If you are an environmentalist, plastic is a word you tend to say with a sneer or snarl. It has become a symbol of our wasteful, throw-away society. But there seems little doubt it is here to stay, and the truth is , of course, that plastic has brought enormous (31)…………even environmental ones. It’s not really the plastic themselves that are the environmental evil- it’s the way the society chooses to use and (32)………….them.
Almost all the 50 or so different kinds of modern plastic are made from oil, gas, or coal - non-renewable natural (33)…………We (34)……..well over three million tones of the stuff in Britain each year and, sooner or later, most of it is thrown away. A high (35)…….of our annual consumption is in the form of packaging, and this (36)…………..about seven percent by weight of our domestic refuse. Almost all of it could be replaced, but very little of it is, though the plastic recycling (37)…………is growing fast.
The plastic themselves are extremely energy-rich- they have a higher calorific (38)…….. than coal and one (39)……. of “recovery” strongly favoured by the plastic manufacturers is the (40)……of waste plastic into a fuel.
31. A. savings B. pleasures C. benefits D. profits
32. A. abuse B. endanger C. store D. dispose
33. A. processes B. resources C. products D. fuels
34. A. import B. consign C. remove D. consume
35. A. amount B. proportion C. portion D. rate
36. A. makes B. carries C. takes D. constitutes
37. A. industry B. manufacture C. plant D. factory
38. A. demand B. effect C. value D. degree
39. A. medium B. method C. measure D. mechanics
40. A. melting B. conversion C. change D. replacement
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to show the underline part that needs correction in each of the following questions.
41. Alike other forms of energy, natural gas may be usedto heat homes, cook food, and
A B C
even run automobiles.
42. The earth is the only planet with a large number of oxygen in its atmosphere.
A B C D
43. A five-thousand- dollars reward was offeredfor the capture of the escaped criminals.
A B C D
44. In order to do a profit, the new leisure centre needs at least 2000 visitors a month.
Read the following passage, and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 46 to 55.
Since the world has become industrialized, there has been an increase in the number of animal species that have either become extinct or have neared extinction. Bengal tigers, for instance, which once roamed the jungles in vast numbers, now number only about 2300 and by the year 2025, their population is estimated to be down to zero. What is alarming about the case of the Belgan tiger is that this extinction will have been caused almost entirely by poachers who, according to some sources, are not interested in material gain but in personal gratification. This is an example of the callousness that is part of what is causing the problem of extinction. Animals like the Bengal tiger, as well as other endangered species, are a valuable part of the world’s ecosystem. International laws protecting these animals must be enacted to ensure their survival, and the survival of our planet.
Countries around the world have begun to deal with the problem in varios way. Some countries, in order to circumvent the problem, have allocated large amounts of land to animal reserves. They, then charge admission to help defray the costs of maintaining the parks, they often must also depend on world organizations for support. With the money they get, they can invest equipment and patrols to protect the animals. Another solution that is an attempt to stem the tide of animal extinction is an international boycott of products made from endangered species. This seems fairy effective, but will not by itself, prevent animals from being hunted and killed.
46. What is the main topic of the passage?
A. the Bengal tiger B. international boycott C. endangered species D. problem with industrialization
47. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “alarming” in the first paragraph?
A. dangerous B. serious C. gripping D. distressing
48. The word “callousness” in the first paragraph could best be replaced by which of the following?
A. indirectness B. independence C. incompetence D. insensitivity
49. The above passage is divided into two paragraphs in order to contrast………………
A. a problem and a solution B. a statement and an illustration
C. a comparison and a contrast D. a specific and general information
50. What does the word “this” in the first paragraph refer to ?
A. endangered species that are increasing B. Bengal tigers that are decreasing
C. poachers who seek personal gratification D. sources that may not be accurate
51. Where in the passage does the author discuss a cause of extinction?
A. Since the world…….down to zero. B. What is alarming……personal gratification
C. Countries around…….for support D. With the money…….endangered species
52. Which of the following could best replace the word “allocated” in the second paragraph?
A. set aside B. combined C.organized D. taken off
53. The word “defray” in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to which of the folowing?
A. lower B. raise C. make a payment on D. make an investment toward
54. The author uses the phrase “stem the tide” in the second paragraph to mean………….
A. touch B. stop C. tax D. save
55. Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude?
A. forgiving B. concerned C. vindictive D. surprised
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word or phrase that is CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined part in each of the following questions.
