Summary of chapter 1 In chapter 1, all the matters related to literature review on Hemingway’s Iceberg Theory are proposed. Then, more information about the author Ernest Hemingway, particularly his life and writing career and his significant achievements and contributions, is taken into much consideration. After that, the plot, the main characters, some major themes of the work “A Farewell to Arms” are presented. All of these serve one purpose, to provide readers with a fundamental source of information that can potentially help to approach the main issue in Chapter 2, which is the use of literary devices manifesting Hemingway’s Iceberg Theory in “A Farewell to Arms”.
Chapter 2 THE ICEBERG THEORY IN “A FAREWELL TO ARMS” BY ERNEST HEMINGWAY 2.1. Methodology 2.1.1. Methods a) Mixed methods research As writing in the field of mixed methods research has become more sophisticated, several authors have labored to identify and define exactly what mixed methods research is. As for the definition of mixed methods research, Issac (1981) presented 19 alternative meanings from leaders in the field. While these meanings had varying levels of specificity, the authorof this study settled upon the following “composite” definition: “Mixed methods research is the type of research in which a researcher or team of researchers combines elements of qualitative and quantitative research approaches (eg. use of qualitative and quantitative viewpoints, data collection, analysis, inference techniques) for the broad purposes of breadth and depth of under standing and corroboration.” From the author's perspective, this definition works because it includes what we believe is an essential characteristic of mixed methods research: methodological eclecticism. What is being implied here is a form of methodological eclecticism indeed, the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods is often proposed, on the ground that this promises to cancel out the respective weaknesses of each method.
According to Issac (1981), there are four major types of mixed methods designs, namely the Triangulation Design, the Embedded Design, the Explanatory Design and the Exploratory Design. The author decided to apply the Explanatory Design to this study because it seemed to be the most feasible. It is a two-phase mixed methods design, starting with a quantitative survey study and identifying statistically significant differences and anomalous results. Following is an in-depth qualitative study to explain why these results occurred. Employing this design in the study, the author intended to recognise the usage frequency of common literary devices used by Ernest Hemingway to manifest his Iceberg Theory in the novel “A Farewell to Arms”. Afterwards, the three most prominent devices would be further examined concerning their usage purposes behind. On balance, to achieve the most desired results, the study implements a mixed methods research featuring both quantitative method and qualitative method to identify, describe, analyse and explain common literary devices manifesting Hemingway's Iceberg Theory in the novel “A Farewell to Arms”. Throughout this process, quantitative benefits the identification of common literary devices used by the author in the work, whereas qualitative method helps to explain the purposes behind their usage.
Although the Explanatory Design is considered the most straightforward of the mixed methods designs, the author still faces specific challenges while using this design. First, this design requires a lengthy amount of time for implementing the two phases. Second, the researcher must decide which quantitative results need to be further explained. Although this cannot be determined precisely until after the quantitative phase is complete, options, such as selecting significant results and strong predictors, can be discussed and weighed as the study is being planned. However, it is conspicuous that these shortcomings are far outweighed by its more significant benefits, hence a mixed methods research with explanatory design would be utilised in the study.