* Cấu trúc câu giao tiếp Cấu trúc 1



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* Cấu trúc câu giao tiếp

Cấu trúc 1: Yes/No Questions

1. Do you have a pet? Yes, we do. / No, we don't.


2. Does she like to study? Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.
3. Did you see it? Yes, we did. / No, we didn't.
4. Can you speak English well? Yes, we can. / No, we can't.
5. Is she from here? Yes, she is. / No, she isn't.
6. Are you from a big city? Yes, we are. / No, we aren't.
7. Are they going to come? Yes, they are. / No, they aren't.
8. Will you go with us? Yes, we will. / No, we won't.
9. Were you at home last night? Yes, I was. / No, I wasn't.
Cấu trúc 2: W Questions
["W" word + part of "Yes/No" Question]

Model Sentence: What languages can you speak?

1. What / is your name? (My name is ~ .)


2. What / can you / do well? (I can ~ very well.)
3. Where / are you from? (I am from ~ .)
4. Where / will you go / tomorrow? (I will go to ~ .)
5. When / did you / wake up / this morning? (I woke up at ~ o'clock.)
6. When is your birthday? (My birthday is in ~ .)
7. Who is your favorite singer? (My favorite singer is ~ .)
8. Who will come with us? ( ~ and ~ will come with us.)
9. Why are you studying English now? (I am studying English because ~ . )
10. Why were they so happy? (They were so happy because ~ .)
Cấu trúc 3: Basic "How" Questions

Model Sentence: How do you study English now?

1. How do you go to work every day?


2. How old are you?
3. How tall are you?
4. How can I buy a ticket?
5. How do you feel this afternoon?
6. How is your stomach?
7. How are your parents doing?
8. How is your new job going?
9. How often do you go to the movies?
Cấu trúc 4: How much / How long / How many

Model Sentence : How many English sentences do you know?

1. How long have you known your friend?


2. How much time is there in a day?
3. How many people are in your family?
4. How long can you swim underwater?
5. How much time have you spent studying for your test?
6. How many hours are there in a day?
Cấu trúc 5: Tag Questions

Model Sentence : This is a good book, isn't it?

1. This book is mine, isn't it? ("Yes it is." / "No it isn't.")


2. That car is yours, isn't that right? ("Yes that's right" / "Yes it's mine" / "No it's not mine")
3. This house is theirs, isn't it? ("Yes it is" / "No it isn't")
4. This phone number is hers, isn't it? ("Yes it is"/"Yes that's right"/"No it isn't")
5. You are from London, aren't you? ("Yes I am" / "No I'm not")
6. We have enough time, don't we? ("Yes we do" / "No we don't!")
7. You can speak German, can't you? ("Yes I can" / "No I can't")
8. They will come tomorrow, won't they? ("Yes they will" / "No they won't")

Cấu trúc 6: Simple Polite Questions


Model Sentence : Would you like to have some coffee?

1. Would you like some tea?


2. Would you come here for a moment?
3. What do you want to eat for lunch?
4. What do you want to drink?
5. Could you tell me your name?
6. Could you help me move this?
7. May I sit here?
8. May we come in?

Cấu trúc 7: Longer Polite Questions
(Use these sentences only in special situations.
They are not so useful for conversations.)

Model Sentence : Would you like to go out for a drink after work?

1.Would you like to get together for a drink tonight?


2. Would you come to our home for dinner Friday night?
3. Would you mind bringing some books to our meeting tomorrow?
4. Could you come to work a little early this week?
5. Could you reserve a seat for me on Wednesday evening?
6. Could you take some time to look at my report?
7. May I ask what you are doing about our problem?
8. May I know what you are planning to do next?

Cấu trúc 8: Conditional Questions
Model Sentence
Would you like to travel to the moon some day?

1. Would you like to visit London? (Yes, I would. / No, I wouldn't.)


2. Could you take a train to work next week? (Yes, we could. / No, we couldn't.)
3. Should we study this for the test? (Yes, you should. / No, you shouldn't.)
4. Would you have studied harder as a student? [If you had another chance.] (Yes, I would have. / No, I wouldn't have.)
5. Could you have found a better way? (Yes, I could have. / No, I couldn't have.
6. Should you have asked for help before the test? (Yes, we should have. / No, we shouldn't have.)
Cấu trúc 9: "Have you ever...?"

Model Sentence : Have you ever been to China?

1. Have you been to California?


2. Have you seen any good movies recently?
3. Have you ever seen a ghost?
4. Has your sisters seen your new car?
5. Has English become easier or more difficult for you?
6. Has your hometown changed a lot in the past ten years?

Cấu trúc 10: Questions with "Which"
Model Sentence : Which do you like better, fish or meat?

