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1. Equal comparison

S + Verb + as + Adjective/ Adverb + as Noun / Pronoun

My book is as interesting as yours.

His car runs as fast as a race car.

S + Verb ( in negative) + as/ so + Adjective/ Adverb +as + S + Verb / Aux

John does not sing so well as his sister does.

2. Comparative form.

Adjective + er

S + Verb

Adverb + er

+ than Noun / Pronoun

more + Adjective/ Adverb

less + Adjective/ Adverb

Eg: John’s grade is higher than his sister’s.

He speaks Spanish more fluently than I do.

3. Superlative

Adjective / Adverb+ est

in + singular count noun

S + Verb the

most + Adjective/ Adverb

of + plural count noun

least + Adjective/ Adverb

Eg: John is the tallest boy in the family.

That child behaves the most carelessly of all.

Note: The same idea can also be converted in another way.

S + Verb + the same + ( noun) + as + Noun / Pronoun

Eg: my house is the same height as his.

4. Double comparatives:

4.1. Càng ngày càng:

a. Short adjectives and adverbs:

* Form:

adj/adv-“er” and adj/adv- “er”

Ex: The days are getting longer and longer.

b. Long adjectives and adverbs:

* Form:

more and more + adj/adv

Ex: The game gets more and more exciting

4.2. Càng.....càng

a. Short adjectives and adverbs:


The + adj/adv- ‘er’ , the adj/adv- “er’

Ex: The bigger the room is, the better I feel.

b. Long adjectives and adverbs:

* Form:

The more + adj/adv, the more + adj/adv

Ex: The more difficult this work is, the more excited I feel..

4.3. Nouns and verbs.

* Form:

The more….., the more …….

Ex: The more money he gets, the more food he buys.

The more he works, the more he earns.

* Chú ‎: Ta có thể kết hợp tất cả các hình thức trên với nhau:

Ex: The more work he did, the busier he became.

The less you think of the story, the better you feel

  1. Bill Gates is one of  ________ people in the world.

A. the rich B. richer C. rich    D. the richest

  1. I am ________ at music than my old sister.

A. good  B. better C. goodest D. the best

  1. Rita is ________ than the other students in class.

  A. hardworking  B. the most hardworking  

C. more hardworking  D. hardworkinger 

  1. Ice hockey is ________ sport in Canada.

A. popular   B. the most popular     C. more popular   D. populariest

  1. Garfield is ________ than Nemo.

A. the funniest B. more funny  C. funnier  D. funny

  1. That is ________ song this band has.

A. the most beautiful     B. more beautiful  

C. beautifulest  D. beautiful

  1. The China Wall is ________ wall in the world.

A. the longest      B. more long    C. longer   D. long

  1. Cities are ________ than villages

A. busier     B. busy   C. the busiest   D. most busy

  1. February is ________ than April.

A. short  B. the shortest  C. shorter   D. most short

  1. Amalia is  ________ girl in the class.

A. the cleverest   B. clever    C. cleverer D. more clever

  1. German is ________ than English. 

  A. the most B. difficult difficulter  C. difficult   D. more difficult

  1. Swimming is ________ than running.

A. exciting   B. more exciting  C. excited D. the most exciting

  1. Your new car is _______ than my old one.

A. the cheapest  B. cheaper C. more cheaper   D. most cheapest

  1. Travelling by plane is________ than traveling by ship.

A. fastest  B. fast C. faster  D. more fastest

  1. New York is ________  city in USA.

A. crowded   B. the most crowded   C. more crowded  D. crowder

16. Of the four dresses, which is _______expensive?

A. the best B. the most C. the more D. the greater

17. The larger the apartment, the_______ the rent.

A. expensive B. more expensive C. expensively D. most expensive

18. The faster we walk,_______ we will get there.

A. the soonest B. the soon C. the more soon D. the sooner

19. “ Why did you buy these oranges? ” “They were _______ I could find. ”

A. cheapest B. cheapest ones C. the cheapest ones D. the most cheapest

20. She plays the piano _______ as she sings.

A. as beautifully B. more beautifully C. as beautiful D. the most beautifully

21: Nam is 5 years ______ than Hoa.

A. old B. older C. elder D. eldest

22: Mary is the______ student in my class.

A. tallest B. taller C. tall D. as tall as

23: Peter wanted to win the race. He ran ______.

