Relative clause



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1

RELATIVE CLAUSE

MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ XÁC ĐỊNH

(DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE)

Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định

(defining / identifying / restrictrive clause) la mệnh đề được sử dụng để xác định rỏ cho từ mà nó thay thế

No cân thiêt cho y nghia cua câu

không có nó câu sẽ không đủ nghĩa

. Have you ever spoken to the people who

live next door? (Subject) The girl who is wearing blue short

is my daughter. (Subject) The man whom / that you met yesterday

was my father. (Object) The singer who has just appeared in some programmes on TV

recently comes from a village in south of Vietnam. (Subject) The computer which I bought yesterday

is an IBM. (Object) The boy whose father is a professor at this university

has come first in the examination. (Possessive) 

Lưu y


: Không sử dụng dấu phẩy [,] phân cách mệnh đề quan hệ hạn định với mệnh đề chính.

Co thể sử dụng THAT để thay thê cho who, whom và which.

 Đại từ quan hệ who(m), which, that co thể được lược bỏ khi no lam bổ ngữ cho mệnh đề.

The computer which I bought yesterday is an IBM. = The computer I bought yesterday is an IBM.

Tokyo is a city which / that I’ve always wanted to visit. = Tokyo is a city I’ve always wanted to visit.

Sử dụng THATcho các từ đứng trước ở dạng hỗn hợp [người + vật

/

sự vật


] We saw many soldiers and tank that

were moving to the front. The boy and the dog that

were lost in a forest during a hunt have just been found by the police.

S



ử dụng

THAT


khi no thay thê cho danh từ đi cùng một tính từ so sánh bậc nhất

như


the best, the most + adj.,

the adj. + -est

) hoặc khi no thay thê cho một từ bất định như

everybody, anybody, somebody, everything,

anything, nothing, something …

hay các từ chỉ định lượng như

:

all, only, little, few, much, none…



He’s

the best teacher

that

I have ever know. I like anyone



that

lives in the country. She is one of the kindest people

that

I know.


MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ

KHÔNG


XAC ĐINH

(NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE)

Mệnh đề quan hệ



không

xác định

(non-defining / non-identifying / non-restrictrive clause)

la mệnh đề

bổ túc

thông tin.

No chỉ bổ túc thêm nghia cho từ đứng trước no va nều bỏ đi vẫn không ảnh hưởng gì đên nghia cua câu. Mệnh đề nay thường được phân cách với mệnh đề chính bằng

dấu phẩy


(,)

hoặc dấu gạch

ngang (-). My mother, who is tailor

, is interested in fashion. (Subject) I gave him a sandwich, which he ate greedily

. (Object) Harry, who(m) you will meet tomorrow

, is also a member of the board. (Object) Mrs. Lan, whose children are at school all day

, is trying to get a job. (Possessive)

Lưu y



:

Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định luôn luôn được đặt giữa dấu phẩy [nêu đứng giữa câu], hoặc sau một dấu phẩy [nêu đứng cuối câu].



My friend Alice, who is an excellent student in my class

, has just got a scholarship to study at Harvard University.

Lưu


ý: Tom has a brother, who is a doctor

. (Tom co người anh, người anh la bác si)

Tom has a brother who is a doctor

. (Tom co người anh la bác si) (

-

> Co thể co nhiều người anh)



Không lượt bỏ đại từ quan hệ trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định.

Khôn


g sử dụng

THAT


thay cho

which


,

who


whom


trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định.

Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định co thể bắt đâu bằng các cụm từ:



all of, any of, (a) few of, both of, either of,

half of, many of, most of, much of, none of, one of

There are thirty students in my class, most of whom are with me at secondary school



. He was carrying his belongings, many of which were broken

.

LƯỢC BỎ ĐẠI TỪ QUAN HỆ



(OMISSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUN)

Trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định



,

các đại từ quan hệ làm tân ngữ

which

,

who(m)



,

that


thường được lược bỏ

,

nhất là trong lối văn thân mật



(informal style). What did you think of the wine we drank last night? Mariam is a friend I stayed with in Canada.

