Assessment report



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4.2. Service coverage

4.2.1. Evaluation


Service coverage is one out of water supply indicators that ranked in national statistical indicator. The service coverages of the utilities are presented in Annex 3.9 and Figure 4.1.



Figure 4.1: Service coverages of Utilitie


As above results, it concluded as following:

  1. The service ratio of the utilities varies widely, ranging from 10% to 100%. Meanwhile the ppercentage of urban population served in 2014 as mentioned in the reports provided by 53 DoCs (without reports of 10 provinces including HCMC) were in the range of 37- 98%;

  2. Compared to the data of the previous years (2011 and 2012), a number of utilities with service ratio significantly lower than in previous years, due to expansion of service coverage, namely:

  • Some utilities with population served in urban areas now just expanded service coverage in whole province as Lang Son, Ninh Binh and Kien Giang.

  • Some smaller water utilities that provided water to district towns and now expanded the service coverage as An Viet Company, Thuan Thanh, Hai Phong Water Supply and Construction Company, Ninh Hoa and Dak Nong.

  • The biggest utility in the country as SAWACO, the service coverage estimated 100% as shown in the questionnaire 2012, 2013 and 2014. However, based on SAWACO’s report, Consultant reduced to 90%.

  1. Average service ratio (service coverage) in the country in 2012, 2013 and 2014 has increased, respectively 72.00- 72.24- 74.48%;

  2. Out of 88 utilities provided data:

  • 50 % utilities with service ratio below 75%, in which 25% of the lowest group with ratio from 24- 66% ;

  • 50% utilities with service ratio over 75%, in which 25% of the highest group with ratio from 90- 100%;

  • 37/88 utilities (approximately 42%) with service ratio below 70%

4.2.2. Recommendation B2


In many reports the service ratio is most interested indicator and quite "sensitive". Therefore, the utilization of ratio required to clarify as following:

  1. There is a difference between the service ratio in the national statistical index system and the performance indicators of the sector database:

  1. National statistical index system issued at Decision No.43/2010/QĐ-TTG dated 2/6/2010 by Prime Minister stipulated as:

  • Ministry of Construction is responsible for collection (from the province/city) and aggregate indicator regarding to percentage of urban population served (code 1913);

  • The ratio is calculated for each province and according to the formula: the urban population served/urban population.

  1. In water sector database, the ratio is calculated for each utility and used formula as the total number of persons served, expressed as a % of the total population number in the whole area of operations. The data provided by Utilities (about 90 utlities/63 provinces/cities) to MoC for developing the sector database.

  1. Has service ratio of the utilities increased annually?

It thought that the increased of water supply capacity will lead to service ratio improvement (next year must be higher than the previous year). The reality is not absolutely true as:

  1. Annually increase of water supply capacity will lead to increased population served but the service ratio is not sure to increase because of this ratio depends on population in service coverage which may change.

  2. The fact that some utilities were assigned to supply water in whole province including urban and rural areas. Thus the population in service area will spike unexpected caused the ratio be reduced significantly.

  1. Is better with high service ratio?

It thought that the high service ratio is better than low ratio. This is true in terms of achievements in serving of people's lives by authorities’ levels and water utilities. In benchmarking, the low ratio showed that potential development of the utility company is high and attractive to investors.

4.3. Unaccounted and Non – Revenue Water

4.3.1. Evaluation


The utilities paid much attention to reduce rate of unaccounted-for water and non-revenue water (hereinafter as NRW). A national program on Unaccounted for Water and Non–Revenue Water to 2015” approved by the Prime Minister at Decision No. 2147 / TTg dated 24/11/2010 in which set a target to reduce average rate of NRW by 30% in 2009 to below 15% in 2025, and 25% in 2015.

NRW rates of 79 utilities in 2013 and 2014 are shown in Annex 3.12 and Figures 4.2. As above results, it concluded as following:



  1. The average NRW rate of the whole country (79 utilities) in both 2013 and 2014 estimated at 18 % that lower than 2012 (27. 0%).

  2. The NRW rate of 79 utilities ranged from 1% to 60% and presented as following:

  • 62/79 utilities (about 78%) with NRW rate below 25% in 2015 as stated in National program, including :

  • NRW rate below 10%: 9 utilities

  • NRW rate from 11- 15%: 12 utilities

  • NRW rate from 16- 20%: 16 utilities

  • NRW rate from 21- 25%: 25 utilities

  • 17/79 utilities (about 22%) with NRW rate higher 25% in 2015 as stated in National program, including :

  • NRW rate from 26- 30%: 10 utilities

  • NRW rate over 30%: 7 utilities

  • 50% utilities with NRW rate over 20%

  1. NRW rates of two biggest utilities are quite high. In 2013 and 2014, Ha Noi: 24.81 % and 22.92% respectively; and HCMC: 37.52% and 34.65% respectively despite of recent improvements.

4.3.1. Recommendation B3:

According to national program on Unaccounted for Water and Non–Revenue Water 2015 developed full set of measures to reduce the rate of NRW. Based on the sector database 2013 and 2014, it proposed some comments as follows:


a) Some utilities with high NRW rate without leakage detection teams should be considered for the early establishment of these teams as including:



  • Dien Bien Water Supply Company: 32%

  • Bac Can Water Supply and Drainage Company: 26%

  • Ha Noi Clean Water Supply Company: 23%

  • Vinh Phu Water Supply Company: 29%

  • Thai Binh Water Supply Company: 23%

  • Tay Ninh Water Supply and Drainage Company: 23%

  • Dong Nai Water Supply Company: 28%

b) Some utilities with established leakage detection teams but NRW rate still high should improve the performance of leakage detection teams as well as application of other appropriate measures as including

  • Viwaco: 60%

  • Ninh Bình Water Supply Company: 49%

  • Thanh Hoa Water Supply Company: 30%

  • Quang Tri Water Supply Company: 28%

  • Quang Nam Water Supply Joint Stock Company: 29%

  • My Hai Water Supply Enterprise: 32%

  • Lam Dong Water Supply and Sewerage Company: 25%

  • SAWACO: 34% (SAWACO implemented the NRW reduction projects in many years and achieved significantly improvements)

  • Thot Not Water Supply JSC: 28%

  • Ca Mau Water Supply Company : 28%





Figure 4.2: Rate of NRW



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