A. so fast as he can B. fast as he could C. fast as he can D. as fast as he could

24: Jim is five centimeters _____ than Tom.

A. tall B. tallest C. higher D. taller

25: She speaks Chinese as ________ as I do.

A. well B. good C. very good D. better

26: Lucy answered the questions ______ than Sarah.

A. more intelligent B. most intelligent C. more intelligently D. intelligent

27: One of the ____ diseases mankind has ever faced is cancer.

A. worse B. better C. worst D. best

28: Nancy plays the piano _____ beautifully than I do.

A. most B. as C. more D. quite

29: It is ______ to talk about a problem than to solve it.

A. more easier B. easiest C. easier D. easy

30: The situation continues to get worse and ______.

A. worst B. bad C. worse D. badly

31: You have got a scholarship; you are luckier______.

A. as I do B. than I am C. than I have D. than I do

32: The longer hours you work, ______.

A. the less tired you'll be B. you'll be more tired

C. the more tired you'll be D. the most tired you'll be

33: Nowadays, young people ______.

A. don’t read as many as their parents used to B. don’t hardly read much as their parents did

C. do more reading as their parents used to D. don’t read as much as their parents used to

104: The more you talk about the situation, ______.

A. it seems the worse B. the worse it seems

C. it seems worse D. the worse does it seem

35: “Could you talk ______? I'm learning my lessons.”

A. more quietly B. as quietly C. most quietly D. so quietly

36: John said that no other car could go ______.

A. fastest than his car B. faster like his car C. so fast like his car D. as fast as his car

37: The more you study, ______.

A. you will gain more knowledge B. the more knowledge do you gain

C. you are the more knowledgeable D. the more knowledge you gain

38: John works much ______ than we do.

A. more hardly B. harder C. hardest D. hard

39: The longer he waited, ______ impatient he got.

A. the better B. better C. the more D. more

40: The harder you try, ______ you get.

A. the best B. good C. the better D. better

Exercise 2: Choose the underlined part among A, B, C or D that needs correction.

1. Richard feels good than several days ago.


2. Mary and Daisy are both intelligent students. Mary is so intelligent as Daisy.


4. The Caspian Sea, a salt lake, is the largest than any other lakes in the world.


5. He drives the car more dangerous than his brother does.


6. It was the most biggest building that I had ever seen.


7. I wish my house were so large as Jone’s.


8. The Mekong is one of the longer rivers in the world.


9. She can play the piano more good than her sister.


10. Many people believe that New York is the most great city in America


11. His drawings are as perfectly as his instructor’s drawings .


12. The salary of a professor is high than that of a secretary


13. The duties of a policeman are dangerous than those of a teacher.


14. John’s car runs good than Mary’s.


15. The climate in Florida is as milder as California.


16. Classes in the university are most difficult than those in the college.


17. The basketball games at the university are well than those of high school.


18. I feel more better today than I did last week.


19. This encyclopedia costs three times as more as the other one.


20. He visits his family less frequent than she does.


21. Jessica is only an amateur, but she sings well than most professionals


22. This house is more spacious as that white house I bought in Rapid City, South Dakota last year.


23. They asked a lot of questions, checked their figures, and came up with best solution.


24. Almost everyone has heard the more famous Olympic saying: “Stronger, Higher, Faster.”


25. Louise is the more capable of the three girls who have tried out for the part in the play.


26. This telephone isn’t as cheap the other one, but it works much better.


27. Stories are the most good way of teaching moral lessons to young people.


28. The first skill to learn is how to write only the more important words, not whole sentenceName=13; HotwordStyle=None; s.


29. It is certainly true that the averageName=1; HotwordStyle=None; woman has weaker muscleName=2; HotwordStyle=None; s that the average man.


30. In 1925, he joined the advertising department of Doubleday Page and


Company, one of the most large publishing houses in New York.


Exercise 3: Rewrite the sentences, using comparative forms:

1. Yesterday the temperature was nine degrees. Today it’s only six degrees.

=> It’s

2. The journey takes four hours by car and five hours by train.

=> It takes

3. Chris and Joe both did badly in the exam. Chris got 20% but Joe only got 15%.

=> Joe did

4. I expected my friends to arrive at about 4 o’clock. In fact they arrived at 2:30.

=> My friends

5. We were very busy at work today. We are not as busy as that everyday.

=> We

6. Jane cooks better than her sister. Jane’s sister cooks worse than Jane.

=> Jane’s sister

7. Tom is the best football player in this team.

=> Nobody in this team

8. Nothing is faster than the speed of light.

=> The speed of light

9. Jack is younger than he looks.

=> Jack isn’t

10. I didn’t spend as much money as you.

=> You

Exercise 4: Rewrite the following sentences in anther way.

