“GIÃ TỪ VŨ khí” CỦa tác giả ernest hemingway khóa luận cử nhân ngành khoa học quân sự Chuyên ngành: Tiếng Anh

The features of Hemingway’s Iceberg Theory

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Vocab Questions
1.1.2. The features of Hemingway’s Iceberg Theory
By means of a thorough investigation, Ginger (1977) concluded that succinct words, distinct images, plentiful emotions and profound thoughts are the four fundamental elements of Iceberg Theory for further study, that is, the words and images are the so-called “1/8” while the emotions and thoughts are the so-called “7/8”. The formers are specific and visual while the latter are implied in the former. The words portray the images; the emotions are embodied in the images; the thoughts are embodied in the emotions.
1.1.3. The typical devices employed in Hemingway’s Iceberg Theory
It is widely acknowledged that Hemingway’s Iceberg Theory covers inclusively his writing style as a minimalist. Basically, a typical Hemingway novel or short story is written in simple, direct, unadorned prose with distinct attributes.
In the article “Hemingway's Camera Eye”, Zoe Trodd (2007) once said that, “Symbols dominate the existence of Hemingway’s characters, a subtle spectator of all deeds, full of sensitiveness. The use of constitutive symbols, image verbalization and reality are characteristics of the main themes in Hemingway’s works such as hostility, nada or nothingness, sex”. That is to say, symbolism emerged as a compelling part of Hemingway’s writing style. Trodd (2007) further claimed that Hemingway used repetition in prose to create a collage of snapshots to form the whole picture. She explained in details that it was also a glacier waterfall, infused with Hemingway’s multifocal aesthetic perspectives that “requires the reader to feel the whole story” and that the reader must “fill in the gaps caused by the writer's omission with their emotions”. Besides, the preference for parataxis is also mentioned as part of Hemingway’s Iceberg Theory in Hemingway's Early Manuscripts by Smith (1983). Besides, Hemingway’s use of several other literary devices in his works, including foreshadowing, irony and personification have also been reassured in numerous studies as mentioned in the subchapter previous studies.
- Symbolism
Symbolism derives from the Greek verb symballien, which means to throw together. According to Freeman (1970), it is a literary device in which something, an object or situation, is used to represent something else. Fadae (2011), in the book Picturing Hemingway’s Michigan, states that “symbolism is applied only to a word or phrase that signifies an object or event which in its turn signifies something, or has range of reference, beyond itself.”.
Writers use symbols to grab a depth for the literary creations and to express the things ironically, avoiding the problems that can come to them. Shaw defined symbols as something used for, or regarded as, representing something else. More specifically, a symbol is a word, phrase, or other expression having a complex of associated meanings, said Davidon (2017); in this sense, a symbol is viewed as having values different from those of whatever is being symbolized. Also, Davidon defined symbols as an object, either animate or inanimate, it represents or stands for something else (2017). According to him, the meaning of the literary symbol should recognize from its context (2017). That means the meaning of symbols should be identified inside the text, not in outside.
Symbolism is one of the most important aspects of literature. Symbolism in literature can be found in every story ever written, as no literary work is complete without some form of symbolic meaning. According to Trodd (2007), “Symbols dominate the existence of Hemingway’s characters, a subtle spectator of all deeds, full of sensitiveness. The use of constitutive symbols, image verbalization and reality are characteristics of the main themes in Hemingway’s works such as hostility, nada or nothingness, sex”. Take the Marlin, which is a fish in The old man and the sea for an instance, it symbolizes the ideal opponent existing in the mysterious world of the unknown that challenges every man.
- Repetition
According to Sigmund Freud (1924), “repetition, the re-experiencing of something identical, is clearly in itself a source of pleasure”. Kawin (1972) further clarified Freud’s claim that most outright repetition simply aims to make us remember something, without considering whether accurate human experience is being communicated. He also highlighted that repetition is fundamental to human experience since it could strengthen an impression, create a rhythm, flash us back, or start us over. Repetition is primarily effective at two things, namely emphasis and rhythm. Simply repeating a phrase or word is an effective way at emphasizing specific ideas to a reader or audience. If a word or phrase appears only once, a reader may overlook it. When it is repeated, the word or phrase (and, by extension, the idea being communicated) registers more directly in the reader’s mind. Repetition can also create rhythm in text both written and spoken language. This is especially effective at engaging audiences when used in oral speeches. Speeches can become mundane if they become simply read. Repetition can create rhythm and musicality to a speech that more deeply engages audiences.