56. I was very tired. I sat in an armchair and fell asleep.
57. The weather is horrible at the moment, isn’t it? I hope it clears up later.
A. becomes brighter B. shines C. is not cloudy D. clean
58. There used to be a shop at the end of the street but it went out of business a year ago.
A. closed up B. closed C. closed down D. closed into
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word or phrase that is OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined part in each of the following questions.
59. Cancer is becoming one of the common diseases.
A. usual B. rare C ordinary D. universal
60. Digital watches that display time electronically are swiftly replacing analog watches.
A. slowly B. eventually C. quickly D. rapidly
Read the following passage, and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 61 to 70.
Baseball has been dubbed “ America’s favorite sport”, and many fans contend that there is no greater thrill than watching a good pitcher throw the ball skillfully in a series of expertly delivered “fast” and “curve” balls. Two such pitches, the “rising fastball” and the “breaking curveball” are particularly exasperating to batters because these balls tend to veer in one direction or the other just as they reach home plate. The “rising fastball” zooms forward only to jump up and over the bat as batter swings. The “breaking curveball” curves toward home plate, but plunges downward unexpectedly at the last moment. Batters attempt to anticipate these pitches, and respond accordingly, while pitchers work at perfecting their “fast” and “curve” ball deliveries.
But according to studies conducted by a team of engineers and psychologists, the “rising fastball” and “breaking curveball” do not actually exist, they are merely optical illusions. The studies revealed that batters preceive the ball as approaching more slowly or falling more quickly than it actually is, and it is this misperception that produces the visual illusion. Batters tend to have difficulty tracking a ball continuously as it approaches and will briefly divert their to the spot where they think the ball will cross the plate. When abatter has misjudged the speed or angle of a pitch, and shifts his or her gaze in this way, the ball will appear to suddenly rise or dip and the batter will often miss.
How will this finding affect “ American favorite pastime”? No doubt some will vehemently reject the notion that the “ rising fastball” and the “breaking curveball” are mere illusions. But for others, the findings may imbue the game with a new level of intrigue as batters attempt to respond to pitches that don’t exist.
61. What does this passage mainly discuss?
the difference between fastball and curveball.
American’s favorite pastime
Illusions about the movements of pitches ball
Perceptional problems among baseball players
62. Which of the following words could best replace the word “ thrill” in the first paragraph?
A. activity B. excitement C. remedy D. issue
63. The word “exasperating” in the first paragraph could be best replaced by which of the following?
A. challenging B. exhausting C. exciting D. frustrating
64. The word “ zooms” in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to which of the following?
A. falls B. rolls C. speeds D. bounces
65. Which of the following words could best replace the word “plunges” in the first paragraph?
A. drops B. withdraws C. emerges D. tips
66. According to the author, why is it difficult for the batter to hit the “rising fastball” and the “breaking curveball”?
A.because the ball approaches too quickly
B.because the ball veers just before reaching home plate
C.because the batter misjudges the pitcher’s intention
Nearly 200 of the 1500 native plant species in Hawaii are at risk of going extinct in the near future because they have been (36) _______ to such low numbers. Approximately 90 percent of Hawaii's plants are found nowhere else in the world but they are (37) _______ by alien invasive species such as feral goats, pigs, rodents and (38) _______ plants.
The Hawaii Rare Plant Restoration Group is striving to (39) _______ the extinction of the 182 rare Hawaiian plants with fewer than 50 individuals remaining in the (40) _______ . Since 1990, (41) _______ a result of their "Plant Extinction Prevention Program", sixteen species have been brought into (42) _______ and three species have been reintroduced. Invasive weeds have been removed in key areas and fencing put up in order to (43) _______ plants in the wild.
In the future the Hawaii Rare Plant Restoration Program aims (44) _______ collecting genetic material from the remaining plants in the wild for storage as a safety net for the future. They also aim to manage wild populations and where possible reintroduce species into (45) _______ .
36. A. disappeared B. reduced C. increased D. developed
37. A. guarded B. invested C. conserved D. threatened
38. A. national B. native C. international D. non-native
39. A. prevent B. encourage C. stimulate D. influence
40. A. wild B. atmosphere C. hole D. sky
41. A. so B. due C. as D. but
42. A. contamination B. production C. cultivation D. generation
43. A. derive B. vary C. remain D. protect
44. A. at B. for C. with D. on
45. A. shelters B. reserves C. gardens D. halls
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions. In the world today, particular in the two most industrialized areas, North America and Europe, recycling is the big news. People are talking about it, practicing it, and discovering new ways to be sensitive to the environment. Recycling means finding ways to use products a second time. The motto of the recycling movement is “Reduce, Reuse, Recycle”.