1. I’m 40 years old. Jane is 30 years old.

=> I

2. Peter always gets mark 10 and Mary only gets mark 5 at Maths.

=> Peter

3. The colour TV is more expensive than the black and white TV.

=> The black

4. My mother doesn’t speak English as well as my father.

=> My father

5. Your house is larger than mine.

=> My house

6. Nam can run farther than I can.

=> I

7. Mr Binh drives more carefully than he used to.

=> Mr Binh

8. Lan is a better typist than Hoa.


9. Apples are usually cheaper than oranges.

=> Apples

10. I haven’t got as much money as you.

=> You

11. Hung is the tallest boy in our class.

=> Nobody

12. Have you got a cheaper bike than this?

=> Is this

13. No restaurant in the city is better than this one.

=> This restaurant

14. He is the worst guitarist in the world.

=> Noone

15. She knows more about it than I do.

=> I

Exercise 5: Choose the best sentence that have similar to the given one.

1. They understand more than we do.

A. We don’t understand as much as they do.

B. We don’t understand anything at all.

C. They understand everything inside out.

D. They are very intelligent.

2. It is much more difficult to speak English than to speak French.

A. To speak French is more difficult than to speak English.

B. To speak English is more difficult than to speak French.

C. Speaking English is more difficult than to speak French.

D. Speaking French is not as difficult as to speaking English.

3. My interview lasted longer than yours.

A. Your interview wasn’t as short as mine.

B. Your interview was shorter than mine.

C. Your interview was as long as mine.

D. Your interview was longer than mine.

4. When I was younger, I used to go climbing more than I do now.

A. Now I don’t go climbing anymore.

B. I used to go climbing when I younger.

C. Now I don’t go climbing as much as I did.

D. I don’t like going climbing any more.

5. Your coffee is not as good as mine.

A. Mine is better than yours. B. My coffee is better than your.

C. My coffee is better than yours. D. My coffee is more good than yours.

6. I can't cook as well as my mother does.

A. My mother can cook better than I can.

B. My mother can't cook better than I can.

C. My mother can cook well than I can.

D. I can cook better than my mother can.

7. Murder is the most serious of all crimes.

A. Murder is very serious.

B. No crime is more serious than murder.

C. Everyone is very afraid of murder.

D. Murder is the dangerous crime.

8. No one in this class is as tall as Richard.

A. Richard is the tallest in this class.

B. Richard is taller than in this class.

C. Richard is the most tall in this class.

D. Richard is more tall than in this class.

9. This is the best music I have ever heard.

A. I’ve never heard better music than this.

B. I’ve never heard such a good music as this.

C. I’ve never heard so good music as this.

D. This is the first time I’ve heard this good music.

10. This is the most interesting novel I’ve ever read.

A. Knowing that the novel will be interesting, I read it.

B. If only I had known the novel was so interesting, I’d have read it earlier

C. I don’t think it is the most interesting novel.

D. I have never read a more interesting novel than this.


1. Conditional sentence Type 1:

Example: - If I have money, I will buy a new bicycle .

- If he works hard, he will pass the exam

a. Form:

If + S + V(present simple subjunctive), S + will/shall/may/can+ V(without to)

b. Use: to express real condition at present

* Note: Unless = if ....not

Example: You will fail the exam if you don’t work hard.

= You will fail the exam unless you work hard.

2. Conditional sentence Type 2:

Example: If I were you, I would save money.

a. Form: If + S + V(past simple subjunctive), S + would/could/should/might + V(without to)

Note: Trong câu điều kiện loại 2, động từ “to be” thường chia ở dạng số nhiều were.

b. Use: Unreal condition at present.

If I were you, I would go to see the doctor. (But in fact, I am not you).

If I had much money, I would buy a car. (But in fact, I don’t have much money)

3. Conditional sentence Type 3:

Example: - If he had been at the party last night, he would have met her.

- If the driver had driven more carefully, he wouln’t have had the accident.

a. Form:

If + S + V(past perfect subjunctive), S + would/could/might/should + have + V(p.p)

b. Use: Unreal condition in the past.