1. Which do you like more, TV or movies?


2. Which do you prefer, bread or rice?
3. Which season is your favorite?
4. Which time of the year is best in your hometown?
5. Which is more interesting, watching sports or playing sports?
Cấu trúc 11
Simple Sentences with "Be" (am / is / are)

Model Sentence : We are not from this city.

1. I am from New York.


2. He is a teacher.
3. She is my friend.
4. We are married.
5. They are not married.
6. You are a good student.
Cấu trúc 12
Past Sentences with "Be" (was / were)

Model Sentence : We were hungry last night.

1. I was a lazy student.


2. He was tired yesterday.
3. She was my neighbor.
4. We were classmates.
5. They were not classmates.
6. You were a cute child.

Cấu trúc 13
Simple Sentences with "Have" (or "Has")

Model Sentence
We have a little money.

This is a very easy Cấu trúc , but very common, so be sure to say each sentence perfectly! Be careful - although we say "I have" or "We have", it is different with "he" or "she". We must say "He has" or "She has".

1. I have good books.
2. She has two brothers.
3. He has one sister.
4. We have no time.
5. They have a house in the city.
6. You have good pronunciation in English!
Cấu trúc 14
Past Sentences with "Had"

Model Sentence
I had a yellow bicycle.

1. I had a blue and red pen.


2. She had a good teacher last year.
3. He had a dog. (not now)
4. We had a big dinner.
5. They had money.
6. You had English classes two years ago.
Cấu trúc 14
Past Sentences with "Had"

Model Sentence
I had a yellow bicycle.

1. I had a blue and red pen.


2. She had a good teacher last year.
3. He had a dog. (not now)
4. We had a big dinner.
5. They had money.
6. You had English classes two years ago.
Cấu trúc 15
Simple Sentences with "be" + "ing"

Model Sentence
We are studying English now.

1. I am eating dinner.


2. She is riding a bicycle.
3. He is playing the guitar.
4. We are playing tennis.
5. They are singing.
6. You are reading English!
Cấu trúc 16
Past Sentences with "be" + "ing"

Model Sentence
We were eating dinner last night at this time.

1. I was sleeping (at 4 o'clock this morning).


2. She was eating dinner (at 6 o'clock last night).
3. He was coming home (last night after work).
4. We were talking on the telephone.
5. They were running.
6. You were studying English in junior high school.
Cấu trúc 17
Noun + Verb + Noun

Model Sentence
My sister enjoys tennis.

1. I want coffee.


2. He enjoys steak.
3. She loves money.
4. They finished work.
5. My sister went to New York.
Cấu trúc 18
Longer Noun + Verb + Noun

Model Sentence
My younger brother Sam drinks beer.

1. My older sister wants coffee.


2. My friend Joe from Hawaii enjoys tea.
3. The brother of my best friend enjoys steak.
4. The woman who works in that shop loves money.
5. My older sister's friend who works in that shop went to New York.
Cấu trúc 19
Noun + Verb + Longer Noun

Model Sentence
This is my favorite book.

1. That is my house.


2. The women are famous lawyers.
3. He loves to play the guitar.
4. He enjoys steak with potatos.
5. I hate to drive during rush hour!
6. She's crazy about playing tennis.
7. I love to drive down country roads!
8. I want hot coffee with no milk or sugar.
9. They finished their work on the business deal.
Cấu trúc 20
Noun + Verb + Verb + Noun

Model Sentence
She can speak Japanese.

1. We can read books.


2. I can't hear the music.
3. You will see her.
4. We won't visit him.b>
5. I don't know them.
6. I do know them. ("do" makes it stronger – "I really DO know them"!)
Cấu trúc 21
Noun + Verb + "to" + Verb + Noun

Model Sentence
He likes to sleep late.

1. We like to read books.


2. They want to eat soup.
3. She hopes to teach English.
4. He tries to improve his writing.
5. I stopped to eat dinner.

Cấu trúc 22
Noun + Verb + "ing" + Verb + Noun

Model Sentence
She remembers dancing under the stars!

1. He enjoys playing tennis.


2. Do you enjoy reading?
3. What do you enjoy doing on the weekend?
4. I tried studying Japanese.
5. We remember visiting Washington three years ago.
6. They like swimming very much. (The verb "like" can be followed by "to" OR "ing"!)

Cấu trúc 23
Noun + Verb + Adjective

Model Sentence
We are very busy.

1.They are hungry.


2. They are not very hungry.
3. The teachers are lazy.
4. The teachers are very lazy.
5. The teachers are not very lazy.
6. She seems very happy.
7. Your sisters seems to be very happy.
Cấu trúc 24
Noun + Verb + Time or Place

Model Sentence
Next month is summer.