The first step is to reduce garbage. In stores, a shopper has to buy products in blister packs, boxes and expensive plastic wrappings. A hamburger from a fast food restaurant comes in lots of packaging: usually paper, a box and a bag. All that packaging is wasted resources. People should try to buy things that are wrapped simply, and to reuse cups and utensils. Another way to reduce waste is to buy high-quality products. When low-quality appliances break, many customers throw them away and buy new ones - a loss of more resources and more energy. For example, if a customer buys a high-quality appliance that can be easily repaired, the manufacturer receives an important message. In the same way, if a customer chooses a product with less packaging, that customer sends an important message to the manufacturers. To reduce garbage, the throw-away must stop.
The second step is to reuse. It is better to buy juices and soft drinks in returnable bottles. After customers empty the bottles, they return them to the stores. The manufacturers of the drinks collect bottles, wash them, and then fill them again. The energy that is necessary to make new bottles is saved. In some parts of the world, returning bottles for money is a common practice. In those places, the garbage dumps have relatively little glass and plastic from throw-away bottles.
The third step being environmentally sensitive is to recycle. Spent motor oil can be cleaned and used again. Aluminum cans are expensive to make. It takes the same amount of energy to make one aluminum can as it does to run a color TV set for three hours. When people collect and recycle aluminum (for new cans), they help save one of the world’s precious resources.
46. Which area is considered one of the most industrialized?
A. South America B. Middle East C. Europe D. Asia
47. What does the word “sensitive” means?
A. cautious B. logical C. responding D. friendly
48. The word “motto” is closest in meaning to _______.
A. meaning B. value C. belief D. reference
49. It is a waste when customers buy low-quality products because _______.
A. they have to be repaired many times. B. they will soon throw them away
C. customers always change their idea D. they are very cheap. .
50. What is the topic of the passage?
A. How to live sensitively to the environment. B. How to reduce garbage disposal.
C. What is involved in the recycling movement. D. What people understand the term “recycle”
51. People can do the following to reduce waste EXCEPT _______.
A. The bottles are filled again after being returned, collected and washed.
B. The bottles are collected, washed, returned and filled again.
C. The bottles are washed, returned filled again and collected.
D. The bottles are collected, returned, filled again and washed.
53. The word “practice” is closest in meaning to _______.
A. training B. exercise C. deed D. belief
54. Garbage dumps in some areas have relatively little glass and plastic because _______.
A. people are ordered to return bottles B. returned bottles are few
C. each returned bottle is paid D. few bottles are made of glass or plastic
55. What are the two things mentioned as examples of recycling?
A. TV sets and aluminum cans. B. Hamburger wrappings and spent motor oil.
C. Aluminum cans and plastic wrappings. D. Aluminum cans and spent motor oil.
Read the following passage and mark the letter a, b, c or d on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.
Because writing has become so important in our culture, we sometimes think of it as more real than speech. A little thought, however, will show why speech is primary and writing secondary to language. Human beings have been writing ( as far as we can tell from surviving evidence) for at least 5000 years; but they have been talking for much longer, doubtless ever since there have been human beings.
When writing did develop, it was derived from and represented speech, although imperfectly. Even today there are spoken languages that have no written form. Furthermore, we all learn to talk well before we learn to write; any human child who is not severely handicapped physically or mentally will learn to talk; a normal human being cannot be prevented from doing so. On the other hand, it takes a special effort to learn to write. In the past many intelligent and useful members of society did not acquire the skill, and even today many who speak languages with writing systems never learn to read or write, while some who learn the rudiments of those skills do so only imperfectly.
To affirm the primacy of speech over writing is not, however, to disparage the latter. One advantage writing has over speech is that it is more permanent and makes possible the records that any civilization must have. Thus, if speaking makes us human, writing makes us civilized.