4. Mixed condition:

Past condition/ Present result

- The first one has a condition in the past and a present result. We use it to express that if something had been different in the past there would be a present result

For example: If we hadn’t missed our flight, we’d be in Spain now.

If I had gone with Tito, I would not be so lonely now!

If I had moved to Colombia I might be poor and unhappy now.

The structure: If + S + past perfect, S would/could/might + bare infinitive

Present condition/Past result

The next one has a presenr condition and a past result. we use it to express that due to certain present conditions something already happened in the past.

For example: If I were more diligent, I would have finished my degree at university.

If she had enough money, she could have done this trip to Hawaii.

* Exercise 1. Choose the most correct answer:

  1. If I ______ the bus this afternoon, I will get a taxi instead.

A. miss B. will miss C. missed D. had missed

  1. `We’ll have to go without John if he ______ soon.

A. won’t arrive B. will arrive C. arrives D. doesn’t arrive

  1. If I make some coffee, _____ the cake?

A. do you cut B. will you cut C. are you cutting D. don’t you cut

  1. If you ______ your homework, I _____ you watch TV.

A. won’t do/ let B. did/ won’t let

C. don’t do/ won’t let D. won’t do/ don’t let

  1. If you _____ this switch, the computer _____ on.

A. press/ comes B. will press/ comes

C. press/ can come D. have pressed/ will comes

  1. ____ you, I would think twice about that decision. It could be a bad move.

A. If I am B. Should I be C. Were I D. If I had been

  1. “Would you like some cake?”- “No, thanks. If I ________ cake, I ______ fat.”

A. ate/ will get B. ate/ would get

C. would eat/could get D. am eating/ will get

  1. Pam broke her arm in the accident. It____ much worse if she hadn’t been wearing her seat belt.

A. will be B. would have been C. was D. were

  1. “My boss made me work overtime again.”_ “if I _____ you, I _____ my job.”

A. were/ would have quit B. am/ will quit

C. was/ must quit D. were/ would quit

  1. If you _____ me about the bad service, we’d have gone there for my dinner.

A. didn’t tell B. wouldn’t have told C. hadn’t told D. had told

  1. If I had been absent from class yesterday, I____ the math test

A. would missed B. would have missed C. will miss D. miss

12. I think you should give up smoking.

A. if I am you, I will stop smoking. B. if I were you, I will stop smoking.

C. if I were you, I would stop smoking. D. if I had been you, I would stop smoking.

13. If I were you, I would work harder.

A. you would rather not work so hard B. you should work harder

C. you should work with me D. do not work so hard.

14. We did not visit the museum because we had no time.

A. If we have time, we will visit the museum.

B. If we had time, we would visit the museum.

C. If we had had time, we would have visited the museum.

D. If we had had time, we will visit the museum.

15. He looked frightened as if he ______ a ghost.

A. sees B. is seeing C. has seen D. had seen

16. If it rains very hard, I _______ at home.

A. will be stayed B. would have stayed C. will stay D.would stay

17. I wouldn’t feel better now if you _______to me about it last night.

A. hadn’t told B. hadn’t talked C. didn’t tell D. didn’t talk

18. If it _______, the accident wouldn’t have happened.

A. were rained B. weren’t rained C. had rained D. hadn’t rained

19. If you _______to my advice in the first place, you wouldn’t be in the mess right now.

A. listen B. listened C. listens D. listening

20.- Here’s my phone number.

- Thanks. I’ll give you a call if I _______some help tomorrow.