Các trạng từ quan hệ



(relative adverbs)

when


,

where


va

why


cung co thể được lược bỏ trong lối văn thân mật

. -


WHEN

thường được lược bỏ sau các danh từ chỉ thời gian

.

2

Come and see us any time



you’re in town.

I’ll will never forget

the day

we met. -



WHERE

thường được lược

bỏ sau các từ như

somewhere

,

anywhere


,

everywhere

,

nowhere


va

place


.

We need a place

we can stay for a few days. Have you got somewhere

I can lie down for an hour? -

WHY

thường được lược bỏ sau



reason

. The reason

she doesn’t like this kind of music is that it’s to noisy.

RÚT GỌN MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ

(REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSE)

Mệnh đề quan hệ có thể được rút gọn bằng cụm phân từ



(

hiện tại

/

quá khứ


) (participle phrase),

cụm động từ nguyên mẫu

(infinitive phrase)

hoặc cụm danh từ

(noun phrase).

C



hỉ rút gọn được khi đại từ quan hệ làm chủ từ còn nếu làm tân ngữ thì k

hông


được rút gọn

.

1.



Cụm phân từ

. a.


Nếu động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở chủ động (active), ta dùng pres

ent participle phrase thay cho

mệnh đề đó (bỏ đại từ quan hệ và trợ động từ, đưa động từ chính về nguyên mẫu rồi thêm đuôi ING)

.

The man who is



sitting next to you is my uncle.

The man sitting



next to you is my uncle. Do you know the boy who broke

the windows last night ?

Do you know the boy breaking



the windows last night ? -

Động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ diên tả một hanh động đang diên ra

: The woman who is

talking to my mother is from Korea.

The woman talking



to my mother is from Korea. -

Động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ diên tả một

hanh động hoặc sư việc co tính thường xuyên

,

lâu dài



: The road which joins

the two villages is very narrow.

The road joining



the two villages is very narrow. Students who attended

this school had to wear uniform.

Students attending



this school had to wear uniform. -

Động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ la các động từ như

:

hope


,

desire


,

want


,

wish


(

diễn tả sự mong ước



)

hoặc


know

,

think



,

believe


,

expect


(

diễn đạt sự suy nghĩ, tư duy)



. Anyone who

want


s

to come with us is welcome.

Anyone wanting



to come with us is welcome. Bill, who though

to make an impression on Ann, took her to an expensive hotel.

Bill, thinking



to make an impression on Ann, took her to an expensive hotel. b.

Nếu động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở bị động (passive) ta dùng past participle phrase (bỏ đại từ quan hệ và trợ động từ, bắt đầu cụm từ bằng V3)

. The books which were

written by To Hoai are interesting.

The books written



by To Hoai are interesting. The students who were

punished by teacher are lazy.

The students punished



by teacher are lazy. The house which is

being built now belongs to Mr. Brown.

The house being built



now belongs to Mr. Brown. Most of the people who was

invited to the reception were old friends.

Most of the people invited



to the reception were old friends. c.

Mệnh đề quan hệ có thể được rút gọn bằng to

-

infinitive hoặc infinitive phrase (có dạng for +O+ to



-inf),

chúng ta sử dụng dạng này trong những trường hợp sau:

với

các từ the first, the second,



....the last, so

sánh nhất (superlative),

mục đích (purpose),

sự


cho phép

(permission)

. Tom is the last person



who enters

the room.

Tom is the last person to enter



the room. John is the youngest person

who takes

part in the race.

John is the youngest person to take part



in the race. English is an important language which we have

to master.

English is an important language to master. Here is the form that



for you must

to fill in.

Here is the form for you to fill in.



3

MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ

V

ỚI

G



IỚI

T



(RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH PREPOSITIONS)

This is the house. I live in it.

This is the house in which



I live.

Giới từ


in

bình thường ở sau động từ

live

nhưng ta cung co thể đưa



in

ra trước

which

.



