Conditional sentences ( CÂU ĐIỀu kiệN )



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CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ( CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN )
Câu điều kiện có hai mệnh đề: mệnh đề chính (main clause) và mệnh đề phụ (if clause). Muốn nhấn mạnh mệnh đề nào ta dặt nó ở đầu câu.

Có 3 loại câu điều kiện cơ bản sau:



1.Future possible (tương lai có thể xãy ra) còn gọi là câu điều kiện loại I

*.Form: ((công thức)

If -clause

Main clause

Simple present

If + S + V / V (-s/es)

Simple future

, S + will / shall + V


*Chú í: - Ở mệnh đề chính có thể dùng can, may, must thay cho will, shall

  • Ở mệnh đề chính có thể dung dạng mệnh lệnh.

*Ví dụ nè: If you learn hard, you will pass any examination

Lan can speak English fluently if she practices every day

Come to visit me if you have spare time.
2.Present unreal (hiện tại không thật) còn gọi là câu điều kiện loại II

* Form: ((công thức)


If -clause

Main clause

Simple past

If + S + V‑2 / V-ed

(were cho tất cả các ngôi )

Future in past



, S + would + V

Chú í: - có thể dùng might, could thay cho would

VD: I would tell you the answer if I knew it myself

If she had time, she could go to the movie now.

( trên thực tế, hiện giờ cô ta bận và cô ta không đi được)


  • Khi dùng câu điều kiện loại 2 này, ta phải hiểu ý trái lại.


3.Past unreal (quá khứ không thật) còn gọi là câu điều kiện loại III

* Form: ((công thức)

If -clause

Main clause

Past perfect

If + S + had + V‑3 / V-ed

Future in past

, S + would have + V‑3 / V-ed


Chú í: - có thể dùng might, could thay cho would tùy theo nghĩa của câu

VD: I vould have spoken to Nam if I had seen him yesterday.

( trên thực tế, hôm qua tôi tôi không thấy Nam và đã không có nói chuyện)

If he had tried hard last time, he could have succeeded

( trên thực tế, lần qua anh ta không cố gắng và không thành công)



  • Khi dùng câu điều kiện loại 3 này, ta phải hiểu ý trái lại.

  • Xem kĩ nhé: unless = if…….. not

Unless you finish your homework, I will punish you.

(nếu bạn không hoàn thành bài tập của bạn, tôi sẽ phạt bạn đấy)



PRACTICE

I. Correct the verbs

1.You will be ill if you (eat) ___________________ so much.

2. I ( go) ___________________if I had known the fact.

3. If he (be) ___________________ my friend, I would be very glad.

4. If she were older, she (have) ___________________ more sense.

5. If the dog had not woken us, we ( never hear ) ___________________ the burglar.

6. He will be happy if he (study) ___________________ overseas.

7. We (enjoy) ___________________the play better if it had not been so long.

8. ’m sure Mary will do well if she (enter) ___________________ college.

9. They would do it if they (can) ___________________

10. If the children (be) ___________________, they can stay up late.

II. Circle the best answer.

1.If you not here, where would you like to be ?

A. was B. were C. be D. are

2. We will be unhappy if you come.

A. haven’t B. don’t C. have D. didn’t

3. If you somewhere else ,where would you like to be ?

A. have been B. can be C. are D. could be

4.You must hurry .If you , you’ll be late .

A. won’t B. do C. aren’t D. don’t

5. If I _____ a lottery , I __________ a new house .

A. win / should build B . won / should build

C. win / should have built D. won/ should have built

6. What you do if you have a lot of money?

A. have B. will C. would D. did

7. If you this car , you would have to pay for it yourself.

A. had bought B. have bought C. bought D. buy

8. What will you do if you the final exam?

A. pass B. passed C. will pass D. passes

9. If you want to attend the course , you the coming written examination .

A. will pass B. passed C. can pass D. must pass

10.They will not over the job even if they’ve been able to.

A. allow B. receive C. agree to take D. agree to

11. If I were you , I that camera.

A. haven’t bought B. wouldn’t buy C. won’t D. didn’t buy

12. you work harder , you won’t be able to pass the exam.