A. need B. needed C. needs D. needing

21. You won’t pass the examination _______ you study more.

A. unless B. as long as C. if D. whether

22. If people drove more carefully, _______ fewer accidents.

A. there will be B. there would be C. there are D. there have been

23. You won’t achieve anything _______ you take risks.

A. if B. unless C. when D. that

24. If the weather_______ worse, we won’t go to the beach.

A. gets B. got C. will get D. would get

25. If we _______ enough water, we wouldn't have been thirsty.

A. take B. took C. had taken D. hadn’t taken

26. If I _______ him some money this afternoon, he will leave without money.

A. don’t give B. hadn’t given C. give D. no giving

27. The boy will leave the house _______ he is behaved better

A. if B. as long as C. whether D. unless

28. If you_____to me, you wouldn’t have got so much trouble.

A. listened B. would listen C. had listened D. Would have listened

29. If we _______ enough water, we wouldn’t have been thirsty.

A. take

B. took

C. had taken

D. hadn’t take

30. If you_______ me _______the problem, I would have helped you.

A. had told/ about

B. had told/ of

C. have told/ about

D. had told/ to

31. If he had driven carefully, he_______ accident.

A. would have happened

B. wouldn’t have happened

C. would happen

D. will happen

32. If I_______ about the job, I would have applied for it.

A. had known

B. have known

C. have had known

D. knew

33. You _______ disappointed if you had tried to work hard.

A. would have been

B. wouldn’t have been

C. would be

D. will be

34. They_______ the motorbike if they had had enough money.

A. buy

B. would have bought

C. had bought

D. had had bought

35. I will never talk to you again_______you apologize me _______ your being so rude.

A. if/ for

B. unless/ for

C. or/ of

D. whether/ of

36. If today _______ yesterday, I_______ never talk to him that way.

A. were/ would

B. was/ will

C. were/ will

D. would be/ were

37. I _______ to work now if I had passed driving licence test.

A. drove

B. will drive

C. would have driven

D. would drive

38. If the weather _______ good, we will have lunch outside.

A. is

B. was

C. are

D. have been

39. If I _______ that Greg wanted to get of early, I would have broken him up.

A. have realised

B. had realised

C. realised

D. realises

40. If you had written me a letter, you _______ unhappy.

A. would have been

B. would be

C. wouldn’t have been

D. will be

* Exercise 2. Put the verbs in blackest in correct form of conditional sentence type 2.

1. If he _______(learn ) hard , he _______( not fail ) this exam.

2. If I _______( be ) good at English, I _______( apply ) for that job.

3. If you _______ ( not work ) so fast , you _______ ( not have ) so many mistakes like that.

4. If my friends _______ ( keep ) calm in this situation, they _______( not fight ) together.

5. If I _______ ( not behave ) so badly like that , I _______ ( not hurt ) my friends.

* Exercise 3. Rewrite the following sentences using the conditional sentence type 2

1. She doesn’t finish her homework so she gets a bad mark.

-> ____________________________________________________

2. He doesn’t have enough money so he can’t buy a dictionary

-> ____________________________________________________

3. These plants may die unless you water them regularly

-> ____________________________________________________

4. You don’t try hard, you can’t pass the exam.

-> ____________________________________________________

5. He comes to the class late because it rains

-> ____________________________________________________

* Exercise 4. Put the verb in blackest in correct form (type 3).

1. If he _______( not take) this train he _______( not go ) there in time.

2. I had no map; that’s why I got lost . If I _______ ( have) a map ; I _______( be) alright.

3. I got up late this morning so I went to class late . If I _______( get ) up earlier I _______ ( go ) to class on time.

4. I ran out of money so I could not buy this coat for my sister. If I _______(not run) out of money, _______ ( buy) this coat for my sister.

5. If I_______ ( have ) enough money , I _______( buy ) it for my sister.

* Exercise 5. Rewrite the following sentences in such a way that its meaning is siminal to the original one.

1. He doesn’t have money and he can’t buy a car.

-> __________________________________________________

2. He lost all his money because he wasn’t careful.

-> __________________________________________________

3. I don’t have free time so I can’t go to see him.

-> __________________________________________________

4. She didn’t hurry, so he missed the train.

-> __________________________________________________

5. We didn’t have your phone number so we couldn’t phone you.

-> __________________________________________________



1. Chức năng:

 Là chủ ngữ của câu: Dancing bored him

 Bổ ngữ của động từ: Her hobby is painting

 Là bổ ngữ: Seeing is believing

 Sau giới từ: He is interested in watching films on Tv.

 Sau một vài động từ: avoid, mind, enjoy.........