In the following example extracted from The Complete Short Stories by Ernest Hemingway (1953), in the story Mr and Mrs. Elliot, the word ‘tried’ is used repeatedly: “Mr. and Mrs. Elliot tried very hard to have a baby. They tried as often as Mrs. Elliot could stand it. They tried in Boston after they were married and they tried coming over on the boat. They did not try very often on the boat because Mrs. Elliot was sick as Southern women are sick.”. The frequent repetition of ‘tried’ is a figurative evocation of their repeated copulation. That they ‘tried very hard’ implies a sense of toil and suggests that such repetitive sex is both joyless and monotonous, culminating in the unambiguously final: “They tried as often as Mrs. Elliot could stand it”.
According to DeGuzman (2022), there are five fundamental types of repetition categorised based on structure and form, namely anaphora, epistrophe, symploce, mesodiplosis and epizeuxis. One of the most simple types of repetition is epizeuxis. Epizeuxis is the repetition of a single word in sequence. Another one is anaphora, which is the repetition of a word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses or sentences. Similar to anaphora is epistrophe. Epistrophe is the repetition of a word or group of words at the end of successive clauses or sentences. Meanwhile, symploce is the use of both anaphora and epistrophe. In the meantime, the repetition of a word in the middle of a phrase or clause is known as mesodiplosis. To make the study as much inclusive as possible, the author decided to examine all the five types of repetition used by Hemingway in the novel.
- Diction
According to Keraf (2010), diction refers to the quality of a group of words. Good diction includes using appropriate words to express ideas, words that are formatted appropriately for the context in which they are used, and the words chosen are understandable by the reader. This term is not only used to express an idea but also includes phraseology, style of language and expression.
Diction is the use of language in either written or spoken form in which authors or speakers carefully manipulate word choice in order to achieve an effect. Diction can be formal, casual, or slang depending on the desired results. When words are spoken aloud, diction also applies to the way the words are delivered to listeners. Particularly, in prose, diction helps to reveal the unique personalities of a story’s characters.
In “Hills like White Elephants”, for instance, Ernest Hemingway employs diction to illustrate that men can be very powerful and horrible, analysed by Miller (2019). While introducing the characters, the narrator says, “The American and the girl with him sat at a table in the shade, outside the building”. According to him, Ernest Hemingway uses diction to emphasize that there is an American man and a foreign girl. He wants readers to consider that the man has power because he is more experienced than the underage girl.
- Parataxis
Derived from the Greek word “to place side by side”, parataxis is a “writing style that employs short, simple, rapid-fire prose, without the use of linking words”, said Freeman (1970). He also noted that it is a unique type of concise writing that removes conjunctions between phrases, working to give equal weight to phrases and add a nice stream of consciousness feel to the writing. According to Davidon (2017), paratactic sentences, clauses, and phrases are useful in explaining a rapid sequence of thoughts in poetry and prose. They could evoke feelings in a similar way as though they happened at once. It is a helpful device when describing a setting. Lanham (2007) devotes a chapter to parataxis in his classic book on linguistics under the theme of Analyzing Prose. He has this to say: “Parataxis can be a contrived, patterned, self-conscious style, one whose syntax can carry an allegorical meaning of its own. It is easy to write a laundry list, but not so easy to write like Hemingway without falling into parody. Try it.”
Hemingway was not the first to use parataxis, but he did make it famous with examples extracted from the novel The sun also rises: “The steer was down now, his neck stretched out, his head twisted, he lay the way he had fallen. Suddenly the bull left off and made for the other steer which had been standing at the far end, his head swinging, watching it all.”. Each clause of this sentence can stand alone, and each one is therefore equal to the others, with no hierarchy among them. The text reads as choppy and abrupt, and the images come at the reader in a rush, compressing the experience and image into something immediate that must be processed all at once, much the way being at an actual bullfight would seem for a person in the stands. This is called asyndetic parataxis, or parataxis without conjunctions. Another type of parataxis is called syndetic parataxis, whose crucial thing to know about is that it only ever uses one particular type of conjunction, which is coordinating conjunctions. Coordinating conjunctions create equal relationships between parts of a sentence, such that the parts of the sentence are related but not dependent on each other. This is the only type of conjunction that can be used in parataxis, which makes sense, as parataxis itself is defined by equality among elements in a sentence.
