Assessment report

Domestic Water Consumption

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4.4. Domestic Water Consumption

4.4.1. Evaluation

Domestic water consumption (liters/person-days) was also one out of 4 statistical indicators in construction sector. From 2013 and 2014 figures, it proposed some comments as follows:

  • Average consumption rate of 115 liters/person-day;

  • 39/82 utilities (nearly 50%) with less than 100 liters/person-days; of which 25% of utilities with less than 87 liters/person-day.

  • 65/82 utilities (80%) with less than 120 liters/person-day.

  • Domestic water consumption per capita (2014) of major cities are as follows:

  • HCMC: 96 liters/person-day; Ha Noi: 105 liters/person-day;

  • Hai Phong: 110, Hue: 90, Đa Nang: 126, Khanh Hoa: 133 liters/person-day.

4.4.2. Recommendation B4:

Based on data on domestic water consumption of 120 liters/person-day and low ratio of utilization capacity as mentioned below, it is necessary to review standards on water consumption and NRW rate as stipulated in TCXDVN 33-2006: Water Supply-Distribution Network and Works –Design Standards.

It required reducing domestic water consumption and NRW ratio in this standard aimed at avoiding selection of high design capacity and improving effectiveness of investment. The standard on domestic water supply as stipulated below:

  • Cities of special grade and grade I, urban centers: 200 liters/person-day, surrounding areas: 150 liters /person-day;

  • Cities of grades II, III: urban centers: 150 liters/person-day, surrounding areas: 100 liters/person-day.

  • NRW rate: 22- 45%

4.5. Ratio of Capacity Utilization

4.5.1. Evaluation

The ratio of capacity utilization measured as volume of water treated per year divided by the design capacity of the water treatment works per year expressed as a % of design capacity. The ratios of 90 utilities are summarized in Annex 3:10.
As result, it proposed some following comments:

  • Ratio of average capacity utilization of the country in 2013 were 87.4%, and in 2014 were 88.3%, compared with 87.66% of the previous year (2012);

  • Capacity utilization of the utilities in 2014 with lowest of 24.78% and highest of 160%;

  • More than 2/3 utilities (66/90) with rate lower than average utilization ratio in the country;

  • 75% of the utilities with utilization ratio below 90% in which 50% utilities below 66%;

  • Utilization ratio below 50% including 6 utilities in which 2 utilities lower than 26%;

  • Utilization ratio 91- 100%: 9 utilities;

  • Utilization ratio %: 11 utilities;

  • Utilization ratio of big utilities is quite high: Ha Noi: 93%; Hai Phong: 89%; Da Nang: 92%; SAWACO: 90 and 83%; BIWASE: 101 and 81 %;

4.5.2. Recommendation B5:

As stated over 2/3 of the 90 utilities in the country have the capacity utilization ratio below the overall ratio of the whole country. These utilities need to increase production utilization capacity ratio to improve investment efficiency as well as effectiveness of production and business. It proposed some comments as below:

  1. Check the actual production utilization capacity satisfied with design or not?

  2. Check service ratio: if low it required to increase in HH connections (including investment)

  3. Check domestic water consumption ratio and find the reasons in case of low ratio. For example, people use other water sources: drilled wells, water wells, rainwater.

  4. If 2 indicators were higher, it is required to expand the service coverage. Under current regulations, the water supply does not depend on administrative boundaries. Actually some utilities expanded beyond the area served in their provinces.

Figure 4.3: Capacity Utilization Ratio of Utilities

4.6. Quality of service

4.6.1. Evaluation

1) Quality of Service

a) Continuity of Service:

Almost utilities committed to supply continuous water in 24 hours/day. Only 13/86 utilities (15%) with average hours of water supply less than 24 hours, of which only one utility as 12-hour.

b) Water pressure:

In many years the water pressure in cities did not yet met the requirements. According to TCXDVN 33-2006: Water Supply-Distribution Network and Works –Design Standards: the smallest pressure in the network measured at connection points shall not be less than 10m. However, 60% of the utilities (48/80) with annual average pressure at disadvantage areas did not meet the minimum water pressure as required. This issue seems to be not solved immediately for next many years.

  1. The quality of water supply:

According to the Ministry of Health, the overall quality of drinking water for the urban areas passed the standards as required while the quality of water supplied for rural areas in many places still not met the requirements. Data 2013 and 2014 showed that the percentages of the tested samples passed the water quality standards are not low 59/82 utilities (72%) with 100% of samples tested that passed the standards.
The remaining utilities (23/82) passed below 100% in which 5 utilities below 80%, and 3 utilities below 30%.

2) Quality control:

The status of application of quality control in the water utilities are summarized in the following table:

Table 4.2 - Quality Control of Water Utilities

Implementation of Quality Control


Not yet Done

No information


Developed Water Safety Plan (WSP)





Established and maintained a quality management system complied with ISO 9001 international Standard





Audit of energy use





Customer surveys





Encourage customers to use water in savings manner





Did water resource enough supply in next 10 years?





It proposed some comments as below:

  • 88% of the utilities (77/88) developed safety water supply plans, while only 50% of the utilities established a quality management system complied with ISO 9001 international Standard as result of program between MoC and WHO on water safety plans including issuance of circular on this issue.

  • Nearly 50% of the utilities announced to carry out energy audits. However, this data should be checked as unreal. There seem to be wrong concepts on energy audits.

4.6.2. Recommendation B6

The key measure to ensure water quality required the water utilities to develop and implement water safety plan. With the support of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the direction of the Ministry of Construction and Provincial People's Committees, now almost of the utilities (77/82) have developed water safety plans.

However it is important that the developed water safety plans must be implemented in sustainable manner. This required efforts and mobilization all resources of the utilities, management agencies and communities.

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