2. Một số cách dùng đặc biệt:

a. Verb + V-ing: Danh động từ theo sau một số động từ:

Admit: thú nhận Anticipate: trông mong, mong đợi

Avoid: tránh Appreciate: tán thành

Consider: xem xét Delay: hoãn lại

Defer: trì hoãn Deny: từ chối

Detest: ghét Dislike: không thích

Dread: sợ Enjoy: thích thú

Escape: trốn thoát Excuse: thứ lỗi

Fancy: đam mê Finish

Forgive: tha thứ Like: thích

Love: yêu thích Imagine: tưởng tượng

Involve: dính líu, liên quan Keep: giữ, tiếp

Mind: phiền Miss: lỡ, nhớ

Mention: đề cập Pardon: tha thứ, tha lỗi

Prefer Prevent: ngăn ngừa

Postpone: hoãn lại Practice: thực hành

Prevent Propose (= suggest)

Quit: từ bỏ Recollect: nhớ lại

Resent: căm thù Recall: gợi nhớ/ recollect

Resume: cho rằng Resist : kháng cự, ngăn cản

Risk : mạo hiểm Remember/ forget

Suggest: gợi ý Stop/ begin/ start

Understand: hiểu Discuss: thảo luận

Hate: ghét

Ex: He admitted taking the money. He detests writing letters.

He didn’t want to risk getting wet. I can’t understand his/ him leaving his wife.

Chú ý: excuse, forgive, pardon, prevent không trực tiếp theo sau bởi danh động từ mà theo sau bởi:

Possessive adjective/ pronoun + danh động từ hoặc pronoun + preposition + danh động từ

Appreciate thường theo sau bở tính từ sở hữu hoặc danh động từ ở dạng bị động

Ex: Forgive my/ me ringing you up so early.

Forgive me for ringing you up so early.

You can’t prevent his/ him spending his own money.

You can’t prevent him from spending his own money.

I appreciate your giving me o much of your time./ I appreciate being given this opportunity.

b. common phrasal verbs + V-ing: (sau một số cụm động từ)

carry on, end up, give up, go round, keep on, put off, set about…

Ex: He gave up smoking last year.

c. Expression + V-ing: Một số thành ngữ theo sau bởi V-ing

- have fun/ a good time + V-ing : vui vẻ … - have trouble/ difficulty + V-ing:

- have a hard time/ difficult time + V-ing - spend + time/ money + V-ing (present participle)

Ex: He spends 3 hours studying English every day.

- waste + time/money + V-ing :

- sit + Danh từ nơi chốn + V-ing : she sat at her desk writing a letter

- stand + danh từ nơi chốn + V-ing - lie + danh từ nơi chốn + Ving

- can’t help = can’t bear = can’t stand = can’t resist (không thể chịu được)

Ex: I can’t bear hearing his lies I can’t stand seeing him here           

- it is no good / it is no use (vô ích / không có ích) :             

Eg: It’s no use phoning him at this time

- there’s no point in … - What’s the point of…

- to be busy           bận rộn My mother is busy cooking in the kitchen.

- to be  worth                  đáng  This book is worth reading

- be use to = get used to = be accustomed to : quen với

- S + prefer + V-ing + to + V-ing: thích làm gì hơn làm gì = S + would rather Vinf than Vinf

d. go + gerund để chỉ một hoạt động đặc biệt nào đó: (Present participle)

- go fishing                      go hunting go bowling go jogging

- go shopping                  go camping go sightseeing go sailing

- go swimming                go dancing go running go mountain climbing

- go hiking                       go birdwatching go boating go canoening

* Cụm giới từ theo sau bới V-ing:

be excited/ worried about V-ing

complain keep (someone)

dream about/ of + V-ing prevent (someone) from V-ing

talk stop (someone)


apologize believe

blame (someone) be interested in V-ing

forgive (someone) for V-ing succeed

be responsible

thank (someone)      

be tired of V-ing in addition

be waste look forward to V-ing

Ex: I thanked him for helping me. I look forward to meeting you.

* Preposition +gerun d(giới từ +gerund):

Be interested in (thích thú) think about (nghĩ về) apologize for (xin lỗi về)

Insist on (khăng khăng về) talk about (nói về) instead of (thay vì)

Be accustomed to look forward to ( mong đợi ) be familiar with

be / get used to quen /thích nghi với

Ex: I’m interestd in reading books.

3. The perfect gerund: Form: having Vpp

The perfect gerund được sử dụng thay the present form of gerund (V-ing) khi chúng ta đề cập tới một hành động đã hoàn tất trong quá khứ:

Ex: He was accused of having stolen her money. He denied having been there.

4. The passive gerund: Form: being + past participle (present)

Having + been + Vpp (past)

Ex: She hates being called a dull.

The mountain climbers are in danger of being killed by an avalanche.

I am interested in being given money by my mother.

He was punished by being sent to bed without any supper.

The safe showed no signs of having been touched.