A. Unless B. If C. when D. As

13. If it rain , we’ll have the party outside.

A. didn’t B. doesn’t C. won’t D. wouldn’t

14. If I here, I’d like to be in London.

A. haven’t been B. weren’t C. am not D. hadn’t been

15. If I a bird, I would be able to fly.

A. were B. am C. is D. are

16. Unless you understand, I explain it to you again.

A. am B. would C. will D. was

17. You should stay home if it .

A. rain B. rained C. rains D. raining

18. You’ll burn yourself if you aren’t .

A. good B. careful C. kind D. working hard

19. If anybody question, please ask me after class.

A. have B. have the C. has D. has a

20. If I somebody else, I’d like to be the teacher.

A. must be B. could be C. would be D. became

21. If people stop using dynamite for fishing, a lot of sea creatures .

A. will be well preserve B. will be well preserving

C. will preserve D. will be well preserved

22. Liz would come to see you if she your address.

A. has B. having C. have D. had

23.If we hard, we’ll make this beach a clean and beautiful place again.

A. will work B. worked C. have worked D. work

*24.“ It’s beginning to rain .”

, we won’t be able to finish the ball game “

A. Unless it stops B. Should it stop C. If it stops D. If it didn’t stop

*25. Yoko comes in half an hour, I will go alone.

A. If B. Because C. When D. Unless

26. “ My boss made me work overtime again .”

“ If I were you, I my job”

A. quit B. would quit C. will quit D. must quit

27. If I were you, I not do that .

A. would B. will C. may D. should

28. If the weather fine, we will go on a camping trip.

A. be B. is C. was D. will

29. If I the day-off tomorrow, I would go on a trip to the mountains.

A. can have B. will have C. have D. had

30. We’ll get by train if we leave now.

A. there fast enough B. fast enough there

C. there enough fast D. enough fast there

II.Each sentence has a mistake.Identify it by choosing A,B,C or D.

1.If you feel unwell , you shouldn’t stay in bed .

A B C D

2.We will get lost if we take a map.



A B C D

3.If the little girl knew how to do it , her mother will be pleased.

A B C D

4. There is no water in the house . If there is , we could cook for dinner .



A B C D

5. He doesn’t like chocolate. If he does, he wouldn’t leave them all over the kitchen.

A B C D

6. If there will be too much exhaust fume in the air, our breathing will be badly affected.



A B C D

7. If we would have a large garden , we would plant a lot of flowers in it.

A B C D

8. If you won’t study hard , you’ll fail the exam.



A B C D

9. If he would speak more slowly , I could understand him .

A B C D

10. If you really want to get good grades , you had to study hard .



A B C D

11. If you will stay in bed and take enough medicine, the flu will certainly disappear

A B C

in three days.

D

12. If we will burn trash to reduce the amount of garbage , we will certainly polute



A B C D

the air.


13. If you are captured by alines and taken aboard a spacecraft , what would you do?

A B C D


14.Nam’ll get up early if he had an alarm clock.

A B C D


15. If you went to his office after 10 A.m., You will see him.

A B C D


16. If you went to the wedding last night, you would have seen her.

A B C D


17. If I were on the moon now, I will tidy up the junk that has been left there.

A B C D


18. If you listen to music , you can not concentrate on your works.

A B C D


19. If a lizard loses its tails, a new one grows to replace it

A D C D


20. If she wants to be an architect , she has work hard at university.

A B C D


III. Choose one sentence that has the same meaning as the root one.

1.Unless he apologizes , I’ll never invite him here again .

A. If he doesn’t apologizes , I’ll never invite him here again

B. If he doesn’t apologize , I’ll invite him here again

C. If he didn’t apologize , I’d never invite him here again

D. If he apologizes , I’ll never invite him here again



2. I’m not a millionaire , so I can’t buy you a plane .

A. If I am a millionaire , I will buy you a plane

B. If I were a millionaire , I would buy you a plane

C. If you were a millionaire , I would buy your plane

D. If I buy a plane , I’ll become a millionaire

3. If you don’t study harder , you will surely fail the next exam .

Unless .

A. You don’t study harder , you will surely fail the next exam

B. You study hard , you will pass the exam

C. You study hard , you will surely fail the next exam

D. You study hard , you won’t surely fail the next exam



4.I will marry her and I don’t care how old she is.

No matter .

A. How old is she , I will marry her

B. I don’t care how old she is , I will marry her

C.How old she is , I will marry her

D. How she is old, Iwill marry her



5. They didn’t follow the map , so they got lost .

If .