1. Tomorrow is Wednesday.


2. She is coming to our house.
3. She is coming today.
4. We will eat later.
5. We will eat later today.
6. We will eat Chinese food later in the week.
7. We will eat in the restaurant.
8. You can visit next week.
9. She is there.
10. Birds are in the sky.
Cấu trúc 25
Noun + Verb + Manner

Model Sentence
My students are learning quickly.

1. Birds are flying slowly. (The birds are slowly flying.)


2. The children were eating hungrily. (The children were hungrily eating.)
3. Those children play noisily. (Those children noisily play.)
4. My friends work eagerly. (My friends eagerly work.)
5. Can you finish your work in less than an hour?
Cấu trúc 26
Noun + Verb + Long Phrase

Model Sentence
She asked me when the movie would begin.

  1. He was sleeping when the telephone rang.
    2. They were waiting where the road curves.
    3. She was wondering why the weather was so cold.
    4. I want to know who will cook dinner tonight.
    5. This is the book that I bought yesterday.


Cấu trúc 27
Long Noun + Long Verb

Model Sentence
The 25-year-old man in the park is trying to fly a kite.

1. The seven students are studying now.


2. The seven happy students are studying very hard.
3. Some young teachers were talking.
4. Some young, intelligent teachers were talking.
5. The cats and dogs had been sleeping. (Before they woke up!)
Cấu trúc 28
Long Noun + Long Verb + Adjective or Adverb

Model Sentence
A yellow bird was flying quickly across the sky.

1. The happy students have been studying hard.


2. Three teachers are talking to tired students.
3. A fat cat is looking for some little mice.
4. A driver of a fast car cannot stop very quickly.
5. Good students from London are thinking about a large, delicious dinner!
Cấu trúc 29
Noun + Verb + Noun + Movement

Model Sentence
The boss gave some advice to his workers.

1. She gave the keys to her friend.


2. My brother threw a bone at the dog.
3. My sister moved her home to the city center.
4. We put the old magazines into the garbage bin.
5. The swimmer threw himself into the water.
Cấu trúc 30
Noun + Place + Verb + Noun or Adjective

Model Sentence
A hungry dog in the street is looking for food.

1.The apple on the table looks delicious.


2. Two cats under the bed look scared!
3. My friend in Australia wants a new job.
4. A group of people near the door seem very happy.
5. Some people in our city want to build a new train station.
Cấu trúc 31
Noun + Verb + Long Noun + Place

Model Sentence
I saw a very interesting show in the theater.

1. We have two bottles of milk in the fridge.


2. He ate six big juicy hamburgers in the park.
3. There is half a loaf of bread on the table.
4. We can buy five pounds of meat from the supermarket.
5. The woman was driving a beautiful sports car up the mountain.
Cấu trúc 32
There is / There are

Model Sentence
There is a big dog in front of the house.

1. There are three people in my family.


2. There is a book on the table.
3. There aren't any eggs in the refrigerator.
4. There isn't any time left in the game.
5. There are only a few cars on the road.
6. There are too many cars on the road.
Cấu trúc 33
There was / There were

Model Sentence
There was a big storm last night.

1. There were seventeen students in the class.


2. There was a tall student sitting in the front.
3. There was a big earthquake in China a few years ago.
4. Was there a party last night?
5. Were there many people at the meeting yesterday?
Cấu trúc 34
English Articles

Model Sentence
A man jumped into the river. Who was the man?.

1a. There is a man next to the table. (We don't know who he is yet.)


1b. The man is from Sydney. (Now we know him, at least a little!)
2a. A man came to our office this morning. (Who? We don't know.)
2b. The man wanted to meet our boss. (Now we know him a little.)
3. The Nile is a river in Egypt. (Everybody knows it.)
4. There is a river in my hometown called the Genesee River.
5. Put this fruit in the kitchen. (We know that every house has a kitchen.)
Cấu trúc 35
English Determiners

Model Sentence
Those two cars belong to this company.

1. Those people are not my coworkers.


2. These books are mine but these are not.
3. Give me that book on the table.
4. Some of these magazines are interesting but many are not.
5. I like a few movies but not many.
Cấu trúc 36
English Sentences with "it"

Model Sentence
It is very cloudy today.

1. What time is it? (It's 3 o'clock.)


2. What's it like outside? (It's cold and windy.)
3. It's a great day today!
4. It's Wednesday.
5. It's 2010. (Or "This year (not it!) is 2010".)
Cấu trúc 37
Either / Neither / Too / So

Model Sentence
They don't agree and neither do I!

