1.2.2. Ernest Hemingway’s writing career Ernest Hemingway started writing at a young age and his lucid and succinct writing style exerted a powerful influence on world literature, said Bradford (2019). He became a published writer in 1925, when his first important book, In Our Time, got published in America. Later, in 1926, his first novel, The Sun Also Rises, enabled him to score the first solid success. The novel deals with the purposeless expatriates in Spain and France. His next work, The Torrents of Spring, also appeared in 1926. His reputation as a master of shorter fiction skyrocketed with the publication of Men without Women that published in 1927. This well-received work followed by another notable publication, “A Farewell to Arms”, that came up in 1929. The novel accounts for his real war experiences as a young soldier in Italy; he successfully infused war stories into a love story. Afterwards, he fictionalized his passion for bullfighting and unbound love for Spain in his next publication, Death in the Afternoon. Weaving the considerable experiences of Spain in peace and war, he came up with his next finest work, For Whom the Bell Tolls. His other notable works include The Old Man and the Sea and Across the River and Into the Trees.
1.3. Introduction to “A Farewell to Arms” For a detailed and exact understanding of the novel “A Farewell to Arms”, the researcher make a reference to the viewpoint of different literary critics, including Trodd (2007), Ginger (1977), and Bradford (2019).
1.3.1. The plot summary of “A Farewell to Arms” “A Farewell to Arms” has a very straightforward plot. During World War I (1914–1918), American lieutenant Frederic Henry meets English nurse Catherine Barkley while working with the Italian ambulance service. Catherine supports Henry's advances despite her grief at the death of her fiancé, who was slain in the war. Henry is taken to a hospital in Milan after being critically injured by a trench mortar shell near the Isonzo River in Italy. She looks after him while he recovers. During this time, their bond grows stronger. Henry reveals that he has feelings for her. Henry quickly becomes pregnant with Catherine, but she refuses to marry him.
Henry is sent back to the front after the hospital supervisor, Miss Van Campen, discovers that he has been hiding alcohol in his hospital room. Morale on the front had deteriorated dramatically during his absence. He flees the army during the Italian withdrawal following the disastrous Battle of Caporetto (1917), narrowly avoiding execution by Italian military police. Henry returns to Milan in quest of Catherine. He quickly discovers that she has been dispatched to Stresa, which is 95 miles (153 kilometers) away. Henry takes the train to Stresa. He reunites with Catherine there, and the two depart Italy by crossing the Swiss border into neutral territory.
Henry and Catherine are detained by Swiss border officials upon arrival. They decide to let Henry and Catherine stay in Switzerland, posing as architecture and art students looking for “winter sport.” In a wooden cottage near Montreux, the couple spends several joyful months. Catherine goes into labor late one night. To get to the hospital, she and Henry take a taxi. Following a lengthy and hard labor, Henry wonders if Catherine will live. Unfortunately, their son was stillborn. Catherine begins to bleed and dies soon after, with Henry by her side. He tries but fails to say farewell. In the rain, he returns to their motel alone.