Deictic expression = indexical: any linguistic form used to accomplish this ‘pointing’
Deixis is tied to the speaker’s context with diectic expressions.
‘ near speaker ’
‘away from speaker’
to indicate people
to indicate location
to indicate time
PERSON DEIXIS Persons involved in an utterance ● the speaker
● the addressee
● other persons and entities
(neither speaker nor addressee)
He she it they
EXAMPLES 1. I am going to have dinner.
2. Would you like to have dinner?
These three deictic categories are elaborated with markers of relative social status.
Honorifics Expressions indicate higher status
Social deixis The T/V distinction
Familiar addressee (informal)
Non-familiar addressee (formal)
other persons and entities (3rd person) ◊ distance and non-familiarity
◊ an ironic or humorous purpose
Would his highness like some coffee?
◊ potential accusations => less direct
You didn’t clean up after himself.
◊ make an impersonal issue.
You have to clean up after him or herself.
Somebody didn’t clean up after himself.
Each person has to clean up after him or herself.
other persons and entities (3rd person) ◊ state general ‘rules’
We clean up after ourselves around here.
exclusive inclusive => AMBIGUITY Spatial deixis where the relative location of people and objects are being indicated (Giergji, 2015) ● The speaker’s purposes: - Identifying entities
: demonstrative pronouns
this/ these that/ those
- Informing about location of an entity
- Acknowleging location of an entity
Spatial deictic system
Proximal (near speaker) Distal (away from speaker) this, these, here, come, …
that, those, there, go, …
EXAMPLES 1. I enjoy living in this city.
2. Here is where we met last month.
3. Nancy came into the classroom.
4. Nancy went into the classroom.
Location from the speaker perspective can be fixed: