D¹ng nµy cã c«ng thøc tæng qu¸t sau:
BE + BEING + PAST PARTICIPLE
Lo¹i 1 ¸p dông cho s¸u th× bÞ ®éng kh«ng tiÕp diÔn vµ lo¹i 2 ¸p dông cho s¸u th× bÞ ®éng tiÕp diÔn. Nhng trong phÇn nµy t«i chØ giíi thiÖu nh÷ng th× häc sinh ®· häc trong ch¬ng tr×nh , phôc vô cho thi häc k× vµ thi tèt nghiÖpTHPT bao gåm bèn th× bÞ ®éng kh«ng tiÕp diÔn lµ: th× hiÖn t¹i ®¬n , th× qu¸ khø ®¬n , th× hiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh ,th× t¬ng lai ®¬n , bÞ ®éng víi ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu vµ hai th× bÞ ®éng tiÕp diÔn lµ : HiÖn t¹i tiÕp diÔn vµ qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn.
S + am / is/ are + Past Participle
Active: They raise cows in Ba Vi.
Passive: Cows are raised in Ba Vi.
2)Th× qu¸ khø ®¬n:
Active : Jame Watt invented the steam engine in 1784.
Passive : The steam engine was invented by Jame Watt in 1784.
3)Th× hiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh:
S + have/ has been + Past Participle
Active: They have just finished the project.
S + will be + Past Participle
5. §éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu.
S + Modal Verb + be + Past Participle.
S + am / is / are +being + Past Participle
S + was / were + being + Past Participle
X¸c ®Þnh t©n ng÷ trong c©u chñ ®éng , chuyÓn nã thµnh chñ ng÷ trong c©u bÞ ®éng.
- X¸c ®Þnh th× cña ®éng tõ trong c©u chñ ®éng, chia “to be” t¬ng øng víi th× tiÕng Anh ®ã vµ víi chñ ng÷ míi cña c©u bÞ ®éng.
- Chia ®éng tõ chÝnh trong c©u chñ ®éng ë d¹ng past participle trong c©u bÞ ®éng.
- By+ t¸c nh©n g©y hµnh ®éng ( khi muèn nhÊn m¹nh t¸c nh©n g©y hµnh ®éng)
S + V + O
S + V (participle) + O
S V O
Trong phÇn nµy cÇn lu ý häc sinh mét sè vÊn ®Ò sau:
- C¸c tr¹ng tõ chØ c¸ch thøc thêng ®îc ®Æt tríc ®éng tõ ph©n tõ hai trong c©u bÞ ®éng.
Eg: He wrote the book wonderfully.
The book was wonderfully written.
- By + t¸c nh©n g©y hµnh ®éng ®øng sau tr¹ng ng÷ chØ n¬i chèn vµ ®øng tríc tr¹ng ng÷ chØ thêi gian.
Eg1: A passer- by took him home.
He was taken home by a passer- by.
The gifts will be received by us on Monday.
Tuy nhiªn kh«ng ph¶i bÊt cø c©u nµo còng cã thÓ chuyÓn tõ chñ ®éng sang bÞ ®éng hoÆc ngîc l¹i. §iÒu kiÖn ®Ó chuyÓn mét c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng lµ c©u ®ã ph¶i cã mét transitive verb ( ®éng tõ ngo¹i híng). C©u cã intransitive verb ( ®éng tõ néi híng) th× kh«ng thÓ chuyÓn sang c©u bÞ ®éng. §éng tõ ngo¹i híng lµ ®éng tõ cÇn mét t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp trong khi ®éng tõ néi híng th× kh«ng cÇn mét t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp.
2) They run along the beach every morning.
ViÖc chuyÓn ®æi tõ c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng hoµn toµn tuú thuéc vµo cÊu tróc c©u do ®ã c¸ch tèt nhÊt ®Ó n¾m v÷ng c¸ch chuyÓn ®æi lµ xem xet nã díi cÊp ®é c¸c mÉu c©u ®· biÕt.
Trong mÉu c©u nµy t©n ng÷ cã thÓ lµ mét danh tõ, côm tõ hoÆc ®¹i tõ.
H·y xÐt mét sè vÝ dô sau:
S + V + O
Eg: Active: Her mother is cleaning the kitchen.
Eg: They called him Mr. Angry.
He was called Mr. Angry.
S + V + O + A
Eg: He put the table in the corner.
The table was put in the corner.
S + V + O + O
Eg: We gave him a nice present on his birthday.
- C¸ch chuyÓn thø nhÊt: He was given a nice present on his birthday.
A nice present was given to him on his birthday.
Cã hai giíi tõ cã thÓ ®îc dïng trong trêng hîp nµy lµ : to, for.
Mét sè ®éng tõ dïng víi ‘to’: give, bring, send, show, write, post, pass…
Mét sè ®éng tõ dïng víi ‘for’ : buy, make, cook, keep, find, get, save, order ………..
Eg1 : She didn’t show me this special camera.
This camera wasn’t shown to me.
Eg 2: She is making him a cup of tea.
A cup of tea is being made for him.
3. C©u bÞ ®éng víi c¸c ®éng tõ têng thuËt.
C¸c ®éng tõ têng thuËt thêng ®îc dïng ®Ó têng thuËt l¹i c¸c c©u nãi, ý nghÜ, c©u hái , yªu cÇu, lêi xin lçi ……… Mét sè ®éng tõ têng thuËt thêng gÆp lµ : say, think, know, believe, ask, tell, promise….
Cã hai cÊu tróc liªn quan ®Õn ®éng tõ têng thuËt:
S + V + Oi + that clause.
I was told that you had a new bike.
S + V + that + clause.
MÉu c©u nµy cã hai c¸ch chuyÓn sang d¹ng bÞ ®éng:
Eg: People think that I am the best student in my class.
It is thought that I am the best student in my class.
Eg: I am thought to be the best student in my class.
ë c¸ch chuyÓn thø hai , cã thÓ dïng 3 d¹ng nguyªn mÉu cña ®éng tõ:
1) To- inf: khi hµnh ®éng x¶y ra ë mÖnh ®Ò that diÔn ra cïng th× hoÆc diÔn ra sau hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò têng thuËt.
2) nguyªn mÉu tiÕp diÔn: to be ving, khi hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò that ë th× tiÕp diÔn , cßn hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò têng thuËt ë th× ®¬n gi¶n, cïng bËc.
3)nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh: to have done, khi hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò that x¶y ra tríc hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò têng thuËt.
He is said to be a rich man.
Eg2: They think that she is living there.
She is thought to be living there.
Eg3: They said that Tom had left home before the weekend.
Let your hat be taken off!
Ngoµi c¸ch trªn, cßn mét c¸ch kh¸c ®Ó chuyÓn c©u mÖnh lÖnh sang c©u bÞ ®éng nhng Ýt dïng h¬n. §ã lµ:
S + am/ is/ are + to be + past participle
HoÆc S should be + past participle
Eg: Active: Look after the children please!
HoÆc : The children are to be looked after!
§èi víi nh÷ng c©u hái cã tõ ®Ó hái, chóng ta cã thÓ chia lµm hai lo¹i:
Who was this novel written by?
HoÆc: By whom was this novel written?
S + V + O + Ving
6. CÊu tróc :
Cã hai trêng hîp x¶y ra:
-> I was kept waiting ( by him).
=> He hates being looked at ( by people).
S + V + O ( to) + V
7. CÊu tróc :
S + V + O + to + V
- Khi t©n ng÷ kh«ng cïng ®èi tîng víi chñ ng÷.
-> He was asked to do it.
- Khi t©n ng÷ cïng ®èi tîng víi chñ ng÷.
Eg : She would love someone to take her out to dinner.
-> She would love to be taken out to dinner.
-> He was heard to sing this song.
Nhng : They let us go home.
-> We were let go home.
HoÆc : We were allowed to go home.
Have / get something done. ( dạng nhờ bảo ).
. CÊu tróc
-> I had my bicycle repaired yesterday.
Passive : S + get + O (thing) + Past participle (+by + O(person))
-> I get some coffee made.
a. is made b. is making c. made d. maked
2. If your brother ………………., he would come.
a. invited b. were invited c. were inviting d. invite
3. Mr. Wilson is …………… as Wilie to his friend.
a. knowed b. knew c. known d. is known
4. References …………. in the examination room.
a. not are used b. is not used c. didn’t used d. are not used
5. Laura ………….. in Boston.
a. are born b. were born c. was born d. born
6. My nother is going …………… this house.
a. sold b. to be sold c. to sold d. to sell
7.There’s somebody hehind us . I think we are ……………….
a. being followed b. are followed c. follow d. following
8. Have you …………….. by a dog?
a. bite b. ever been bit c. ever been bitten d. bit
9.The room is being ………….. at the moment.
a. was cleaned b. cleaned c. cleaning d. clean
10. The road to our village …………. widened next year.
a. is b. will c. can d. will be
a. The room every day is cleaned.
b. The room is everyday cleaned.
c. The room is cleaned every day.
d. The room is cleaned by somebody everyday.
2. They cancelled all flights because of fog.
a. All flights because of fog were cancelled.
b. All flights were cancelled because of fog.
c. All flights were cancelled by them because of fog.
d. All flights were because of fog cancelled.
3.They are building a new highway around the city.
a. A new highway is being built around the city.
b. A new highway is being built around the city by them.
c. A new highway around the city is being built.
d. Around the city a new highway is being built.
4.They have built a new hospital near the airport.
a. A new hospital has been built near the airport by them.
b. A new hospital near the airport has been built.
c. A new hospital has been built near the airport .
d. Near the airport a new hospital has been built by them.
5. They will ask you a lot of questions at the interview.
a. You will be asked a lot of questions at the interview.
b. You will be asked a lot of questions at the interview by them.
c. A lot of questions will be asked you at the interview.
d. A lot of questions will be asked at the interview.