A. They didn’t follow the map , they wouldn’t get lost

B. They followed the map , they wouldn’t get lost

C. They hadn’t followed the map , they wouldn’t have got lost

D. They had followed the map , they wouldn’t have got lost



6. Unless he phone her immediately , he won’t get information.

If .

A. He doesn’t phone her immediately , he won’t get information

B. He phones her immediately , he won’t get any information

C. He doesn’t phone her immediately , he will get any information

D. He doesn’t phone her immediately , he gets any information



7. The children will go swimming if it is sunny .

A. It isn’t rainy, the children will go swimming.

B. It is rainy, the children will go swimming.

C. It is sunny, the children will go swimming.

D. It is rainy, the children won’t go swimming.

8. If motorists were to drive carefully, they would have fewer accidents.

A. Motorists are not careful and there are many accidents.

B. Motorists are careful and yet there are many accidents.

C. Motorists are not careful and yet there are few accidents.

D. Motorists are care ful and there are few accidents.

9. Mary didn’t wear the raincoat, so she got a cold.

A. If Mary wore the raincoat, she wouldn’t get a cold.

B. If Mary had wore the raincoat, she didn’t get a cold.

C. If Mary had worn the raincoat, she wouldn’t have got a cold.

D. If Mary has worn the raincoat, she won’t have got a cold.

10. I didn’t listen to him, and I didn’t succeed.

A. If I listened to him, I would succeed.

B. If I had listened to him, I would succeed.

C. If I listened to him, I would have succeeded.

D. If I had listened to him, I would have succeeded.

11. I lost my key, so I had to wait in the snow.

A. If I hadn’t lost my key, I wouldn’t have had to wait in the snow.

B. If I didn’t lose my key, I wouldn’t have to wait in the snow.

C. If I hadn’t lost my key, I wouldn’t have to wait in the snow.

D. If I didn’t lose my key, I wouldn’t have had to wait in the snow.

12. The picnic was cancelled because it rained.

A. If it didn’t rain, the picnic wouldn’t be cancelled.

B. If it hadn’t rained, the picnic wouldn’t have been cancelled.

C. If it didn’t rain, the picnic wouldn’t have been cancelled.

D. If it hadn’t rained, the picnic wouldn’t be cancelled.

13. Susan felt sick because she ate four cream cakes.

A. If Susan ate four cream cakes, she would feel sick.

B. If Susan eats four cream cakes so she feels sick.

C. If Susan hadn’t eaten four cream cakes, she wouldn’t feel sick.

D. If Susan hadn’t eaten four cream cakes, she wouldn’t have felt sick.

14. Unless the presentation is ready soon, we’ll have to back out of the project.

A. We’ll get the project back if the proposal is ready soon.

B. If we don’t complete the presentation, we’ll lose the project.

C. The president is ready to back the project we presented.

D. We will have to start the project before the presentation is done.

15. Mary doesn’t buy this shirt because she doesn’t have enough money now.

A. If Mary has enough money, she would buy this shirt.

B. If Mary had enough money, she would buy this shirt.

C. Mary would have bought this shirt if she has had enough money.

D. Mary would have bought this shirt if she had had enough money.

16. If the weather is fine, we’ll go hiking this weekend.

A. If the weather is not fine, we still go hiking this weekend.

B. We’ll go hiking this weekend if the weather is bad.

C. We won’t go hiking this weekend if the weather is bad.

D. Although the weather is not fine, we will go hiking this weekend.

17. If you work hard, you will pass the exam.

A. If you don’t work hard, you won’t fail the exam.

B. Unless you work hard, you don’t pass the exam.

C. You will pass the exam unless you work hard.

D. Unless you work hard, you will fail the exam.

18. She doesn’t work hard, so she doesn’t get good marks.

A. If she worked hard, she would get good marks.

B. If she has worked hard, she got good marks.

C. If she works hard, she would get good marks.

D. If she works hard, she won’t get good marks.

19. If you are a good child, you always receive gifts on Easter Day.

A. Unless you are not a good child, you always receive gifts on Easter Day.

B. Unless you are not a good child, you don’t always receive gifts on Easter Day.

C. Unless you are a good child, you always receive gifts on Easter Day.



D. Unless you are a good child, you don’t always receive gifts on Easter Day.


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