Giải thích các thuật ngữ thường sử dụng trong Marketing

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Giải thích các thuật ngữ thường sử dụng trong Marketing (phiên bản tiếng Anh)


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09-05-05, 18:04




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Các thuật ngữ bắt đầu bằng ký tự "A"

Above the line
“Above the Line” is the term commonly used for advertising for which a payment is made and for which commission is paid to the advertising agency. Methods of above the line advertising include television and radio, magazines, newspapers and Internet.

ACORN stands for “A Classification Of Residential Neighbourhoods”. ACORN is a database which divides up the entire UK population in terms of the type of housing in which they live. This can be used for various purposes in marketing planning and in designing promotional campaigns

Ad hoc market research
Ad-hoc research focuses on specific marketing problems. It involves the collection of data at one point in time from one sample of respondents

Added value
Added value refers to the increase in worth of a product or service as a result of a particular activity. In the context of marketing, the added value is provided by features and benefits over and above those representing the “core product”.

Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services through mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television or radio by an identified sponsor.

Advertising budget
The total amount of money that a marketer allocates for advertising over a period of time

After-sales service
The services received after the original goods or services have been paid for. Often this service is provided as part of a warranty or guarantee scheme.

Part of the distribution channel. An agent is effectively a wholesaler who represents buyers and sellers on a relatively permanent basis, performs only a few functions and does not take title to goods

Ambush marketing
A deliberate attempt by a business or brand to associate itself with an event (often a sporting event) in order to gain some of the benefits associated with being an official sponsor without
incurring the costs of sponsorship. For example by advertising during television coverage of the event.

Ansoff matrix
A model used in strategic marketing planning. The Ansoff Product/Market matrix model links marketing strategy with the general strategic direction of a business. It maps four potential product-market strategies - e.g. market penetration, product development, market development and diversification - on a matrix showing new versus existing products along one axis and new versus existing markets along the other.

Augmented brand
The additional customer services and benefits (“added value”) that are built around the core product or service offering

Available market
The total group of customers who have an interest in a interest in a product or service, have access to it, and have the ability to buy it

Advertising or other promotional activity (e.g. public relations) whose primary purpose is to increases general knowledge of the company, and to make people feel more positive towards it


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Các thuật ngữ bắt đầu bằng ký tự "B"

Behavioural segmentation
Behavioural segmentation divides customers into groups based on the way they respond to, use or know of a product.

Below the line
“Below the line” is a term commonly used to refer to non-media advertising or promotion when no commission has been paid to the advertising agency. This includes direct mail, point of sale displays, and other sales promotions.

The process of comparing the products and services of a business against those of competitors in a market, or leading businesses in other markets, in order to find ways of improving quality and performance

Benefit segmentation
Benefit segmentation relates to the process of dividing a market based on the specific benefits consumers seek from a product. For example, some car buyers want safety and security from their car, while others look for comfort or speed. A car manufacturer, therefore, has to decide which benefits to offer – and how these benefits should be communicated to the customer

Boston Group Matrix
A means of analysing and categorizing the performance of business units in large diversified firms by reference to market share and growth rates. It was developed by the Boston Consultancy Group (BCG)

A brand is the specific type of the product form. A brand – represented by a brand name, symbol, design, logo, packaging – is the identity of a particular product form that customers recognise as being different from others.

Brand building
Developing a brand's image and standing with a view to creating long term benefits for brand awareness and brand value

Brand equity
Brand equity refers to the value of a brand. Brand equity is based on the extent to which the brand has high brand loyalty, name awareness, perceived quality and strong product associations. Brand equity also includes other “intangible” assets such as patents, trademarks and channel relationships.

Brand extension
Brand extension refers to the use of a successful brand name to launch a new or modified product in a new market. Virgin is perhaps the best example of how brand extension can be applied into quite diverse and distinct markets.

Brand image
Brand image refers to the set of beliefs that customers hold about a particular brand. These are important to develop well since a negative brand image can be very difficult to shake off.

Brand loyalty
A strongly motivated and long standing decision to purchase a particular product or service

Brand recognition
A customer's awareness that a brand exists and is an alternative to purchase

Breakeven is achieved when total contribution is equal to total fixed costs. Addition contribution earned after this point becomes profit

Break-even pricing
Setting a price to achieve break-even on the costs of making and marketing a product (direct costs). Breakeven is achieved when the total contribution from sales priced in this way at least equal the fixed costs of the business

Build share
A strategy based on the Boston Matrix. Here the company can invest to increase market share (for example turning a "question mark" into a star)

Business portfolio
The business portfolio is the collection of businesses and products that make up the business.

Business to business
Marketing activity directed from one business to another (as opposed to a consumer). This term is often shortened to “B2B”

Buying behaviour
Buying behaviour concerns the process that buyers go through when deciding whether or not to purchase goods or services. Buying behaviour can be influenced by a variety of external factors and motivations, including marketing activity.

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