1. She seems very tired. (I am too!)


2. I want to go home. (So do I!)
3. I don't like this TV show. (I don't either!)
4. I am not happy with this class. (Neither am I!)
5. We don't want to go out tonight. How about you? (I don't either.)
Cấu trúc 38
Comparing Actions in English

Model Sentence
They must work harder. OR He can read more quickly than me.

1. We must study harder if we want to succeed.


2. You can run more quickly if you are in a hurry.
3. They spoke louder because nobody could hear them.
4. She drove more slowly to avoid an accident.
5. I will think more carefully before answering next time.
Cấu trúc 39
Comparing Things in English

Model Sentence
Their car is more powerful than my car is.

1. My new apartment building is taller than my old one.


2. My new teacher is more interesting than the previous one.
3. Her older brother is less successful than she is.
4. Our new computer is faster than our old computer.
5. We are better students than they are.

Cấu trúc 40
Comparing Three or More Things in English


Model Sentence
That book is the most interesting book in our house

1. That TV program is the most interesting, don't you agree?


2. This TV program is the funniest, don't you think so?
3. Our teacher is the most boring teacher in ther world, isn't he?
4. This is the tallest building in the city, right?
5. She is the worst English speaker I know!

Cấu trúc 41
Noun + "Be" + Adjectives


Model Sentence
The bread was warm, soft and tasty.

1. The air was clean, cool and fresh.


2. The car was fast and powerful.
3. My sister is intelligent, beautiful and charming.
4. We were hungry, thirsty and tired.
5. The weather was cold, windy and rainy.

Cấu trúc 42
Noun + Place + "Be" + Adjectives


Model Sentence
The people in the car were hot and tired.

1. The air by the sea is clean, cool and fresh.


2. The woman next to the boat was tall, beautiful and dangerous!
3. A friendly dog in your home can be fun and interesting.
4. Ten of the students in the classroom were sleepy, bored, and restless.
5. My friend from Spain is hard working and intelligent.

Cấu trúc 43
Long Nouns with Question Words


Model Sentence
"Whoever smiles first is the loser!" OR "The loser is whoever smiles first!"

1. Whoever finishes first is the winner. (The winner is whoever finishes first.)


2. Whenever we arrive we'll have a party. (We'll have a party whenever we arrive.)
3. Whichever bus comes first, we'll take. (We'll take whichever bus comes first.)
4. Wherever we go, it will be fun. (It will be fun wherever we go.)
5. Whatever you do, we will support you. (We will support you whatever you do.)

Cấu trúc 44
Question + Preposition + Noun


Model Sentence
"What's the reason for doing it this way?

1. What's the problem with the car? (The problem with the car is...)


2. What's the matter with this tea?
3. What's the solution to this problem?
4. Who's the author of this book?
5. Where's the manager of this store?

Cấu trúc 45
Very Long Noun + Verb


Model Sentence
A bicycle with blue handlebars and a red seat almost hit me!

1. The boy who bought the fresh oranges on Wednesday returned today.


2. My coworker with the incredibly beautiful girlfriend is getting married soon.
3. A day in the sun without any work to do is a wonderful day!
4. Three days of working hard without any breaks will make you very tired!
5. A teacher with some very good ideas for helping students improve their English quickly and efficiently is a great teacher!

Cấu trúc 46
Modified Adjectives


Model Sentence
That's a truly wonderful story.

1. Is that a good book? Yes, it's a very exciting story.


2. Is your car new or old? It's quite an old car.
3. Does your friend like to dance? No, she's not a very active person.
4. Are your parents interested in travelling? No, they are extremely hard working so they usually don't leave the city.
5. Do you live in a quiet neighborhood? No, it's quite noisy because there are many cars.

Cấu trúc 47
Adverbs with "When"


Model Sentence
We like to wake up when the sun rises.

1. I usually eat when my brother eats.


2. They normally sleep when the sun goes down.
3. She doesn't study when the weekend comes.
4. We need an umbrella when it's raining.
5. My cousin travels when he doesn't have a lot of work to do.

Cấu trúc 48
Adjectives with "Who"


Model Sentence
A good friend is a person who will help you in difficult times.

1. I have a friend who likes to jump out of airplanes.


2. My sister is a person who sleeps until noon.
3. Learners of English are people who really hope to succeed!
4. A good musician is a perfectionist who practices every day.
5. Joe is a teacher who likes to laugh.

Cấu trúc 49
"Do you think...?"


Model Sentence
Do you think they can win the game?

1. Do you think it will rain tomorrow?


2. Do you think they'll come here next week?
3. Does she think he will return home in the future?
4. Did they think we would pay the bill for them?
5. Do you think they will come here tomorrow?

Cấu trúc 50
"What do you think...?"


Model Sentence
What do you think is the best type of music?

