sent her money, so he continued to study.
–> But for…………………………………………
7. The park is over there, only 5 minutes’ walk.
–> If you walk……………………………….
8. In case it rains, we’ll stay at home
–> If it……………………………..

Bài tập 3: Sửa các câu sai sau:

1. Should anyone rang, could you take a message?


2. Were the customers not complained, nothing would have been done.
3. Was I a bird, I would fly.
4. Unless you don’t have a good command of English, you won't be able to work for this company.
5. Were they live in Australia now, they would go swimming.

Xem đáp án

Bài 1:

1. Bring him another if he doesn’t like this one.


2. She will be angry if she hears this tomorrow.
3. Unless you are more careful, you will have an accident.
4. If you like, I will get you a job in this company.
5. If grandmother were 5 years younger, she would play some games.
6. If the sun stopped shinning, there would be no light on earth.
7. If I were a millionaire, I would live on Mars.


Bài 2:

1. I didn’t eat lunch, I feel hungry now.


–> If I had eaten lunch, I wouldn’t feel hungry now.
2. If it hadn’t rained, we would have a better crop.
–> But for rain, we would have a better crop.
3. If you want my advice, I wouldn’t buy it.
–> If I were you, I wouldn’t buy it.
4. I only come if they invite me.
–> Unless they invite me, I won’t come.
5. He didn’t revise all his lessons, he failed the exam.
–> If he had revised all his lessons, he wouldn’t have failed the exam.
6. His sister sent her money, so he continued to study.
–> But for his sister’s money, he wouldn’t have continued to study.
7. The park is over there, only 5 minutes’ walk.
–> If you walk to the park, it will take you 5 minutes.
8. In case it rains, we’ll stay at home
–> If it rains, we’ll stay at home.


Bài 3:

1. Rang –> ring


2. Were –> had
3. Was –> were
4. You don’t have –> you have
5. Were they live –> were they to live

III.6. Một số mẫu câu thường gặp
1. Cấu trúc câu mang nghĩa bao hàm

– Đó là lối nói gộp hai ý trong câu làm một thông qua một số các cụm từ. Hai thành phần trong câu phải tương đương nhau về mặt từ loại: danh từ với danh từ, tính từ với tính từ, ...



1.1. Not only ..... but also (không những ... mà còn....)

S + verb + not only + noun/adj/adv + but also + noun/adj/adv
Hoặc:
S + not only verb + but also + verb

Robert is not only talented but also handsome.


He writes not only correctly but also neatly.
She can play not only the guitar but also the violin.
She not only plays the piano but also composes music.

Thành phần sau 'but also' thường quyết định thành phần sau 'not only'.

Incorrect: He is not only famous in Italy but also in Switzerland.
Correct: He is famous not only in Italy but also in Switzerland.

1.2. As well as (vừa ... vừa ...)

– Cũng giống như cấu trúc trên, các thành phần đằng trước và đằng sau cụm từ này phải tương đương với nhau.



S + verb + noun/adj/adv + as well as + noun/adj/adv

Hoặc:


S + verb + as well as + verb

Ví dụ:


Robert is talented as well as handsome.
He writes correctly as well as neatly.
She plays the guitar as well as the violin.
Paul plays the piano as well as composes music.

Chú ý: Không được nhầm thành ngữ này với as well as của hiện tượng đồng chủ ngữ mang nghĩa cùng với.

The teacher, as well as her students, is going to the concert.


My cousins, as well as Tim, have a test tomorrow.

1.3. Both ..... and... (vừa ... vừa)

– Công thức dùng giống hệt như not only .... but also. Both chỉ được dùng với and, không được dùng với as well as.

Robert is both talented and handsome.
Paul both plays the piano and composes music.

2. Một số cấu trúc câu cầu khiến
2.1. To have sb do sth = to get sb to do sth = khiến ai, bảo ai làm gì

I’ll have Peter fix my car.


I’ll get Peter to fix my car.

2.2. To have/to get sth done = làm một việc gì bằng cách thuê người khác

I have my hair cut. (Tôi đi cắt tóc - chứ không phải tôi tự cắt)
I have my car washed. (Tôi mang xe đi rửa ngoài dịch vụ - không phải tự rửa)

Theo khuynh hướng này động từ to want và would like cũng có thể dùng với mẫu câu như vậy: To want/ would like Sth done. (ít dùng)

I want/ would like my car washed.

2.3. To make sb do sth = to force sb to do sth = Bắt buộc ai phải làm gì

The bank robbers made the manager give them all the money.
The bank robbers forced the manager to give them all the money.

Đằng sau tân ngữ của “make” có thể dùng 1 tính từ: To make sb/sth + adj

Wearing flowers made her more beautiful.
Chemical treatment will make this wood more durable

2.4. To make sb + P2 = làm cho ai bị làm sao

Working all night on Friday made me tired on Saturday.

2.5. To cause sth + P2 = làm cho cái gì bị làm sao

The big thunder storm caused many waterfront houses damaged.

2.6. To let sb do sth = to permit/allow sb to do sth = để cho ai, cho phép ai làm gì

I let me go.
At first, she doesn’t allow me to kiss her but...


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