Trong văn phong trang trọng

(formal style),

giới từ thường được đặt trước mệnh đề quan hệ

. Was that the restaurant to which

you normally go? -

Trong văn phong thân mật

(informal style),

giới từ thường được đặt cuối mệnh đề

. Was the the restaurant which / that

you normally go to?

C

hỉ co



WHICH



WHOM

mới co thể đứng

sau giới từ,

còn các


đại từ

k

hác như THAT,



WHO, WHOSE .. thì

không thể.

This is the chair on that I sit

.



This is the chair on which

I sit. He was respected by the people with who / that he worked

.



He was respected by the people with whom he worked.



V

ới



các cụm từ chỉ định lượng đi với of

: both of, none of, one of, two of, neither of, most of

va dạng so sánh nhất



:

the best, the worse, the biggest…

phải đem cả cụm ra trước

WHICH, WHOM. I have many dogs, none of which

you like . I have two brothers, all of whom

are married.

He’s

the best teacher



that

I have ever know.

Trong cấu trúc nay



chúng ta

sẽ gặp những giới từ không thể đưa

ra phía trước. Đo la trường hợp giới từ đo hợp với động từ thanh một cụm động từ

(phrasal verbs)

dính liền nên ta

không thể tách rời chúng được:

Come across

(tình cờ gặp)

,

look after (chăm soc), put up with (chịu đưng),



give up (từ bỏ)

This is the man. I came across him yesterday.



This is the man across whom I came yesterday

. (sai )

This is the man whom I came across yesterday.



(đúng )

C



ác giới từ như

without


,

during


va

since


thường đứng trước đại từ quan hệ

. Which period did it happen during

?



During which period did it happen? When have you been working for this company since



?

Since when have you been working for this company?



TEST

Choose that the relative pronoun can be omitted or not

.

1.


He's the man that I told you about.

We can omit the relative pronoun here.

We can't omit the relative pronoun here. 2.

That's the car which I am thinking about buying.

We can omit the relative pronoun here.

We can't omit the relative pronoun here. 3.

She was the person who saw it first.

We can omit the relative pronoun here.

We can't omit the relative pronoun here.

4.


The email that I sent didn't reach everybody.

We can omit the relative pronoun here.

We can't omit the relative pronoun here. 5.

The flight which we were supposed to take was cancelled.

We can omit the relative pronoun here.

We can't omit the relative pronoun here.

4

6.


Nothing that she does shocks me now.

We can omit the relative pronoun here.

We can't omit the relative pronoun here. 7.

There is no one whom I trust more.

We can omit the relative pronoun here.

We can't omit the relative pronoun here. 8.

He's not the sort of person that everyone likes.

We can omit the relative pronoun here.

We can't omit the relative pronoun here. 9.

It's something that I don't want to think about.

We can omit the relative pronoun here.

We can't omit the relative pronoun here. 10.

He's the one that took it.

We can omit the relative pronoun here.

We can't omit the relative pronoun here.

Use preposition + WHOM ,WHICH to combine these sentences

. 1. The dogs are mine. Some of them are black

The dogs some of which are black are mine.



2. The radio is made in China. You are listening to it .

The radio to which you are listening is made in China.



3. Your mother is very nice. I talked to her last week.

Your mother, to whom I talked last week, is very nice



4. These are my friends. I went to VT with them last year.

These are my friends, with whom I went to VT last year.



5. I will hold a party.You will be invited to it .

I'll hold a party to which you will be invited.



6. I don't like my girlfriend. She always asks me to wait for her whenever we go out.

I don't like my girlfriend, for whom she always asks me to wait whenever we go out.



7. These are the books. I have told you about them

These are the books about which I have told you about.



8. That is the man. I 've borrowed some money from him.

That is the man from whom I've borrowed some money .



9. Who was that man ? I saw you with that man in the restaurant .



Who was that man, with whom I saw you in the restaurant ?



10. The wall is dirty. You are leaning against it .



The wall against which you are leaning is dirty.


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