Exercise 1 : Supply the correct verb form. (V-ing)

1. When I’m tired, I enjoy (watch) ______________ television. It’s relaxing.

2. It’s a nice day. Does anyone fancy (go) ______________ for a walk.

3. I’m not in a hurry. I don’t mind (wait) ______________.

4. I wish that dog would stop (bark) ______________. It’s driving me mad.

5. We were hungry, so I suggested (have) ______________ dinner early.

6. Hurry up! I don’t want to risk (miss) ______________ the train.

7. She loves (swim) ______________in the early morning.

8. Most people prefer (drive) ______________to (ride) ______________

9. Do you mind (process) ______________these film again?

10. They denied (destroy) ______________the flower beds in the schoolyard.

11. He spends ages (play) ______________games online.

12. She doesn’t allow (smoke) ______________ in her house.

13. Why do you keep (ask) ______________ me questions?

14. One of the boy admitted (break) ______________ the window.

15. He looks do funny. I can’t help (laugh) ______________ at him.


1. Chức năng:

- Làm chủ ngữ của câu: (cùng với các động từ: appear, seem, be)

Ex: To save money now seems impossible. = It seems impossible to save money (more usual)

- Làm bổ ngữ của động từ (be): Ex: His plan is to keep the affair secret.

- Làm tân ngữ của động từ: Ex: He wants to play

- Chỉ mục đích: He learns English to sing English songs.

- Sau một số tính từ:

1) Dạng 1: V + TO INFINITIVE : Một số động từ theo sau là to infinitive

1. afford : cung cấp đủ

2. agree : đồng ý

3. appear : có vẻ

4. arrange: sắp xếp

5. ask: hỏi

6. attempt: cố gắng

7. beg : đề nghị, xin

8. care : quan tâm

9. claim : cho là, tuyên bố

10. consent : đồng ý, tán thành

11. decide : quyết định

12. demand : yêu cầu

13. deserve : xứng đáng

14. expect : trông đợi

15. dare : dám

16. fail : thất bại

17. forget : quên ( tương lai )

18. hesitate : ngập ngừng

19. hope : hy vọng

20. learn : học

21. manage : xoay xở

22. mean : muốn

23. need : cần (chủ động, người)

24. offer : mời

25. plan : dự định, kế hoạch

26. prepare : chuẩn bị

27. pretend : giả vờ

28. promise : hứa

29. refuse : từ chối

30. regret : tiếc ( tương lai )

31. remember : nhớ (tương lai )

32. seem : dường như

33. struggle : đấu tranh, cố gắng

34. swear : thề

35. threaten : dọa

36. tend : có khuynh hướng

37. volunteer : tình nguyện, xung phong

38. wait : đợi

39. want : muốn ( chủ động )

40. wish : ao ước

Ex: She learned hard to get good marks She promised to take me to the zoo.

2) Dạng 2: V + O + TO INFINITIVE

1. advise : khuyên

2. allow: cho phép

3. ask : hỏi, đòi hỏi

4. beg : năn nỉ, xin

5. cause : gây ra

6. challenge : thách thức, thách đố

7. convince : thuyết phục

8. dare : dám

9. encourage :khuyến khích

10. expect : trông đợi

11. forbid : cấm

12. force : bắt buộc

13. hire : thuê, mướn

14. instruct : chỉ dẫn

15. invite : mời

16. need : cần

17. tempt : cám dỗ 18.intend : dự định

19. order : ra lệnh

20. permit : cho phép

21. persuade : thuyết phục

22. remind : nhắc lại

23. require : yêu cầu

24. recommend : khuyên

25. teach : dạy

26. tell : bảo

27. urge : thúc giục, thuyết phục

28. want : muốn

29. warn : cảnh báo

30. help : giúp đỡ

31. would like : thích

32. would prefer : thích

33. appoint : chỉ định ai làm gì

34. charge : giao nhiệm vụ

35. choose : lựa chọn

36. compel : cưỡng bách

37. defy : thách

38. desire : ao ước, thèm thuồng

39. direct : hướng dẫn, chỉ huy

40. implore : yêu cầu

41. provoke : xúi giục

42. Teach, explain, know, understand, discover, consider, think, believe + how + to inf : chỉ cách thức

Ex: She advised  me to go to the English Club.


