Writing Systems: Various systems; Chinese characters History



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Notes sept 14


  1. Upcoming Schedule: Test #1 and study guide update; Term paper proposal (research tips, topic tips, materials distributed)

  2. Writing Systems: Various systems; Chinese characters

  3. History: Few early records in Southeast Asia; spread of Indian culture; Chinese contact (tribute relations, southward migration by land, limited sea travel)

  4. Vietnamese: Historical background; Historical records and photos; Lexical evidence



Chinese Characters

  • 3,500 years old

  • Standardized in the Qin into the Han dynasties (2,000 years ago)

  • Spread throughout China (including non-Chinese), Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, particular from the Tang dynasty (1,200 years ago)
    In 1070 CE, in Hanoi, the Van Mieu wen2 miao4 文廟“Temple literature” was established, a kind of university for the study of Chinese classical literature (e.g., preparing for the Chinese civil service exam).

  • Experienced a movement toward “simplification” in the mid-20th century only in the PRC (and Singapore).




  • Small percentage of “pictographs”

Gloss

Character

Reading

“person”



Ren2

“fire”



Huo3




  • Mostly a combination of radicals that contribute something both meaning and/or sound.

Gloss

Character

Reading

Element

“he”



Ta1



“burn”



Shao1





青 [qing1] /9th of month (tele.)/blue-green/

清 [qing1] /clear/istinct/complete/pure/

蜻 [qing1] /dragonfly/

鲭 [qing1] /mackerel/mullet/

情 [qing2] /feeling/emotion/passion/situation/

晴 [qing2] /clear/fine (weather)/

请 [qing3] /to ask/to invite/please (do sth)/to treat (to a meal, etc)/to request/



LANGUAGE

MODERN

SAMPLE

ANCIENT

Chinese

Chinese script

中国促请伊朗跟联合国合作 , 2006-09-14 4:25 pm,   (综合讯)明报消息,中国外交部发言人秦刚,促请伊朗政府跟国际原子能机构合作,解决核问题。 秦刚指,透过协商和平解决问题,是最佳的选择。 《联合早报网》




Japanese

Chinese and kana (syllabary)

以来、皆様の絶大なるご支援のもとに「スイッチの日開」として、現在は国内はもとより、広く欧米各国をはじめ世界各国において、ご愛顧いただいております。

Chinese

Korean

Hangul (Korean alphabet), very limited use of Chinese

이날 회담에서 전 청장이 미국의 NRP 제도가 매우 훌륭한 조사방식이라고 평가하자 에버슨 청장은 “한국의 청장이 어떻게 나보다 더 미국의 제도를 잘 아느냐”면서 고마워했다는 후문이다.

Chinese

Vietnamese

Quoc Ngu (Roman alphabet)

Sản xuất thuốc tiêm ức chế sự phát triển tế bào ung thư (14-9) Công ty cổ phần dược phẩm Vĩnh Phúc (Vinphaco) vừa công bố độc quyền sản xuất và phân phối trên toàn quốc sản phẩm thuốc tiêm Aslem 0,3mg/1ml, có chức năng tăng cường miễn dịch, ức chế sự phát triển của tế bào ung thư.

Chinese, Chu Nom (Chinese-based for Vietnamese words)

Thai

Thai alphabet (Sanskrit)

ตัวอักษรไทย รูปสระ วรรณยุกต์ ภาษาไทย




Cambodian

Cambodian alphabet (Sanskrit)

ตัวอักษรไทย รูปสระ วรรณยุกต์ ภาษาไทย




Indonesian

Alphabet

Orang-orang bijak tak banyak bicara. Setiap guratan huruf menjadi permata. Mereka inilah orang-orang yang menghayati betul fungsi bahasa.

Hindi script

Tagalog

Alphabet

(I-click ang link sa itaas at may separate window na lilitaw kung saan makikita ang listahan ng lahat ng translation tools na maaring magamit para sa dokumentong ito.)






Southeast Asia

  • Few early records in Southeast Asia

  • Spread of Indian culture (Indo-China region)

  • Chinese contact (tribute relations (e.g. Funan), southward migration by land (Qin/Han dynasty expansion), limited sea travel)

  • Yue peoples in Southeastern China in 500 BCE (Tai? Hmong-Mien? Certainly Vietnamese)


Vietnam

  • Pre-recorded history (beyond the tribal level, Yue group, an emerging civilization, most likely did not have writing, wet-rice agricultural techniques (rice surplus), most likely women had a substantially higher social status than they do now),
    Lac Lords

  • Contact with Chinese: Han dynasty, political domination, and migration of Chinese into Vietnam, both elite and soldiers, traders, and farmers.


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