1. What do you think he will do?


2. What do you think the weather will be like tomorrow?
3. When do you think they'll come here?
4. Who does she think will return in the future?
5. Where do you think the show will begin?

Cấu trúc 51
Sentence + "but" + Reason


Model Sentence
We stopped by your home last night but you may have already gone to bed.

1. I called you yesterday at two o'clock but maybe you were working then. (so I couldn't talk to you)


2. He saw her before the meeting in a coffee shop studying English. (so she didn't come to the meeting)
3. They saw us sitting in the classroom because our class was having a test. (so they couldn't talk to us outside of class)

Cấu trúc 52
"Be afraid" + "that" + Sentence


Model Sentence
I'm afraid that I can't help you this time.

1. I'm afraid I'm too tired to go to work!


2. I'm afraid (that) I won't be able to finish this job.
3. I'm afraid (that) I won't have time to see you this weekend.
4. I'm sorry but I can't meet you this week. (How about next week?)
5. I'm sorry but I won't be able to finish the job until next week.

Cấu trúc 52
"Be afraid" + "that" + Sentence


Model Sentence
I'm afraid that I can't help you this time.

1. I'm afraid I'm too tired to go to work!


2. I'm afraid (that) I won't be able to finish this job.
3. I'm afraid (that) I won't have time to see you this weekend.
4. I'm sorry but I can't meet you this week. (How about next week?)
5. I'm sorry but I won't be able to finish the job until next week.

Cấu trúc 53
"Will be" + Verb + Time


Model Sentence
Our company will be closed during the holiday.

1. I'll be travelling for business the next three weeks.


2. I'll be studying until 10 o'clock tonight.
3. They'll be staying in a hotel until their roof is repaired.
4. My friend will be coming home at the end of the year.
5. A hard winter will be coming before long.

Cấu trúc 54
"Be going to" + Verb + Time


Model Sentence
Are you going to take a vacation next month?

1. Are you going to visit Japan this year?


2. Is she going to start a new job this week?
3. Are they going to have a baby soon?
4. Is he going to visit us this month?
5. Are you going to buy a new computer sometime this year?

Cấu trúc 55
Noun + Verb + Adverb + Time or Place


Model Sentence
My dog plays enthusiastically in the morning.

1. We speak often on the weekend.


2. Our sister studies diligently all the time.
3. A red car drove wildly down the road.
4. Two happy dogs ran eagerly to the young girl
5. My brother and I are working intensely this month.

Cấu trúc 56
Past Questions with "How"


Model Sentence
How far did you walk yesterday?

1. How well did he sleep last night?


2. How many cookies did she eat?
3. How did you hurt your hand? (adverb is not always necessary!)
4. How quickly did you go up the stairs?
5. How hungry were you this morning?

Cấu trúc 57
Longer Questions with "Be" + "ing"


Model Sentence
What will you be doing when you are 65 years old?

1. Who will he be living with if he moves to New York?


2. What is she going to study in university next year?
3. When are you going to invite us to dinner!
4. What will he be doing after he finishes this job?
5. Where will they be having dinner on his birthday?

Cấu trúc 58
Longer Past Questions


Model Sentence
Why did you start to learn English so seriously?

1. How did you learn to pronounce English so clearly?


2. Where did you learn to speak French so fluently?
3. When did you learn to play the piano so beautifully?
4. What did she do to improve her singing so much?
5. Who did he find to help him with his homework?

Cấu trúc 59
Basic Sentence + Place or Time or Both


Model Sentence
We want to find a teacher near our home next year.

1. I want to travel to Canada in the fall.


2. She's going to take her mother to Mexico for a holiday.
3. They plan to sell their old magazines to the local bookstore.
4. We have to bring our children to school after breakfast.
5. The five children were asked to carry their books to school in the morning.

Cấu trúc 60
Have + "decided to"


Model Sentence
We have decided to move to another city.

1. I've decided to get married!


2. She's decided to have a baby!
3. They've decided to move to India!
4. We've decided to stop eating so much meat.
5. My wife and I have decided to travel all around the world.

Cấu trúc 61
"Have you ever..." + Desire or Hope or Experience


Model Sentence
Have you ever travelled on a ship?

1. Have you ever been in an accident?


2. Have you ever tried jumping from an airplane?
3. Have you ever tried to stop eating meat?
4. Have you ever seen a UFO? (Unidentified Flying Object)
5. Have you ever wanted to stop doing some bad habit?

Cấu trúc 62
"I heard (that)..." + Sentence


Model Sentence
I heard that the Earth will come to an end in 2020.

1. I heard (that) there's going to be a big sale this weekend.


2. I heard (that) the zoo will get a new baby panda next week.
3. My sister heard (that) her company will go out of business soon.
4. The newspaper reporter heard (that) the president will resign tomorrow.
5. We heard (that) tomorrow's weather will be sunny and warm.