56. We sometimes think of writing as more real than speech because ______________.
a. people have been writing since there have been human beings
b. human beings have been writing for at least 5000 years
c. it has become very important in our culture
d. writing is secondary to language
57. The author of the passage argues that _____________.
a. speech is more basic to language than writing
b. all languages should have a written form
c. writing has become too important in today’s society
d. everyone who learns to speak must learn to write
58. Normal human beings ____________.
a. learn to talk after learning to write b. learn to write after learning to talk
c. learn to talk before learning to write d. learn to write and talk at the same time
59. According to the passage, writing _____________.
a. is represented perfectly by speech b. represents speech, but not perfectly
c. is imperfect, but less so than speech d. developed from imperfect speech
60. Learning to write is _______________.
a. too difficult b. easy c. not easy d. very easy
61. In order to show that learning to write requires effort, the author gives the example of __________.
a. severely handicapped children b. people who learn the rudiments of speech
c. people who speak many languages d. intelligent people who couldn’t write
62. In the author’s judgement, _____________.
a. writing is more real than speech
b. writing has more advantages than speech
c. speech is essential but writing has important benefits
d. speech conveys ideas less accurately than writing does
63. According to the author, one mark of any civilized society is that it _____________.
a. affirms the primacy of writing over speech
b. affirms the primacy of speech over writing
c. keeps written records
d. teaches its children to speak perfectly
64. Which of the following is NOT true?
a. Speech is essential but writing has important benefits.
b. Writing has become so important in our culture.
c. It is easy to acquire the writing skill.
d.Writing represents speech, but not perfectly.
65. The word “ advantage ” in the last paragraph most closely means _____________.
a. benefit b. skill c. rudiments d. domination
Mark the letter A, B, C, D on your answer sheet to show the underlined part that needs corection in each of the questions from 66 to 70.
66. Everyone ought to know the basic steps that followin case ofan emergence.
A B C D
67. We shouldhave playedmuch better than we do.
A B C D
68. Sue’s mother is a hairdresser, but Sue is not interested inbecoming it.
A B C D
69. It announced today that an enquiry would be held into the collapse of a high- rise apartment
A B C
block in Kuala Lumpur last week.
70. The effects of wind and water in rock surfaces can often causeerosion.
A B C D
Mark the letter A, B, C, D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following questions.
71. I did not come to your party due to the rain.
a.If it did not rained, I would come to your party.
b. It was the rain that prevented me from coming to your party.
c.Even though it rained, I came to your party.
d. Suppose it did not rain, I would come to your party.
72. They got success since they took my advice.
a. They took my advice, and failed.
b. If they did not take my advice, they would not get success.
c. But for taking my advice, they would not have got success.
d. My advice stopped them took my advice.
73. Unless you come on time, we will go without you.
a. Come on time or we will go without you.
b. Come on time, we will go without you.
c. Because of your punctuality, we will go without you.
d. Without your coming on time, we will go.
74. Thanks to her high grades at university, she is offered the position.
a. If she had not got high grades at university, she would not be offered the position.
b. It was her high grades at university which offer her the position.
c. If she had not got high grades at university, she would not have been offered the position.
d.Without her high grades at university, she is not offered the position.
75. I am very interesting in the book you lent me last week.
a. The book is interesting enough for you to lent me last week.
b. It was the interesting book which you lent me last week.
c. The book which you lent me last week is too interesting to read.
d. The book that you lent me last week interests me a lot.
76. Because they erected a barn, the cattle couldn’t get out into the wheat field.
A. They erected a barn, and as a result, the cattle couldn’t get out into the wheat field.
B. In order not to keep the cattle away from the wheat field, they erected a ban.
C. They erected a barn so that the cattle would get into the wheat field.
D. They erected a barn in case the cattle couldn’t get out into the wheat field.
77. They couldn’t climb up the mountain because of the storm.
A. The storm made them impossible to climb up the mountain.
B. The storm discouraged them from climbing up the mountain.
C. Their climbing up the mountain was unable due to the storm.
D. The storm made it not capable of climbing up the mountain.
78. Wealthy as they were, they were far from happy.
A. They were not happy as they were wealthy. B. Although they were wealthy, they were not happy.
C. They were as wealthy as they were happy. D. Even if they were wealthy, they were not happy.
79. The woman was too weak to lift the suitcase.
A. The woman wasn’t able to lift the suitcase, so she was very weak.
B. The woman shouldn’t have lifted the suitcase as she was weak.
C. So weak was the woman that she couldn’t lift the suitcase.
D. The woman, though weak, could lift the suitcase.
80. “ We’re having a reunion this weekend. Why don’t you come?” John said to us.
A. John cordially invited us to a reunion this weekend.
B. John didn’t understand why we came to a reunion.
C. John simply asked us why we wouldn’t come to a reunion.
D. John asked why we didn’t come to reunion this weekend