+ allow / permit / advise/ recommend/ encourage + object + to infinitive

Ex: She doesn’t allow me to smoke in her room

+ allow/ permit/ recommend/ encourage/ advise + gerund

Ex: She doesn’t allow smoking in her room

3. To infinitive sau một số tính từ:

a) Trong cấu trúc sau: IT + BE + ADJECTIVE + TO INFINITIVE

Ví dụ:

- It’s difficult to find their house   Thật khó tìm ra nhà của họ

- It’s dangerous to drive fast   Lái xe nhanh thì nguy hiểm.

 - It’s important to learn English   Học tiếng Anh thì rất quan trọng

* Có hai dạng tương đương như sau:

= To infinitive + be + Adjective


Ví dụ:

Ex: It’s exciting to play football   Chơi bóng đá thật thú vị.

= to play football is exciting = playing football is exciting

b) To infinitive sau 1 số tính từ: Able, unable, happy, delighted (vui vẻ), easy, lovely, glad, sorry, eager (háo hức), amazed (ngạc nhiên), pleased (hài lòng), disappointed, surprised, willing (sẵn lòng), certain (chắc chắn)

Trong cấu trúc:

* S + be/ get/ look/ seem/ become...+ too + Adj +(for O) + to infi.

S + V (thường) + too + Adv +(for O) + to infi.

Ex: The water in this glass is too hot to drink. This coffee is too hot for me to drink.

He runs too slowly to catch the bus.

* S + be + Adj + enough (for O) + to infi.

S + V (thường) + Adv + enough (for O) + to infi.

Ex: He is old enough to get married. He’s intelligent enough to get good marks.

They speak slowly enough to understand.

* so + adjective + as + infinitive

Ex: He was so foolish as to leave his car unlocked.

*It + cost/ take + O + to infinitive…

Ex: It would cost millions/ take years to rebuild the castle.

c) Sau một số từ để hỏi: Verb + how/what/when/where/ which/why + infinitive

Những động từ sử dụng công thức này là ask, decide, discover, find out, forget, know, learn, remember, see, show + object, think, understand, want to know, wonder.

Ex : He discovered how to open the safe. I found out where to buy fruit cheaply.

She couldn’t think what to say I showed her which button to press.

She wondered whether to write or phone.

d) Chỉ mục đích:

Ex: He tried to study hard in order to / so as to/ to pass every exam

e) Noun + to infinitive ( replace a relative clause)

Ex: 1. I have many things which I must do/ to do

2. She is always the last to go/ who goes

f) S + V + Đại từ bất định + To V (anywhere, anybody, anything, somebody, something, somewhere, nobody, nothing, nowhere, everything, everybody, everywhere)

Ex: Is there anywhere to go? He has got nothing to eat

g) Thay cho một mệnh đề quan hệ:

- Động từ nguyên thể có thể được sử dụng sau the first, the second..., the last, the only và thỉnh thoảng sau so sánh hơn nhất

Ex: + He loves parties; he is always the first who comes and the last who leaves.

= He loves parties; he is always the first to come and the last to leave

+ He is the second one to be killed in this way.

4) Dạng 3: V + TO INFINITIVE/ GERUND (một số động từ theo sau bởi to infinitive and gerund)

a. Nhóm 1: V + to Infinitive / Gerund ( không khác nghĩa )

- begin                   bắt đầu - prefer                  thích .. hơn - can’t stand

- start                     bắt đầu - hate                     ghét - can’t bear

- continue              tiếp tục - love                    yêu thích - intend

- like                      thích - bother làm phiền

Các động từ trên có thể được theo sau bởi to Infinitive hoặc Gerund mà ý nghĩa hÇu nh­ không đổi.

Ex: He began to laugh= He began laughing

Chú ý :

+ Không nên dùng: It’s beginning raining Nên nói: It is begining to rain

+ Động từ nguyên mẫu thường mang ý nghĩa của một mục đích, một dự tính trong tương lai, trong khi danh động từ mang ý nghĩa một kinh nghiệm sẵn có. Cách sử dụng chúng đôi khi rất tinh tế như sau:

Eg: - I like to meet the public (Tôi thích gặp công chúng – Tôi thấy nên gặp, cần gặp → dự định)

- I like meeting the public (Tôi thích gặp công chúng. Tôi thấy vui khi gặp và tôi luôn làm thế).

b. Nhóm 2: V + infinitive / Gerund ( khác nghĩa)

  remember, forget, regret, try, stop, need , go on

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