Cấu trúc 63
"Have you heard of..." + Long Noun


Model Sentence
Have you heard of a story about people lost on an island?

1. Have you heard of a man named Obama?


2. Have you heard of a car that can fly?
3. Have you heard of a movie called "Back to the Future"?
4. Have you heard of a book called "The Tipping Point"?
5. Have you heard of a funny teacher named Joe?

Cấu trúc 63
"Have you heard of..." + Long Noun


Model Sentence
Have you heard of a story about people lost on an island?

1. Have you heard of a man named Obama?


2. Have you heard of a car that can fly?
3. Have you heard of a movie called "Back to the Future"?
4. Have you heard of a book called "The Tipping Point"?
5. Have you heard of a funny teacher named Joe?

Cấu trúc 64
Do you know + if (or whether) + Noun + Verb + Long Noun


Model Sentence
Do you know if we can connect to the Internet from here?

1. Do you know if we can connect to the Internet from here?


2. Do you know whether Maggie works here or not?
3. Do you know if we can find a good place to park our car?
4. Do you know whether it will be warm tomorrow?
5. Does your father know if we can visit his company next week?

Cấu trúc 65
Using "Hope" with real possibilities


Model Sentence
We hope we can come here again next week.

1. I hope I will get the job!


2. My sister hopes she can go to England.
3. I hope the weather will be nicer tomorrow.
4. Our company hopes it can make a lot of money this year!
5. I hope we don't have a test in English class tomorrow.

Cấu trúc 66
Using "Wish" with unreal possibilities


Model Sentence
I wish I could play the piano well enough to perform on stage!

1. I wish I could find a million dollars in the street! (But I won't!)


2. He wishes he could be promoted to company president tomorrow. (But he won't!)
3. They wish their boss would take a vacation and never come back! (But he won't!)
4. They wish they could go to the movies more often. (But they can't.)
5. She wishes she could speak English well enough to get a better job. (But she can't. Not yet!)

Cấu trúc 67
"Have you always" + Verb + Adjective or Verb or Noun


Model Sentence
(1) Have you always (2) been (3) such a good student?

1. Have you always had blond hair?


2. Have you always been so thin?
3. Have you always taught English?
4. Have you always worked for that company?
5. Have you and your sister always been such good students?

Cấu trúc 68
(1) "Have" + (2) Past Participle + (3) Noun + (4) Result


Model Sentence
(1) I've already (2) visited (3) that museum. (4) Let's not go there now.

1. I've already been to Italy. Let's go to Spain.


2. We've already talked about that. Can we change the topic?
3. I've already seen that movie. Let's see another one.
4. I've already finished my homework. Now I can have some fun!
5. I've already received ten phone calls this morning and it's still early!

Cấu trúc 69
(1) "Have you ever" + (2) Long Verb


Model Sentence
(1) Have you ever (2) dreamed you were flying in a space ship?

1. Have you ever been in a serious accident?


2. Has she ever worked for a bank before?
3. Have they ever given a speech to 500 people?
4. Has your boss ever owned his own company?
5. Have they ever travelled around Europe?

Cấu trúc 70
(1) "Have been" + (2) "ing" + (3) Time


Model Sentence
(1) We've been (2) waiting (3) for over three hours!

1. I've been studying English most of my life.


2. I've been living in New York since I was 10 years old.
3. I've been worrying about tests for too long!
4. She's been studying science since her first day in school.
5. We've been eating in that restaurant since we came to this city.

Cấu trúc 70
(1) "Have been" + (2) "ing" + (3) Time


Model Sentence
(1) We've been (2) waiting (3) for over three hours!

1. I've been studying English most of my life.


2. I've been living in New York since I was 10 years old.
3. I've been worrying about tests for too long!
4. She's been studying science since her first day in school.
5. We've been eating in that restaurant since we came to this city.

Cấu trúc 71
(1) "Have been" + (2) Adjective + (3) Time


Model Sentence
(1) I've been (2) worried about you (3) for a long time.

1. I've been sick for the past week.


2. We've been awake since 8 o'clock.
3. He's been busy all month.
4. They've been crazy about tennis for the past year.
5. She's been interested in science since she was six years old.

Cấu trúc 72
Describing Two Past Events - (1) "Had" + (2) Past Participle + (3) Past


Model Sentence
I (1) had already (2) eaten a big meal before they (3) invited me to dinner.

1. I had already read the book before I saw the film.


2. We had already read the news when John told us.
3. My mother had left before the letter was delivered.
4. The game had already finished when we arrived at the stadium.
5. I had finished washing the floor just as the dog ran in.