- Irony
Irony is derived from the word eironia, which means deception. Freeman (1970) states that “Irony is a stylistic device also based on the simultaneous realization of two logical meanings - dictionary and contextual, but the two meanings stand in opposition to each other.”. In short, irony is a literary device to express something captured by the reader that should be opposite from the literal meaning. The thing that should be noted when interpreting irony expression is the context of its expression. Similar to Freeman, Davidon (2017) also stated that “Irony states one thing in one of voice when, in fact, the opposite meaning is intended.”. Clearly, it can be proposed that irony is not seen from what is said but rather to interpret the meaning from the context or situation.
The use of irony creates the effect because the reader feels free to interpret the meaning as long as it appropriates to the context of utterance. The reader can interpret the meanings as humour, negative impression, or critic. Davidon (2017) found the effect and the aim in irony. He states that “The aim of irony is to communicate the opposite of what is literally said whereas the effect may be a sarcastic, satiric, or even funny interpretation that undoubtedly profiles negative connotations.”. It proves that irony is used for a specific purpose, and it causes the effect as well. Irony can be used to convey sensitive things but in a humorous tone. For example, there are several examples of irony in Hemingway's works, particularly in the short story The old man and the sea. First of all, Manolin would have liked to continue working on Santiago's boat, but ''after forty days without a fish the boy's parents had told him that the old man was now definitely and finally salao, which is the worst form of unlucky, and the boy had gone at their orders in another boat which caught three good fish the first week.''. This is ironic because if the boy had been with Santiago when he caught the biggest marlin any of them had ever seen, the old man would not have had such a struggle with bringing it in safely. Another example of situational irony is that Santiago spent days trying to catch the marlin before it was successfully harpooned, yet by the time he made it to shore there was nothing left of it. Santiago managed to drive off “the last shark of the pack that came. There was nothing more for them to eat.” You would not expect to work that hard without any benefits.
- Personification
Davidon (2017) states that personification is a literary device “in which an abstract idea, or something which is not alive, is treated as though it were a person”. It means personification is the style of language that gives the characteristics of humans to inanimate objects. Furthermore, he illustrates that “Personification is the attribution of human characteristics and/or feelings to non-human organisms, inanimate objects, or abstract ideas.” This statement is supported by Freeman (1970) as he adds, “Personification is a figure of speech (more specifically a trope) that bestows human characteristics upon anything non-human, from an abstract idea to a physical force to an inanimate object to a living organism.”. Briefly, personification is the expression of language to create non-human life as if human. So, this kind of literary device makes non-human can act, speak, and has the emotional feeling like a human.
Personification often appears in fairy tales written for children. The use of personification will create the story imaginatively because the readers will find non-humans such as animals, plants, and other objects having dialogues with each other, and they also have the attribution like a human. In The Old Man and the Sea, examples of personification include of the fish and nature itself. Santiago personifies the great fish, referring to it as “he” and imbuing it with human feelings and thoughts that, in turn, have the effect of making the struggle between them more noble in his mind. There is also personification of nature. For instance, Hemingway refers to the ocean as a tempestuous woman full of beauty but also of fury and danger.
- Foreshadowing
Foreshadowing is considered to be a “technique of arranging events and information in a narrative in such a way that later events are prepared for or shadowed forth beforehand”, said Bae (2015). A writer may implement foreshadowing in many different ways; some of these ways worth mentioning include: character dialogues, plot events, and changes in setting. Even the title of a work or a chapter can act as a clue that suggests what is going to happen. A well-constructed novel, for instance, will suggest at the very beginning what the outcome may be; the end is contained in the beginning, and this gives the novel structural and thematic unity. Besides, foreshadowing is generally used to build anticipation as well as curiosity in readers' minds about what might happen next, thus adding dramatic tension to a story. Moreover, foreshadowing can make extraordinary and bizarre events appear credible; some events are predicted in order to make the audience feel anticipated and prepared for them. For example, in the novel The old man and the sea, Hemingway successfully used the numbers as a tool for shadowing Santiago’s success. When Santiago and Manolin fish together for forty days without catching anything, it's enough to make Manolin's parents send him to work on another boat. At the time that the narrative takes place, Santiago's dry spell has reached eighty-four days. However, in an attempt to cheer him up, Manolin points out: ''But remember how you went eighty-seven days without fish and then we caught big ones every day for three weeks.'' This suggests that Santiago shouldn't throw the towel in quite yet. The old man decides that on the eighty-fifth day, things might be different. He tells Manolin that the number eighty-five is lucky, and asks him to buy a lottery ticket with that number.

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