6. People don’t use this road very often.
a. This road is not used very often.
b. Not very often this road is not used.
c. This road very often is not used.
d. This road not very often is used.
7. Somebody accused me of stealing money.
a. I was accused by somebody of stealing money.
b. I was accused of stealing money.
c. I was accused of stealing money by somebody.
d. I was accused stealing money.
8. Somebody is using the computer at the moment.
a. The computer is being used at the moment.
b. The computer at the moment is being used.
c. The computer is being used by somebody at the moment.
d. The computer is used at the moment.
9. The bill includes service.
a. Service is included by the bill.
b. Service included in the bill.
c. Service is included in the bill.
d. Service is in the bill.
10. They have changed the date of the meeting.
a. The date of the meeting has been changed.
b. The date of the meeting has been changed by them.
c. The meeting has been changed the date.
d. The date of the meeting has changed.
Exercise 3. Chän ®¸p ¸n ®óng nhÊt ®Ó hoµn thµnh nh÷ng c©u sau:
1. The old lady was ……….exhausted after the long walk.
a. very b. aboslutely c. pretty d. fairly.
2. The old man is said…………….all his money to an old people’s home when he died.
a. to leave b. to leaving c. have left d. to have left.
3. Nobody was injured in the accident , …………?
a. was there b. was he c. were they d. weren’t they.
4. Renoir’s paintings ……….. masterpieces all over the world.
a. had considered b. are considered c. are considering d. consider.
5. He was advised…………singing lessons.
a. take b. taken c. taking d. to take.
6. You’d better get someone…………your living room.
a. redecorate b. redecorated c. to redecorate d. redecorating.
7. When…………..? In 1928.
a. penicillin was discovered b. did pencillin discoved.
c. was penicillin disscoverd d. did pencillin discover.
8. I don’t remember……………..of the decision to change the company policy on vacations.
a. telling b. being told c. to tell d. to be told.
9. The children ……………to the zoo.
a. were enjoyed taken b. enjoyed being taken
c. were enjoyed taking d. enjoyed taking.
10. A new bike was bought ………….him on his birthday.
a. to b. for c. with d. on.
11. His car needs ……………….
a. be fixed b. fixing c. to be fixing d. fixed.
12. Her watch needs…………….
a. reparing b. to be repaired c. repaired d. a&b.
13. He was said……………….this building.
a. designing b. to have designed c. to designs d. designed
14. Ted………….by a bee while he was sitting in the garden.
a. got sting b. got stung c. get stung d. gets stung
15. Let the children…………..taken to the cinema.
a. to b. be c. to be d. being.
Exercise 4 : Chän c©u cã cïng nghÜa víi c©u ®· cho b»ng c¸ch chän a, b, c hoÆc d.
1. It has been said that UFO sightings are increasing.
a. People say that UFO sightings are increasing. b. people have said that UFO sightings are increasing.
c. That UFO sightings are increasing is true. d. UFO has been said to be inreasing.
2. He is getting them mend the windows.
a. He’s having the windows to mend. b. He’s having to mend the windows.
c. He’s having to be mended the windows. d. He is having the windows mended.
3. They made her hand over her passport.
a. She was made to hand over her passport. b. She was made hand over her passport.
c. She was handed over to make her passport. d. She was handed over for her passport to make.
4. Don’t let the others see you.
a. Don’t let you to be seen. b. Don’t let yourself be seen.
c. You aren’t to be seen by the others. d. Both a &c allowed.
5. They say that many people are homeless after the tsunami.
a. They say many people to have been homeless after the tsunami.
b. They say many piople to bbe homeless after the tsunami.
c. Many people are said to have been homeless after the tsunami.
d. Many people are said to be homeless after the tsunami.
6. They know that the Prime Minister is in favour of the new law.
a. The Prime minister is known to have been in favour of the new law.
b. They know the Prime Minister to be in favour of the new law.
c. The Prime Minister is known to be in favour of the new law.
d. They know the Prime Minister to have been in favour of the new law.
7. They expect that the government will lose the election.
a. The government is expected to have lost the election.
b. The government is expected to lose the election.
c. They expect the government to lose the election.
d. They expect the government have lost election.
8. I didn’t realize that somebody was recording our conversation.
a. I didn’t realize that our conversation was recorded.
b. I didn’t realize that our conversation was being recorded.
c. I didn’t realize that our conversation was being recorded by someone.
d. Our conversation wasn’t realized to be recorded.
9. They never made us do anything we didn’t want to do.
a. We are never made to do anything we didn’t want to do.
b. We were never made to do anything we didn’t want to do.
c. We have never made to do anything we didn’t want to do.
d. We had never made to do anything we didn’t want to do.
10. Brian told me that somebody had attacked him in the street.
a. I was told by Brian that somebody had attacked him in the street.
b. I was told by Brian that he had been attacked in the street.
c. Brian told me to have been attacked in the street.
C. had finished-were arriving D. have been finished- were arrived