Cấu trúc 73
Negative Past Event + Positive Past Event
(1) "Had not" + (2) Past Participle + (3) Past


Model Sentence
She (1) hadn't (2) studied English since she (3) started her new job last month.

1. She hadn't slept since she heard the news


2. I hadn't called her since she said good-bye.
3. I hadn't visited New York in several years until I went there last weekend.
4. We hadn't eaten roast duck in a long time before having it last night.
5. We hadn't seen her in a month until she visited us yesterday afteroon.

Cấu trúc 74
"If" + Verb + "Might" + Noun


Model Sentence
(1) If you (2) eat too much, you (3) might get a (4) stomachache.

1. If you work too hard, you might get a headache.


2. If he eats too quickly, he might get sick.
3. If you drive too fast, you might have an accident.
4. If they wait patiently, they might have a good chance.
5. If we study well, we might learn more than we expect!

Cấu trúc 75
If + Sentence + Might be + Long Noun


Model Sentence
(1) If (2) you feel sick, it (3) might be (4) a good idea to see a doctor.

1. If tomorrow is sunny, it might be a good time to wash the car.


2. If they are in a hurry, it might be a good idea to take a taxi.
3. If she wants to lose weight, it might be worth it to start exercising more.
4. If your parents come, it might be a great chance to take them out to dinner.
5. If you are hungry, it might be a good time to cook something.

Cấu trúc 76
(1) "Might" + (2) Verb A + (3) "Might" + (4) Verb B


Model Sentence
I (1) might (2) buy a car next month or
I (3) might (4) save my money for a trip.

1. I might go shopping today or I might stay home and watch TV.


2. We might start a business or we might keep our present jobs.
3. She might marry him or she might marry someone else!
4. I might look for a new job in sales or I might stick with my current job.
5. They might have a party next week or they might have a party the week after.

Cấu trúc 77
(1) Basic Sentence + (2) "Might have been"


Model Sentence
(1) I'm still waiting for the bus – (2) it might have had an accident.

1. My neighbor didn't come today - he might have been too busy.


2. My telephone stopped working – the battery might have died.
3. If your stomach is hurting, it might have been because of the spicy food you had for lunch.
4. I wonder why your friend is not here - she might have had other things to do.
5. They didn't want to come to the museum with us - they might have been there before.

Cấu trúc 78
"Should" + Verb


Model Sentence
We (1) should (2) stop here to buy something to eat.

1. You should call her to see if she's okay.


2. He should arrive early if he wants to get a seat.
3. They should come tomorrow at 7 so they can meet the boss.
4. We should check the meat to see if it's done cooking.
5. You should check the weather forecast before going out today.

Cấu trúc 79
(1) "Tell" + (2) "Should" + (3) Verb


Model Sentence
(1) Tell your brother he (2) should (3) arrive early if he wants to get a seat.

1. Tell your friend he should come here with you.


2. Tell her she should come to visit more often.
3. Tell them to check the weather forecast before going out today.
4. Tell the teacher she should give homework earlier so you can finish it on time.
5. Tell Joe he should make more lessons so we can improve our English more!

Cấu trúc 80
"Should have" (past)


Model Sentence
I had an accident today – I should have been more careful!

1. It's raining today – we should have brought an umbrella!


2. Thanks for helping me - I should have talked to you last week!
3. You will start working next year – should learn more about accounting now.
4. The salesman didn't make a good impression - He should have spoken more confidently.
5. The movie we watched wasn't very good - We shouldn't have wasted our money on it!

Cấu trúc 81
Simple Past using "Could"


Model Sentence
My family could get together often before I went to university.

1. I could run faster 10 years ago.


2. She could remember everything when she was young.
3. They could easily see their children before they moved to Florida.
4. We could eat spicy food when we were younger, but not now.
5. My sister could work 20 hours per day when she was just out of university.

Cấu trúc 82
Conditions using "Could"


Model Sentences

A. (1) If I (2) were rich, I (3) could buy lots of wonderful things.

B. I (1) could buy lots of wonderful things (2) if I (3) were rich.

1. If I had more money, I could start my own business.


2. If she weren't sick, she could come with us.
3. We could be very successful if customers like our idea.
4. We could move to California if we lose our jobs.
5. If I weren't so tired, I could continue working.

Cấu trúc 83
Past Conditions using "Could"


Model Sentences

A. She (1) could (2) have come here (3) if her car (4) hadn't broken down.

B. (1) If her car (2) hadn't broken down, she (3) could (4) have come here.

1. I could have made a lot of money if I had started a business 20 years ago.


2. We could have seen a movie if we had left home earlier.
3. She could have told us the news if her phone hadn't been stolen.
4. If the bank hadn't closed early, we could have withdrawn some money.
5. If I hadn't been lazy as a student, I could have had a much better job today!

Cấu trúc 84
Conditions using "Would"


Model Sentences

A. (1) If I (2) were taller, I (3) would try to play professional basketball.

B. I (1) would try to play professional basketball (2) if I (3) were taller.

1. If I were rich, I would buy a house in Hawaii.


2. If it weren't raining, we would be able to go to the park.
3. If they didn't have a big house with five dogs and seven cats, they would travel more often.
4. If you stopped staying up until four in the morning, you would have more energy at work.
5. If she didn't enjoy studying so much, she wouldn't come to the library so often.

Cấu trúc 85
Past Conditions using "Would"


Model Sentences

A. They (1) would have (2) come here (3) if they (4) had had enough time.

B. (1) If they (2) had had enough time, they (3) would have (4) come here.

1. My hometown would have grown fast if the leaders had been more active.


2. If I had known it was going to get colder in the afternoon, I would have taken a sweater with me.
3. We wouldn't have tried to do it if you had told us how dangerous it was!
4. If you had told me you were going to the supermarket, I would have asked you to buy me some fruit.
5. The old teacher would have cancelled the test if he had known how much the students were worried!

Cấu trúc 86
(1) Past Perfect + (2) Connector + (3) Past


Model Sentence

We (1) had already finished eating (2) when our boss (3) offered to take us out to dinner!

1. He had been waiting for two hours when the telephone suddenly rang.
2. I had already been planning my holiday when the boss told me I had to work overtime.
3. She had been studying for the exam for two months before learning that it was cancelled.
4. When we arrived at the football match, they had already been playing for 15 minutes.
5. I had just started using my computer when the electricity suddenly went out.

Cấu trúc 87
Passive Sentences


Model Sentence

These lessons were put together by a teacher named Joe.

1. This book was written by a famous writer.
2. The movie was produced by an unknown director.
3. Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci.
4. The telephone was invented by Alexander Bell.
5. This amazing story was written in the middle of winter.

Cấu trúc 88
(1) Before / After / During / While + (2) Two Verbs


Model Sentences

(1) After I (2) visited Paris, I (2) decided to learn to speak French well.

OR

I (2) decided to learn to speak French well (1) after I (2) visited Paris.



1. Before I came here, I was not sure wanted to come.
2. After I decided, I started to worry about my decision!
3. She burned herself while she was cooking dinner.
4. I fell in my face while I was ice skating!
5. We learned so much during our time practicing these sentences.

Cấu trúc 89
(1) Long Sentence + (2) "as if" or "as though"
+ (3) Verb Phrase


Model Sentence

(1) We continued playing tennis (2) as if (3) it weren't raining.

1. My boss listened as if here were interested. (But he wasn't!)
2. They were running as if they were trying to catch a train.
3. I worked as if my life depended on it.
4. We laughed as if it was the funniest joke we had ever heard!
5. I am living my life as if I will die tomorrow.

Cấu trúc 90
(1) Although + (2) Sentence A + (3) Sentence B


Model Sentence

(1) Although (2) I don't understand English perfectly, (3) I can still have many conversations!

1. We continued to walk in the park even though it was raining.
2. I'll continue to study languages although I don't need to.
3. Though I have already reached a high level, I will continue to work hard.
4. Although I am not rich, I am happy with my life.
5. Even though I have had trouble, I have never given up.

Cấu trúc 90
(1) Although + (2) Sentence A + (3) Sentence B


Model Sentence

(1) Although (2) I don't understand English perfectly, (3) I can still have many conversations!

1. We continued to walk in the park even though it was raining.
2. I'll continue to study languages although I don't need to.
3. Though I have already reached a high level, I will continue to work hard.
4. Although I am not rich, I am happy with my life.
5. Even though I have had trouble, I have never given up.

Cấu trúc 91
(1) Sentence + (2) Unless + (3) Condition


Model Sentences

(1) We will not change (2) unless (3) you have a good idea.

OR

(2) Unless (3) you have a good idea, (1) we will not change.



1. We can't do it unless you pay us more.
2. Unless it rains tomorrow, we will go for sure.
3. I will be there unless you decide to do it yourself.
4. Unless I get sick, I will be there next Friday.
5. They said they will finish unless you want to add something.

Cấu trúc 92
(1) "Now that" + (2) Finished Action + (3) Result


Model Sentence

(1) Now that (2) we're finished, (3) we can relax.



1. Now that I'm an adult, I can eat and drink whatever I want!
2. I can get more sleep now that I'm not so busy.
3. Now that we're ready to start, why don't we start!
4. She's ready to start cooking, now that she's prepared all the food.
5. Now that you've gotten a promotion, what are you going to do first?




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